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  • 1. Business Driven Information Systems - Instructor’s Manual CHAPTER SEVEN NETWORKS, TELECOMMUNICATIONS, AND WIRELESS COMPUTING Networks and telecommunications are the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. In modern times, this process almost always involves the sending of electromagnetic waves by electronic transmitters but in earlier years it may have involved the use of smoke signals, drums or semaphore. Today, network and telecommunication is widespread and devices that assist the process such as the television, radio and telephone are common in many parts of the world. There is also a vast array of networks that connect these devices, including computer networks, public telephone networks, radio networks and television networks. Computer communication across the Internet, such as e-mail and instant messaging, is just one of many examples of telecommunication. SECTION 7.1 – NETWORKS AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS  Network Basics  Architecture  Topology  Protocols  Media  E-Business Networks SECTION 7.2 – WIRELESS COMPUTING  Wireless Fidelity  Business Drivers for Wireless Technologies  Advantages of Enterprise Mobility  The Future of Wireless Chapter 7 Page 1 of 15
  • 2. Business Driven Information Systems - Instructor’s Manual OPENING CASE – Additional Information The Digital Hospital The Health Innovation and Convergence Summit conference is a two-day, three-track program of Seminars, Panels and Roundtables that cover new science, technology and business approaches in medicine. Our audience includes investors and entrepreneurs; physician innovators; CXOs and senior business decision makers from healthcare, life sciences, insurance and IT firms; human resource professionals; analysts and policymakers. Located in New York City at the hub of the East Coast finance, technology, medical, media and government communities, the event showcases emerging healthcare innovations that transform markets and applications by lowering costs, changing procedures, expanding access and changing industry expectations. http://healthicsummit.com/curriculum.asp Chapter 7 Page 2 of 15
  • 3. Business Driven Information Systems - Instructor’s Manual SECTION 7.1 NETWORKS AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS LEARNING OUTCOMES 7.1. Compare LANs, WANs, and MANs. • Local Area Network (LAN) - connects network devices over a relatively short distance. A networked office building, school, or home usually contains a single LAN, though sometimes one building will contain a few small LANs, and occasionally a LAN will span a group of nearby buildings. • Wide Area Network (WAN) – is a geographically dispersed telecommunications network. A WAN like the Internet spans most of the world. A wide area network is a geographically dispersed telecommunications network. A wide area network may be privately owned or rented, but the term usually implies the inclusion of public (shared user) networks. • Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) - interconnects users with computer resources in a geographic area or region larger than that covered by even a large local area network, but smaller than the area covered by a wide area network. 7.2. List and describe the four components that differentiate networks. Networks are differentiated by the following: • Architecture—peer-to-peer, client/server • Topology—bus, star, ring, hybrid, wireless • Protocols—Ethernet, Transmission Control Protocol • Media—coaxial, twisted-pair, fiber-optic 7.3. Compare the two types of network architectures. A peer-to-peer (P2P) network is any network without a central file server and in which all computers in the network have access to the public files located on all other workstations. A client is a computer that is designed to request information from a server. A server is a computer that is dedicated to providing information in response to external requests. A client/server network is a model for applications in which the bulk of the back-end processing, such as performing a physical search of a database, takes place on a server, while the front- end processing, which involves communicating with the users, is handled by the clients 7.4. Explain topology and the different types found in networks. Network topology refers to the geometric arrangement of the actual physical organization of the computers and other network devices) in a network. The five common types found in networks include: • Bus - All devices are connected to a central cable, called the bus or backbone. Bus networks are relatively inexpensive and easy to install for small networks. • Star - All devices are connected to a central device, called a hub. Star networks are relatively easy to install and manage, but bottlenecks can occur because all data must pass through the hub. Chapter 7 Page 3 of 15
