Cow Jewelry Or Revolution: RFID Use

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Cow Jewelry Or Revolution: RFID Use

  1. 1. RFID Cow Jewelry – or – Revolution Travis Sparks http://www.cs.unc.edu/~sparkst
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>What is RFID? </li></ul><ul><li>How RFID Works </li></ul><ul><li>Current Applications </li></ul><ul><li>Future Applications </li></ul><ul><li>Potential Research </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is RFID? <ul><li>Radio Frequency Identification </li></ul><ul><li>The use of radio frequency tags to identify real objects. </li></ul>What does it mean to identify something?
  4. 4. Identification <ul><li>Assign IDs to objects </li></ul><ul><li>Link the ID to additional information about the object </li></ul><ul><li>Link the ID to complementary info </li></ul><ul><li>Find similar objects </li></ul>
  5. 5. Identification Examples <ul><li>Bar Codes </li></ul><ul><li>License Plates </li></ul><ul><li>Social Security Numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Student ID </li></ul><ul><li>Serial Numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Car Keys </li></ul><ul><li>Database Keys </li></ul>
  6. 6. How Does RFID Work? <ul><li>3 Components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transceiver – Tag Reader </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transponder – RFID tag </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antenna </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. RFID Hardware <ul><li>Magnetic / Inductive Coupling </li></ul>Transceiver Tag Reader antenna RFID Tag IC or microprocessor antenna
  8. 8. RFID Hardware <ul><li>Propagation Coupling </li></ul>IC or microprocessor antenna Transceiver Tag Reader antenna RFID Tag
  9. 9. Types of Tags <ul><li>Passive Tags </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No battery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low cost </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Active Tags </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On-board transceiver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Battery – must be replaced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Longer range </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High cost </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Types of Tags <ul><li>Read Only </li></ul><ul><ul><li>factory programmed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>usually chipless </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Read / Write </li></ul><ul><ul><li>on-board memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can save data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can change ID </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>higher cost </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Real Tags
  12. 12. Real Tags
  13. 13. Real Tags
  14. 14. Data Transfer <ul><li>Amplitude Modulation (AM) </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) </li></ul><ul><li>Phase Shift Keying (PSK) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Frequency Shift Keying <ul><li>Fc/8/10 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>0’s are the carrier divided by 8 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1’s are the carrier divided by 10 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Count clock cycles between changes in frequency </li></ul><ul><li>Slows the data rate </li></ul><ul><li>Provides for a simple reader design </li></ul><ul><li>Fair noise immunity </li></ul>
  16. 16. Phase Shift Keying <ul><li>One frequency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change the phase on the transition between a 0 to 1 or 1 to 0 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Faster data rate than FSK </li></ul><ul><li>Noise immunity </li></ul><ul><li>Slightly more difficult to build a reader than FSK </li></ul>
  17. 17. Data Encoding
  18. 18. Multiple Tags? <ul><li>What happens when multiple tags are in range of the transceiver? </li></ul><ul><li>All the tags will be excited at the same time. </li></ul><ul><li>Makes it very difficult to distinguish between the tags. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Collision Avoidance <ul><li>Similar to network collision avoidance </li></ul><ul><li>Probabilistic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tags return at random times </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deterministic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reader searches for specific tags </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Frequency Ranges <ul><li>Low – 100-500 kHz </li></ul><ul><ul><li>short range, low data rate, cost, & power </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intermediate – 10-16 MHz </li></ul><ul><ul><li>medium range and data rate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High – 850-950 MHz & 2.4-5.8GHz </li></ul><ul><ul><li>large range, high cost, high data rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>needs line of sight </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Frequency Ranges <ul><li>8 total ranges around the world </li></ul><ul><li>No standards … yet </li></ul>
