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ProSense                                                                                         Document: D4.1
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ProSense                                                                      Document: D4.1
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ProSense                                                                                                                  ...
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ProSense                                                                                                                  ...
ProSense                                                                      Document: D4.1
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ProSense                                                                              Document: D4.1
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ProSense                                                                              Document: D4.1
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ProSense                                                                               Document: D4.1
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ProSense                                                                                  Document: D4.1
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ProSense                                                                              Document: D4.1
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ProSense                                                                                                                Do...
ProSense                                                                                                Document: D4.1
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ProSense                                                                                             Document: D4.1
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ProSense                                                                              Document: D4.1
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ProSense                                                                                Document: D4.1
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ProSense                                                                                Document: D4.1
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ProSense                                                                               Document: D4.1
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ProSense                                                                                Document: D4.1
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ProSense                                                                               Document: D4.1
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ProSense                                                                                Document: D4.1
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ProSense                                                                       Document: D4.1
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ProSense                                                                            Document: D4.1
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ProSense                                                                            Document: D4.1
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  1. 1. ProSense Document: D4.1 (REGPOT-205494) Date: 30-08-2008 Project number: 205494 ProSense Promote, Mobilize, Reinforce and Integrate Wireless Sensor Networking Research and Researchers: Towards Pervasive Networking of WBC and the EU Document Number D 4.1 Research Infrastructure Specification Abstract: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and their integration with Internet are a hot research topic. Many research laboratories have deployed WSN test beds in order to strengthen and disseminate the knowledge and exploit the possibilities of the technology. This document elaborates a research infrastructure specification for establishment of WSN research laboratories in Skopje (FEEIT) and Belgrade (ETF), as one of the cornerstones of the ProSense project. It presents envisioned regional usage scenarios and infrastructure specifications, and gives an overview of the existing sensor networks equipment and the current trends in related research projects. The main goal is to establish these laboratories as WSN centres of excellence in the WBC region. The provided research infrastructure will serve beyond the ProSense project as a basis for education, further research and projects. Keywords – Sensor networking, hardware platforms, Know-how exchange, Building competence, Dissemination. Due date of deliverable: August 31, 2008 Actual submission date: 01.09.2008 Start date of project: March 1, 2008 Duration: 2 years Organisation name of lead contractor for this deliverable: FEEIT Authors: FEEIT, ETF Participants: Workpackage: WP4 Total number of pages: 64 Revision: Project co-funded by the European Commission within the Seventh Framework Programme (2007-2013) Dissemination Level PU Public X PP Restricted to other programme participants (including the Commission Services) RE Restricted to a group specified by the consortium (including the Commission Services) CO Confidential, only for members of the consortium (including the Commission Services) ProSense Public Deliverable 1