  • 4. Business Driven Information Systems - Instructor’s Manual • Ring - All devices are connected to one another in the shape of a closed loop, so that each device is connected directly to two other devices, one on either side of it. Ring topologies are relatively expensive and difficult to install, but they offer high bandwidth and can span large distances. • Hybrid - Groups of star-configured workstations are connected to a linear bus backbone cable, combining the characteristics of the bus and star topologies. • Wireless - Devices are connected by a receiver/transmitter to a special network interface card that transmits signals between a computer and a server, all within an acceptable transmission range. 7.5. Describe TCP/IP along with its primary purpose. Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) provides the technical foundation for the public Internet as well as for large numbers of private networks. 7.6. Identify the different media types found in networks. Wire media are transmission material manufactured so that signals will be confined to a narrow path and will behave predictably. The three most commonly used types of guided media are • Twisted-pair wiring • Coaxial cable • Fiber-optic cable Wireless media are natural parts of the Earth’s environment that can be used as physical paths to carry electrical signals. CLASSROOM OPENER HowStuffWorks www.howstuffworks.com provides a wealth of knowledge ranging from computer basics to network infrastructures. There are several demos and diagrams. Show your students the site and demo the Internet Infrastructure. CLASSROOM EXERCISE Cell Phones and Airplanes Break your students into groups and ask them to research the Internet to find the reasons why people are required to turn off their cell phones when they are on an airplane. There are two reasons why cell phones are not allowed on an airplane: 1. The Federal Communication Commission (FCC) bans the use of cell phones on airplanes because they could wreak havoc with cell phone systems on the ground. Signals from your cell phone, when you use it on or near the ground, reach just a few cell phone nodes near you and the node that is getting the strongest signal picks up your call. If you move, while driving your car or walking, the next node picks up the call. From the air, however, your phone's signal could reach miles, hitting many nodes at once, all with equal strength. Plus, you are moving at several hundred miles an hour. Cell phone systems were not designed to handle that. 2. The Federal Aviation Administration, for its part, supports the FCC ban for its own reasons. They fear cell phones may interfere with navigation and other aircraft systems. Chapter 7 Page 4 of 15
  • 5. Business Driven Information Systems - Instructor’s Manual Incident reports submitted by airline crews also demonstrate the potential for trouble. NASA's Aviation Safety Reporting System's "Passenger Electronic Devises Database Report Set" -- which could be subtitled "passengers behaving badly" -- contains several reports of incidents involving passengers whose "personal electronic devices" seemed to create disturbances in aircrafts' electronic systems. Nokia is a well known cell phone manufacturer, it is suggested that you go into some depth on how Nokia got started. Here is the timeline: • 1865 - Fredrik Idestam establishes a wood pulp mill on the banks of the Tammerkoski Rapids. The event is generally considered the starting point for Nokia's history. The small wood pulp mill quickly grew into a well-established paper industry. • 1871 - Idestam renames his company Nokia Ab. The product range was initially extended from wood pulp to paper and sulphite cellulose, to be followed by electricity generation in 1902. • 1898 - Eduard Polón establishes the Finnish Rubber Works. During its early years, the factory produced shoes, boots and overshoes, as well as industrial hoses and belts. • 1912 - Arvid Wickström establishes Suomen Punomotehdas Oy. The company was the first Finnish company to manufacture electrical wires and cables. • 1933 - Nokia's first car tire, with a summer tread, is launched. • 1987 - The first NMT (Nordic Mobile Telephony, Finnish telecommunications authorities) portable phone, Mobira Cityman is launched. Prior to this, mobile phones were in practice installed permanently in cars. Nokia becomes the third-largest manufacturer or TV sets in Europe. After the acquisition of Oceanic SA and Standard Elektrik Lorenz (SEL), TVs were Nokia's main business for a while. • 1992 - Nokia announces its first GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) mobile, model 1011. The phone's user interface and its design form the basis of future models. • 1993 - Nokia adopts the motto "Connecting People". The motto illustrates Nokia's contribution to creating wireless connections between people. • 1994 - Nokia announces the 2100 mobile phone series. In 1994, the goal was to sell 500,000 units. Nokia sold 20 million. • 1998 - Nokia becomes the world leader in mobile phones. One of the cornerstones of Nokia's success in this field was the company's early investments in digital GSM technology. • 1999 - Nokia announces the 7110 model. The phone is the first Nokia mobile to use WAP (Wireless Application Protocol). The WAP browser of Nokia 7110 provides the user with immediate access to the content of Internet pages using a mobile phone. • 2000 - Nokia 9210 Communicator marks the start of the color screen era for Nokia mobile phones. The versatile device is designed for the business user, and it is compatible with most office software suites. • 2002 - Nokia announces its first phone with a built-in camera. Nokia 7650 is also the first Nokia phone to use the Series 60 software platform. Chapter 7 Page 5 of 15