  22. 22. Frequency Trade-Offs Frequency <ul><li>Lifespan </li></ul><ul><li>Range </li></ul><ul><li>Power </li></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><li>Bandwidth </li></ul><ul><li>Line of Sight </li></ul>
  23. 23. Current Applications <ul><li>Livestock Tagging </li></ul><ul><li>Wild Animal Tracking </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic Article Surveillance (EAS) </li></ul><ul><li>Automated Toll Collection </li></ul><ul><li>Animal Husbandry </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicle Anti-Theft </li></ul>
  24. 24. More Applications <ul><li>Passive / Secure Entry </li></ul><ul><li>Airline Baggage Tracking </li></ul><ul><li>Postal Package Tracking </li></ul><ul><li>Time and Attendance </li></ul>
  25. 25. Who’s got an RFID tag with them right now?
  26. 26. Security <ul><li>RFID used to grant entry to secure areas </li></ul><ul><li>Tracks time and movement of people </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamically change access codes </li></ul><ul><li>Provide automated entry </li></ul>
  27. 27. Livestock Tagging Meet Bobby the Cow Bobby has an old fashioned ear tag for identification.
  28. 28. Bobby’s Part of a Herd
  29. 29. Bobby Needs His Shots <ul><li>All of Bobby’s herd need their shots </li></ul><ul><li>Each one needs to be recorded </li></ul><ul><li>Why use RFID tags instead of the old-fashioned tags? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cows get dirty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>herds can be large </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Tracking Penguins http:// www.beitec.com/penguin.htm
  31. 31. Automated Toll Collection
  32. 32. Package Tracking Picture courtesy Texas Instruments
  33. 33. Potential Applications <ul><li>Smart Grocery Store </li></ul><ul><li>Smart Kitchen </li></ul><ul><li>Smart Sitterson </li></ul>
  34. 34. Smart Grocery Store <ul><li>Every item in the store already has a bar code. </li></ul><ul><li>Why not use an RFID tag? </li></ul><ul><li>Speed up checkouts </li></ul>
  35. 35. Smart Grocery Store <ul><li>Several carts this full in early evening could seriously slow down the checkout process. </li></ul><ul><li>How much do cashiers cost? </li></ul>
  36. 36. Smart Grocery Store <ul><li>Add an RFID tag to all items in the grocery. </li></ul><ul><li>As the cart leaves the store, it passes through an RFID transceiver </li></ul><ul><li>The cart is rung up in seconds. </li></ul>
  37. 37. RFID UPC Artist conception courtesy Motorola
  38. 38. Smart Groceries Enhanced <ul><li>Track products through their entire lifetime. </li></ul>Diagram courtesy How Stuff Works
  39. 39. Smart Fridge <ul><li>Recognizes what’s been put in it </li></ul><ul><li>Recognizes when things are removed </li></ul><ul><li>Creates automatic shopping lists </li></ul><ul><li>Notifies you when things are past their expiration </li></ul>
  40. 40. RFID Chef <ul><li>Uses RFID tags to recognize food in your kitchen </li></ul><ul><li>Shows you the recipes that most closely match what is available </li></ul><ul><li>RFID Chef Movie </li></ul><ul><li>Distributed Systems Group ETH – Zurich, Switzerland </li></ul>
  41. 41. Smart Sitterson <ul><li>Tag locations throughout Sitterson </li></ul><ul><li>User walks around with handheld and transceiver </li></ul><ul><li>RFID tags point the handheld to a webpage with more information about their location or the object of interest </li></ul>
  42. 42. Other Future RFID Applications <ul><li>RFID in the Euro by 2005 http://www.eetimes.com/story/OEG20011219S0016 </li></ul><ul><li>Xerox PARC Page Detection http://www2.parc.com/red/members/back/papers/UIST_RFID.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>RFID in people? </li></ul>
  43. 43. RFID’s Advantages <ul><li>Passive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>wireless </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Store data on a tag </li></ul><ul><li>Can be hidden </li></ul><ul><li>Work in harsh environments </li></ul><ul><li>Low cost? </li></ul>
  44. 44. RFID’s Disadvantages <ul><li>Lack of standards! </li></ul><ul><li>Short range </li></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul>
  45. 45. Open Discussion <ul><li>What identification systems exist that could be enhanced with RFID? </li></ul><ul><li>What new identification systems are only feasible using RFID? </li></ul>
  46. 46. References <ul><li>RFID Chef http://www.inf.ethz.ch/vs/res/proj/rfidchef/ </li></ul><ul><li>AIM Global Network http://www.aimglobal.org/technologies/rfid/what_is_rfid.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Texas Instruments RFID Solutions http://www.ti.com/tiris/default.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction Design Institute RFID Whitepaper http://people.interaction-ivrea.it/natasha/rf/RFID_research.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Auto-ID Center http://www.autoidcenter.org/ </li></ul>
  47. 47. RFID Cow Jewelry – or – Revolution Travis Sparks http://www.cs.unc.edu/~sparkst

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