  2. 2. ProSense Document: D4.1 (REGPOT-205494) Date: 30-08-2008 Document Revision History Version Date Author Summary of main changes 0.1 08.07.2008 FEEIT Proposed table of contents 0.2 11.08.2008 FEEIT Updated table of contents 0.3- 1 15.08.2008 FEEIT Added text for sections 1 and 2 0.3- 2 15.08.2008 ETF Inserted text for sections 1.3 , 2.3 and 3 0.4 18.08.2008 FEEIT Technical editing from sections 1 to 3; Added text for sections 3 and 4 0.5 21.08.2008 FEEIT Added list of acronyms; Modification of ToC and one section added; Modification of sections 1 and 2; Added references 0.5 -4 22.08.2008 FEEIT Minor modifications to the previous version 0.6 22.08.2008 ETF Added detailed use case descriptions and a description of the necessary equipment 0.6-2 24.08.2008 ETF Added a description for one more use case, and finalized the equipment specification 0.7 25.08.2008 FEEIT Technical editing 0.7-2 26.08.2008 FEEIT Minor technical editing 0.7-2 26.08.2008 FEEIT Added reference list 0.8 -1 28.08.2008 LMI Technical editing and added suggestions 0.8 -2 28.08.2008 FEEIT Minor modifications 0.8 -3 29.08.2008 FEEIT Added a description for the WSN equipment 0.9 29.08.2008 ETF Added a short mEKG project description 1.0 29.08.2008 FEEIT Final version submitted to PC ProSense Public Deliverable 2
  3. 3. ProSense Document: D4.1 (REGPOT-205494) Date: 30-08-2008 Contents LIST OF FIGURES.....................................................................................................................................................3 LIST OF TABLES......................................................................................................................................................5 LIST OF ACRONYMS................................................................................................................................................6 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY....................................................................................................................................8 STATE-OF-THE-ART IN WSN INFRASTRUCTURES ...............................................................................9 1.1 CURRENT STATUS ..............................................................................................................................................9 1.1.1 Relevant projects.......................................................................................................................................9 1.1.2 Relevant research centres........................................................................................................................10 1.2 WSN EQUIPMENT AVAILABLE ON THE MARKET...................................................................................................12 1.3 SELECTED EQUIPMENT.......................................................................................................................................14 INFRASTRUCTURE SPECIFICATIONS......................................................................................................15 1.4 DESCRIPTION OF THE COMMON SENSOR NETWORKS’ PLATFORM FOR BOTH RESEARCH LABORATORIES ........................15 1.4.1 Sun SPOT functionality ...........................................................................................................................15 1.4.2 Programming the SPOTs.........................................................................................................................17 1.5 DESCRIPTION OF THE USAGE SCENARIO FOR EMERGENCY/DISASTER RECOVERY APPLICATIONS ....................................18 1.5.1 Usage scenario for fire detection..............................................................................................................20 1.5.2 Usage scenario for earthquake detection..................................................................................................21 1.5.3 RFID for disaster recovery and for “smart building”...............................................................................22 1.6 DESCRIPTION OF THE USAGE SCENARIO FOR PERSONAL HEALTH CARE MONITORING SYSTEM......................................23 1.6.1 Smart Running Track...............................................................................................................................23 1.6.2 Common Health Gateway........................................................................................................................25 1.6.3 Health Hazard Monitoring.......................................................................................................................27 1.6.4 Remote Pulse Monitoring........................................................................................................................30 SUSTAINABILITY.............................................................................................................................................31 CONCLUSION...................................................................................................................................................32 REFERENCES......................................................................................................................................................33 APPENDICES......................................................................................................................................................35 APPENDIX :1 SPECIFICATION OF THE COMMON WSN EQUIPMENT.............................................................................35 APPENDIX :2 SPECIFICATIONS OF THE EQUIPMENT REQUIRED TO REALIZE THE USAGE SCENARIOS....................................41 APPENDIX :3 SPECIFICATION OF NECESSARY SOFTWARE.............................................................................................65 List of Figures FIGURE 1 : ESPOT BOARD CONFIGURATION AND CONNECTORS..............................................16 FIGURE 2 : POWER CONSUMPTION MODE TRANSITIONS..............................................................17 FIGURE 3 : SCHEME OF WSN AND RFID IMPLEMENTATION AT FEEIT’S PREMISES.............18 FIGURE 4 : MESSAGES FLOW IN A CASE OF FIRE DETECTION.......................................................20 FIGURE 5 : MESSAGES FLOW IN A CASE OF EARTHQUAKE DETECTION.................................21 FIGURE 6 : MESSAGE FLOW AMONG THE DEVICES IN THE RFID SYSTEM..............................22 ProSense Public Deliverable 3