  • 6. Business Driven Information Systems - Instructor’s Manual OPENING CASE QUESTIONS The Digital Hospital 1. Explain how hospitals are using telecommunication and network technologies to improve their operations. Hospitals are using everything from digital doctors to prescription fulfillment. There are so many new and exciting uses of technology to make hospitals more efficient and effective which saves lives. The most important piece of Hackensack’s digital initiatives is the networked software that acts as the hospital’s central nervous system. Using wireless laptops, nurses log in to the system to record patient information and progress. Doctors tap into the network via wireless devices to order prescriptions and lab tests. Everything is linked, from the automated pharmacy to the X-ray lab, eliminating the need for faxes, phone calls, and other administrative hassles. 2. Describe the two different types of network architectures and identify which one Hackensack University Medical Center is using. The two primary types of network architectures are: peer-to-peer networks and client/server networks. A peer-to-peer (P2P) network is any network without a central file server and all computers in the network have access to the public files located on all other workstations. A client is a computer that is designed to request information from a server. A server is a computer that is dedicated to providing information in response to external requests. A client/server network is a model for applications in which the bulk of the back-end processing, such as performing a physical search of a database, takes place on a server, while the front- end processing, which involves communicating with the users, is handled by the clients. Hackensack University Medical Center is using a client/server architecture. 3. Explain TCP/IP and the role it plays in Hackensack University Medical Center’s IT projects. The most common telecommunication protocol is Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), which was originally developed by the Department of Defense to connect a system of computer networks that became known as the Internet. Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) provides the technical foundation for the public Internet as well as for large numbers of private networks. The key achievement of TCP/IP is its flexibility with respect to lower-level protocols. TCP/IP uses a special transmission method that maximizes data transfer and automatically adjusts to slower devices and other delays encountered on a network. Although more than 100 protocols make up the entire TCP/IP protocol suite, the two most important of these are TCP and IP. TCP provides transport functions, ensuring, among other things, that the amount of data received is the same as the amount transmitted. IP provides the addressing and routing mechanism that acts as a postmaster. Any data that is transferred around the hospital is transferred with the TCP/IP protocol. 4. Identify a new telecommunication or network product that Hackensack University Medical Center could use to improve its operations. Student answers to this question will vary. This is a good opportunity for students to get creative and develop some interesting products such as PDA devices to send notes and prescriptions, robots to help with patient care, and AI tools to perform surgery and diagnose patients. Chapter 7 Page 6 of 15
  • 7. Business Driven Information Systems - Instructor’s Manual APPLY YOUR PRJECTS Try one of the following Apply Your Knowledge projects to engage students and reinforce chapter material and concepts. Project Project Number Project Name Type Focus Area Skill Set 15 Connecting Components Business Enterprise Architecture Developing Systems Backup and Disaster 21 Back on Your Feet Business Enterprise Architecture Recovery Hardware and 30 Talley’s Purchases Excel Software Formulas 42 Gizmo Turnover Excel Data Mining Pivot Table 43 Managing Martin Excel Data Mining Pivot Table Chapter 7 Page 7 of 15
  • 8. Business Driven Information Systems - Instructor’s Manual SECTION 7.2 WIRELESS COMPUTING Wireless technologies are transforming how we live, work, and play. Handheld devices are continuing to offer additional functionality and cellular networks are advancing rapidly in their increased speed and throughput abilities. These enabling technologies are fueling widespread adoption and creation of new and innovative ways to perform business. LEARNING OUTCOMES 7.7 Explain how a wireless device helps an organization conduct business anytime, anywhere, anyplace. A wireless device provides users with a live (Internet) connection via satellite or radio transmitters. If an organization uses wireless technologies, its employees, customers, and suppliers will have a live connection to organizational information and applications anytime, anywhere, and anyplace. 7.8 Describe RFID and how it can be used to help make a supply chain more effective. Radio frequency identification (RFID) technologies use active or passive tags in the form of chips or smart labels that can store unique identifiers and relay this information to electronic readers. RFID tags contain a microchip and an antenna, and typically work by transmitting a serial number via radio waves to an electronic reader, which confirms the identity of a person or object bearing the tag. RFID tags will be added to every product and shipping box. At every step of an item’s journey, a reader scans one of the tags and updates the information on the server. Manufactures and retailers can observe sales patterns in real time and make swift decisions about production, ordering, and pricing. Integrating RFID in the supply chain will change the way a companies operate from managing maintenance, combating theft, to augmenting Sarbanes-Oxley initiatives. 7.9 List and discuss the key factors inspiring the growth of wireless technologies. Wireless growth is occurring because of: • Universal access to information and applications • The automation of business processes • User convenience, timeliness, and ability to conduct business 24X7X365 7.10 Describe the business benefits associated with a mobile enterprise. Wireless devices are enabling employees to be more efficient and effective; however wireless devices are also making it more difficult to divide work from nonwork. Over the last 10 to 15 years employees have seen a steady erosion of their personal time as their work day lengthens Chapter 7 Page 8 of 15
  • 9. Business Driven Information Systems - Instructor’s Manual CLASSROOM OPENER GREAT BUSINESS DECISIONS – Akito Morita of Sony Decides to Develop the Walkman Akito Morita noticed that young people like listening to music wherever they went. He decided to find a way for people to listen to music while they walked, ran, danced, or jogged. From this Morita designed the Walkman. The first Sony Walkman was introduced in 1980 and was an instant success. Many of Sony’s successes are based on innovation. The company has an instinctive ability to find and pursue market opportunities. • In 1949, the company developed the magnetic recording tape • In 1950, the company sold the first tape recorder in Japan • In 1957, the company produced a pocket-size radio • In 1960, Sony produced the first transistor TV in the world CLASSROOM EXERCISE Wireless Classrooms Break your students into groups and ask them to develop a completely mobile and wireless class for the future. Ask them to take into consideration the following: • How would lectures be given? • How would questions be asked and answered? • How would assignments be given and collected? • How would group projects be performed? • How would students separate work and nonwork time? • How would exams be administered? • Would this type of class be better or worse than a traditional class? CORE MATERIAL The core chapter material is covered in detail in the PowerPoint slides. Each slide contains detailed teaching notes including exercises, class activities, questions, and examples. Please review the PowerPoint slides for detailed notes on how to teach and enhance the core chapter material. OPENING CASE QUESTIONS The Digital Hospital 5. Why is real-time information important to hospitals? Real-time information means immediate, up-to-date information. Real-time systems provide real-time information in response to query requests. Hospitals need to have the most up-to- date and accurate information possible to be able to help their patients. With outdated information doctors risk making inaccurate diagnosis. This could cause: • Damage to the hospital’s reputation • Incur liabilities • Decrease productivity 6. How is Hackensack University Medical Center using wireless technology to improve its operations? Chapter 7 Page 9 of 15
  • 10. Business Driven Information Systems - Instructor’s Manual The Hackensack University Medical Center is using wireless technology to:  Pocket-sized PCs that hook wirelessly into the hospital’s network allow doctors the freedom to place pharmacy orders and pull up medical records from anywhere in the hospital.  Nurses use wireless laptops to record patients’ vitals signs, symptoms and medications.  Doctors can sign into the same central system from the laptops to order prescriptions and lab tests and read their patient’s progress.  The hospital’s internal Web site stores all of its medical images. Doctors can view crystalclear digital versions of their patients’ X-rays, MRIs, and CT scans from any computer in or out of the hospital. 7. Identify three wireless technologies that are changing the way businesses operate and explain how hospitals can use these technologies to improve their operations. There are a number of different technologies changing the way businesses operate. Student answers to this question will vary depending on their three technology choices.  Wireless local area network (wLAN): uses radio waves rather than wires to transmit information across a local area network.  Cellular phones and pagers: provide connectivity for portable and mobile applications, both personal and business.  Cordless computer peripherals: connect wirelessly to a computer, such as a cordless mouse, keyboard, and printer.  