  4. 4. ProSense Document: D4.1 (REGPOT-205494) Date: 30-08-2008 FIGURE 7: SMART RUNNING TRACK SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE....................................................23 FIGURE 8: SCREENSHOT OF THE SRT SERVER APPLICATION.......................................................24 FIGURE 9: PROPOSED LOOK OF SRT MOBILE APPLICATION.........................................................25 FIGURE 10: BASIC DIAGRAM OF COMMON HEALTH GATEWAY..................................................26 FIGURE 11: SEQUENCE DIAGRAM OF TYPICAL WORKING SCENARIO WITH COMMON HEALTH GATEWAY........................................................................................................................................27 FIGURE 12: ISS ARCHITECTURE OVERVIEW.........................................................................................28 FIGURE 13: MSC ARCHITECTURE OVERVIEW.......................................................................................29 FIGURE 14: MEASURING THE PULSE AT ARTERIA CAROTTIS COMMUNIS..............................30 FIGURE 15: MEASURING THE PULSE AT ARTERIA RADIALIS........................................................30 FIGURE 16: MEASURING THE PULSE AT ARTERIA BRACHIALIS...................................................30 FIGURE 17: HEART PULSE WAVEFORM...................................................................................................30 FIGURE 18 : SUN SPOT....................................................................................................................................35 FIGURE 19: BTNODE........................................................................................................................................36 FIGURE 20: SHIMMER.....................................................................................................................................36 FIGURE 21: FIREFLY........................................................................................................................................37 FIGURE 22: TI EZ430.........................................................................................................................................38 FIGURE 23: MICAZ..........................................................................................................................................38 FIGURE 24: 6LOWPAN DEVKIT K210..........................................................................................................39 FIGURE 25: SENTILLA PERK KIT.................................................................................................................40 FIGURE 26 : UPS (UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLY) ..................................................................41 FIGURE 27 : SMOKE DETECTOR.................................................................................................................42 FIGURE 28 : SINTEL 7 DIALLING DEVICE................................................................................................43 FIGURE 29 : CMOS CAMERA, TCM8240MD............................................................................................44 FIGURE 30 : CMOS CAMERA MODULE.....................................................................................................44 FIGURE 31 : DELUX DLV-B01........................................................................................................................45 FIGURE 32 : MINITONE WIRELESS............................................................................................................45 FIGURE 33 : PHIDGET TEMPERATURE SENSOR...................................................................................46 FIGURE 34 : AL1916WAS WIDE ACER MONITOR..................................................................................46 FIGURE 35 : MICRO-SERVER.......................................................................................................................46 FIGURE 36 : ALARM.........................................................................................................................................47 FIGURE 37 : MBCNM REVERSING CONTRACTOR .............................................................................47 FIGURE 38 : GM862 CELLULAR QUAD BAND MODULE.....................................................................47 FIGURE 39 : GM862 EVALUATION BOARD – RS232.............................................................................48 FIGURE 40: ACTIVE WAVE TAGS...............................................................................................................49 FIGURE 41: ACTIVE WAVE STANDARD READER (1) AND FIELD GENERATOR (2)..................51 ProSense Public Deliverable 4
  5. 5. ProSense Document: D4.1 (REGPOT-205494) Date: 30-08-2008 FIGURE 42: ACTIVE WAVE READERS: PC-CARD READER (1), COMPACT FLASH – CARD READER (2) AND HANDHELD READER (3).............................................................................................52 FIGURE 43: ACTIVE WAVE DEMO KIT.....................................................................................................53 FIGURE 44: TAG SENSE ZT-10 (1) AND ZT-100 (2) TAGS......................................................................54 FIGURE 45: TAG SENSE READERS: ZR-USB (1), ZR-HUB (2) AND ZR-PCMCA (3)........................54 FIGURE 46: TAGS SENSE KIT........................................................................................................................55 FIGURE 47: SECURICODE TAGS: SLIMELINE TAG (1), ALERT TAG (2), BADGEHOLDER TAG (3)...........................................................................................................................................................................56 FIGURE 48: SECURICODE READERS: ETHERNET NODE (1), ACCESS NODE (2) AND MOBILE READER NODE (3)............................................................................................................................................56 FIGURE 49: SECURICODE KIT......................................................................................................................57 FIGURE 50: NONIN OEM III PULSE OXIMETRY MODULE..................................................................58 FIGURE 51: NONIN PURELIGHT.................................................................................................................59 FIGURE 52: EG0700 MODULE FOR MEASUREMENT OF BODY TEMPERATURE.........................59 FIGURE 53: YSI 400 TEMPERATURE PROBE.............................................................................................60 FIGURE 54: NIBSCAN NIBP...........................................................................................................................61 FIGURE 55: AC/USB ADAPTER.....................................................................................................................62 FIGURE 56: BLUETOOTH MODEM BLUESMIRF RP-SMA....................................................................62 FIGURE 57: PHIDGET TEMPERATURE SENSOR....................................................................................63 FIGURE 58: PRECON HUMIDITY SENSOR..............................................................................................64 FIGURE 59: CO SENSOR................................................................................................................................64 FIGURE 60: MPXC2011DT1/ MPXC2012DT1 LOW PRESSURE SENSOR.............................................65 List of Tables TABLE 1: COMPARISON OF PROSENSE RELEVANT SENSOR EQUIPMENT................................13 TABLE 2: ACTIVE WAVE TAGS’ FEATURES............................................................................................50 TABLE 3: FEATURES OF THE STANDARD READER AND FIELD GENERATOR..........................51 TABLE 4: TAG SENSE TAGS’ FEATURES...................................................................................................54 TABLE 5: SECURYCODE TAGS’ FEATURES.............................................................................................56 TABLE 6: SECURYCODE READERS’ FEATURES......................................................................................57 ProSense Public Deliverable 5
  6. 6. ProSense Document: D4.1 (REGPOT-205494) Date: 30-08-2008 List of Acronyms AC Alternating Current ADC Analog-to-Digital Converter ALC Auto Luminance Control AP Access Point API Application Programming Interface AT Attention AV Audio/Video AWB Auto White Balance CCTV Closed Circuit Television CD Compact Disk CH Channel CMOD Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor CO Carbon Monoxide CPU Central Processing Unit DARPA Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency dB Decibel DC Direct Current DNS Domain Name System DSS Digital Spread Spectrum ECG Electrocardiogram EMI Electromagnetic Interference ETF Faculty of Electrical Engineering FEEIT Faculty for Electrical Engineering and Information Technologies FTP File Transfer Protocol GCF Generic Connection Framework GB Gigabyte GNU Gnu’s Not Unix GPRS General Packet Radio Service GPS Global Positioning System GSM Global System for Mobile Communications I/O Input / Output ID Identification IDE Integrated Development Environment IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers IMS IP Multimedia Subsystem ISS Interactive Street Sensing IP Internet Protocol IT Internet Technology JPEG Joint Photographic Experts Group LCD Liquid Crystal Display LED Light Emitting Diode M2M Machine-to-Machine MANET Mobile Ad-hoc Network MCU Microcontroller Unit ME Mobile Edition MEMs Microelectromechanical systems MSC Mine Sensor Chat ProSense Public Deliverable 6
  7. 7. ProSense Document: D4.1 (REGPOT-205494) Date: 30-08-2008 NFS Network File Server NIC Network Interface Card NTSC National Television System Committee NSF National Science Foundation OS Operating System PAL Phase Alternating Line PC Personal Computer PCMCIA Personal Computer Memory Card International Association PDA Personal Digital Assistant KB Kilobyte RAM Random-Access Memory RCA Radio Corporation of America RF Radio Frequency RFID Radio Frequency Identification RJ-11 Registered Jack Function 11 ROM Read-Only Memory RS232 Recommended Standard 232 PLL Phased Locked Loop S&T Scientific & Technological SECAM Sequential Colour with Memory SDK Software Development Kit SIM Subscriber Identity Module SMS Short Message Service SMTP Simple Mail transfer Protocol SOHO Small Office, Home Office SPOT Small Programmable Object Technology SRAM Static random access memory SRT Smart Running Track TCP Transmission Control Protocol TTL Transistor–Transistor Logic UART Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter UPS Uninterruptible Power Supply US United States VGA Video Graphic Array (Adapter) VM Virtual Machine USB Universal Serial Bus WBC West Balkan Countries WBSN Wireless Body Sensor Network WLAN Wireless Local Area Network WP Work Package WS&A Wireless Sensor & Actuator WS&AN Wireless Sensor & Actuator Networks WSN Wireless Sensor Networks XML Extensible Markup Language ProSense Public Deliverable 7