Satellite television: allows viewers in almost any location to select from hundreds of channels.  WiMax wireless broadband: enables wireless networks to extend as far as 30 miles and transfer information, voice, and video at faster speeds than cable. It is perfect for Internet service providers (ISPs) that want to expand into sparsely populated areas, where the cost of bringing in cable wiring or DSL is too high.  Security sensor: alerts customers to break-ins and errant pop flies. Its dual sensors record vibration and acoustic disturbances—a shattered window—to help avoid false alarms. APPLY YOUR KNOWLEDGE PROJECTS Try one of the following Apply Your Knowledge projects to engage students and reinforce chapter material and concepts. Project Project Number Project Name Type Focus Area Skill Set 20 GoGo Gadgets Business Wireless Competitive Advantage Hardware and 30 Talley’s Purchases Excel Software Formulas Chapter 7 Page 10 of 15
  • 11. Business Driven Information Systems - Instructor’s Manual CHAPTER SEVEN CLOSING MATERIAL CLOSING CASE ONE Tracking Students 1. Explain the fundamentals of RFID and how it is being used to track students. Radio frequency identification (RFID) technologies use active or passive tags in the form of chips or smart labels that can store unique identifiers and relay this information to electronic readers. RFID tags were being placed on a card which students wore around their neck and allowed the school to track each student. 2. Describe the ethical dilemmas involved with tracking students with RFID. RFID is a tracking device. Privacy is the right to be left alone when you want to be, to have control over your own personal possessions, and to not be observed without your consent. Any tracking device is a direct infringement on a persons privacy rights, unless that person has given consent to the tracking device. 3. Identify two types of wireless business opportunities schools could take advantage of to help improve operations. There are a number of different technologies changing the way businesses operate. Students could use any of the following to develop a plan for improving school operations.  Wireless local area network (wLAN): uses radio waves rather than wires to transmit information across a local area network.  Cellular phones and pagers: provide connectivity for portable and mobile applications, both personal and business.  Cordless computer peripherals: connect wirelessly to a computer, such as a cordless mouse, keyboard, and printer.  Satellite television: allows viewers in almost any location to select from hundreds of channels.  WiMax wireless broadband: enables wireless networks to extend as far as 30 miles and transfer information, voice, and video at faster speeds than cable. It is perfect for Internet service providers (ISPs) that want to expand into sparsely populated areas, where the cost of bringing in cable wiring or DSL is too high.  Security sensor: alerts customers to break-ins and errant pop flies. Its dual sensors record vibration and acoustic disturbances—a shattered window—to help avoid false alarms. Student answers to this question will vary. The important point is that students justify their answer. Student answers to this question are usually very creative. 4. How could RFID help schools deal with potential security issues? By being able to track each student the school would know automatically if any student was leaving school property without permission. If a student was being abducted or taken away Chapter 7 Page 11 of 15
  • 12. Business Driven Information Systems - Instructor’s Manual against their will, the school would know and could help the student. RFID tracking advantages include being able to easily locate students incase of emergency and ensure students are where they are supposed to be when they are supposed to be. The primary disadvantage is that this type of tracking could be considered an invasion of privacy. 5. Develop a Bluetooth, GPS, or satellite product that schools could use to improve operations. There are a number of different technologies that could change the way that schools operate. Student answers to this question will vary. This is a good question for creativity. 6. Determine a way that schools could use RFID tags without violating privacy rights. If students and parents gave their consent to use RFID tags then they would not be violating privacy rights. CLOSING CASE TWO UPS verses FedEx: Head-To-Head On Wireless 1. Explain the fundamentals of wireless fidelity. Wireless fidelity (wi-fi) is a means of linking computers using infrared or radio signals. Wi-fi is a type of Ethernet, which makes the wireless network a straightforward extension of the wired network. A wireless device provides users with a live (Internet) connection via satellite or radio transmitters. If an organization uses wireless technologies, its employees, customers, and suppliers will have a live connection to organizational information and applications anytime, anywhere, and anyplace. 2. Describe the differences between UPS and FedEx’s use of wi-fi. FedEx deploys new technologies as soon as it can justify the cost and demonstrate improved efficiencies and customer benefit. UPS refreshes its technology base roughly every five to seven years, when it rolls out a unified system in stages that it synchronizes with the life span of the older system. The two companies are exploiting new wireless technologies in their differing attempts at aiding the two main components of their operations: pickup/deliver and packaging/sorting. 3. Identify two types of wireless business opportunities the companies could use to gain a competitive advantage. The companies can use Bluetooth, RFID, satellite, and GPS to gain competitive advantages. GPS can help with ensuring drivers are using the most direct route, or avoiding traffic, to reach customers. Satellites could be used to gain access to company intranets from anywhere at anytime. 4. How could RFID help the companies deal with potential security issues? With an RFID tag attached to each package the company could monitor, in real time, every products exact location. It could also monitor such things as humidity, temperature, shifts, and other factors that cause issues in its supply chain by damaging goods during shipping. 5. Develop a Bluetooth, GPS, or satellite product that the parcel delivery business could use to improve efficiencies. Chapter 7 Page 12 of 15
  • 13. Business Driven Information Systems - Instructor’s Manual There are a number of different technologies that could change the way that parcel delivery businesses operate. Student answers to this question will vary. This is a good question for creativity. CLOSING CASE THREE Watching Where You Step - Prada 1. Would you consider Prada’s use of technology cutting-edge? Why or why not? Prada’s use of RFID is disruptive for the fashion industry. Using RFID to track inventory is not disruptive in the manufacturing industry or production industry, but it is a radical change from most specialty stores. For this reason its use of wireless technology and RFID is cutting-edge for the fashion industry. 2. Prada’s attempt to use RFID to check inventory in real time failed because of the staff’s refusal to use the system. What could Prada have done to make the implementation of RFID successful? Prada could have implemented in phases and tested to ensure that the system worked and that the employees knew how to use it. By only having one or two employees learn the new system for a few items, they could have ensured that it worked and not overwhelmed the employees with the new technology. Employees were frequently overwhelmed with the number of customers they had to serve and found it easier to manually check inventory. If they were properly trained on the new system, they would have found that it was easier to check a hand- held device than to walk back and manually check inventory. 3. Identify an additional strategic use of RFID for Prada’s high-tech store. If Prada wants to gain a competitive advantage, and remain competitive, it should continue to seek out new ways of using technology to disrupt its market. Prada was on the right path when building its high-tech stores, it just had some initial issues with how it implemented the technology. Prada could use RFID for:  Ordering inventory  Stocking shelves  Market analysis for sales information  Tracking items for security  Ensure environment for keeping items in mint condition (such as the right temperature, no water or liquids spilling on items, etc.)  Direct link to internet for real time information updates to reports 4. What should Prada do differently when designing its next store to ensure its success? Use an agile methodology to implement the new technology in small manageable pieces, which will allow the employees and the customer’s time to get used to each piece before learning a new piece. 5. Identify a new use of wireless technology for Prada’s next store. There are a number of different wireless technologies that Prada could use to make its stores more efficient and effective. Student answers to this question will vary. This is a good question for creativity. Chapter 7 Page 13 of 15
  • 14. Business Driven Information Systems - Instructor’s Manual MAKING BUSINESS DECISIONS Instructor Note: There are few right or wrong answers in the business world. There are really only efficient and inefficient, and effective and ineffective business decisions. If there were always right answers businesses would never fail. These questions were created to challenge your students to apply the materials they have learned to real business situations. For this reason, the authors cannot provide you with one version of a correct answer. When grading your students’ answers, be sure to focus on their justification or support for their specific answers. A good way to grade these questions is to compare your student’s answers against each other. 1. WIRELESS FITNESS Project Purpose: To implement a wireless network. Potential Solution: There are a number of advantages to implementing a wireless network such as using a PDA to find information while walking around the club. Customers could connect to the wireless network with their own laptops to check e-mail and perform work while at the club. Wireless iPods are on the market and customers could download songs and podcasts while working out. The numbers of advantages of a wireless network are endless. However, the club should also be aware of the security issues associated with a wireless network. 2. SECURE ACCESS Project Purpose: To begin to understand how vulnerable all computer networks are and the security features needed to protect them. Potential Solution: There are a variety of answers here. Students should separate their responses according to software and hardware: • Software o Virus protection software is crucial to network security. These software programs scan all data entering a network from any outside source for known viruses and warn of any viruses encountered to avoid corrupting network software. Updates for virus software are made available through the vendor, usually on a subscription basis. • Hardware o Protection against unauthorized access from outside a network is usually provided through some sort of firewall service. Firewalls are either computers or routers that are set up to provide a secured “doorway” through which users can access the Internet and Internet users can access Web data. Firewall services can be configured to meet specific security needs. They can be set up to screen Internet users trying to access a network, and to allow only certain authorized employees to access the Internet from within a network. o In addition, many firewalls now feature remote authorization for employees using a remote (off-site) Internet connection to access restricted network resources. Other non-Internet applications for firewall services include protecting mainframes or subnetworks from general access within an organization and ensuring confidentiality of data transmitted across networks. 3. INTEGRATING WIRELESS WORLDS Project Purpose: To understand that IM is not just a casual P-2-P “toy.” Potential Solution: Here is another exercise that students should find interesting and “hot.” Chapter 7 Page 14 of 15
  • 15. Business Driven Information Systems - Instructor’s Manual 4. COMMUNICATION WITH INSTANT MESSAGES Project Purpose: To understand that IM is not just a casual P-2-P “toy.” Potential Solution: Here is another exercise that students should find interesting and “hot.” This may take some outside research, but encourage students to think on their own to answer this. Some responses might include: • Improving communication between employees and customers • Video conferencing/ Web conferencing • Short-notice meetings • Problem-solving brainstorm sessions 5. ROLLING OUT WITH NETWORKS Project Purpose: To broaden students understanding (beyond that in Questions #1) how vulnerable all computer networks are and the security features needed to protect them. Potential Solution: 1. Problem #1: Easy Access - Wireless LANs are easy to find. Strictly speaking, this is not a security threat. All wireless networks need to announce their existence so potential clients can link up and use the services provided by the network. 802.11 requires that networks periodically announce their existence to the world with special frames called Beacons. However, the information needed to join a network is also the information needed to launch an attack on a network.  Solution: The best you can do is to mitigate the risk by using strong access control and encryption solutions to prevent a wireless network from being used as an easy entry point into the network. Deploy access points outside firewalls, and protect sensitive traffic with VPNs. 2. Problem #2: "Rogue" Access Points - Easy access to wireless LANs is coupled with easy deployment. When combined, these two characteristics can cause headaches for network administrators. Any user can run to a nearby computer store, purchase an access point, and connect it to the corporate network without authorization.  Solution: Unfortunately, no good solution exists to this concern. Tools like NetStumbler allow network administrators to wander their building looking for unauthorized access points, but it is expensive to devote time to wandering the building looking for new access points. 3. Problem #3: Unauthorized Use of Service – The majority of access points are put in service with only minimal modifications to their default configuration. Nearly all of the access points running with default configurations have not activated WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) or have a default key used by all the vendor's products out of the box. Without WEP, network access is usually there for the taking.  Solution: A VPN will protect the network from wireless clients; it has strong authentication capabilities already built-in. 4. Problem #4: Service and Performance Constraints - Wireless LANs have limited transmission capacity. Networks based on 802.11b have a bit rate of 11 Mbps, and networks based on the newer 802.11a technology have bit rates up to 54 Mbps. This capacity is shared between all the users associated with an access point. Solution: Deploy a traffic shaper at the point at which a wireless LAN connects to your network backbone. While this will not defend against denial of service attacks, it may help prevent heavy users from monopolizing the radio resources in an area. Chapter 7 Page 15 of 15