  8. 8. ProSense Document: D4.1 (REGPOT-205494) Date: 30-08-2008 Executive Summary Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are a hot research topic within the networking and communications communities. These networks are made up of a number of tiny, low power, inexpensive devices, deployed throughout a physical space, able to sense, compute and communicate. The devices communicate and collaborate with each other to gather and disseminate information about the monitored environment, object or person. WSNs can be in a number of domains and for a number of various applications such as infrastructure security, chemical and biological hazard detection, natural hazards and the broad area of environment - including disaster relief, emergency, patient and habitat monitoring, traffic control, and any other field still unexplored that could be part of a pervasive scenario. One of the main goals of the ProSense project is the improvement of the wireless sensor networking research capacity and capability of two selected WBC (West Balkan Countries) research centres, Skopje (FEEIT) and Belgrade (ETF) by strengthening the scientific and technical human resources and the S&T infrastructure at both locations. The S&T infrastructure will be set up based on the requirements of the selected usage scenarios - emergency/disaster recovery and personal health monitoring systems for Skopje and Belgrade, respectively. The usage scenarios are chosen according to the current requirements and trends for development in the socio-economic fields in these countries and generally. They also seem to be particularly beneficial for the WBC region. The focus of this deliverable is to present comprehensive specification of the selected infrastructure and as such to serve as a basic input for the subsequent project activities towards improving the research potential and competence of the research centres in the field of WSNs. This deliverable report is part of the Work Package 4 (WP 4) – “S&T research infrastructure improvements and upgrades”. This WP aims to put in place a state-of-the-art research infrastructure in 2 WBC centres to facilitate the ongoing and the future research and educational activities in the WBC region. It will also allow researchers from these two centres to take an active role in other collaborative research projects. The deliverable is organized as follows. After this summary, Section 2 presents state-of-the-art in WSNs regarding current projects and research centres among the academy. Furthermore, different WSN equipment that is available on the market with its specification and comparison is presented in this section. Section 3 provides short description of the usage scenarios intended for implementation in research centres in Skopje and Belgrade and provides justification for the equipment required for implementation of selected scenarios. Section 4 presents sustainability of the presented infrastructure, and finally, Section 5 concludes the report. Three Appendices present detailed specification of the equipment available on the market and suitable for implementation of the two scenarios. ProSense Public Deliverable 8
  9. 9. ProSense Document: D4.1 (REGPOT-205494) Date: 30-08-2008 State-of-the-art in WSN infrastructures The importance of WSNs is highlighted by a number of initiated research projects, established laboratories worldwide and the range of possible applications. Relevant research projects and research groups that are of interest and that may provide relevant experience and expertise to the ProSense project were analyzed and are briefly elaborated in this section. Also, the equipment that is going to be implemented in Skopje and Belgrade is carefully examined as it is supposed to be used not just for use case selected in PROSENSE, but also as the basis for the ongoing research in various WSN research areas. In this manner, the ProSense project will serve its goals of transforming Skopje and Belgrade into regional WSN centres of excellences. The first part of this section presents a state-of-the-art in WSNs’ current status in terms of WSN current projects and worldwide WSN research centres facilities. The latter part provides an overview of the relevant WSN equipment available on the market. 1.1 Current status 1.1.1 Relevant projects This section gives an overview of some of the most relevant publicly EU funded (FP6 and FP7) projects. The list includes limited projects which represent an opportunity for clustering without an ambition to cover the entire WSN research area. Besides the EU funded research, there are many other projects working in the WSN area founded by other institutions (DARPA, US NSF programs, etc.). - FP6 - WINSOC (Wireless Sensor Networks with Self-Organization Capabilities for Critical and Emergency Applications), http://www.winsoc.org/ The key idea of WINSOC is the development of a totally innovative design methodology, mimicking biological systems, where the high accuracy and reliability of the whole sensor network is achieved through a proper interaction among nearby, low cost, sensors. The goal is, on one side, to develop a general purpose innovative wireless sensor network having distributed processing capabilities and, on the other side, to test applications on environmental risk management where heterogeneous networks, composed of nodes having various degree of complexity and capabilities, are made to work under realistic scenarios. More specifically, the project will address applications to small landslide detection, gas leakage detection and large scale temperature field monitoring. - FP6 - UbiSec&Sense (Ubiquitous Sensing and Security in the European Homeland), http:// www.ist-ubisecsens.org/ UbiSec&Sens project aims to provide a comprehensive architecture for medium and large scale wireless sensor networks with the full level of security that will make them trusted and secure for all applications. In addition UbiSec&Sens will provide a complete tool box of security aware components which, together with the UbiSec&Sens radically new design cycle for secure sensor networks, will enable the rapid development of trusted sensor network applications. - FP7 - SENSEI (Integrating the Physical with the Digital World of the Network of the Future), http://www.ict-sensei.org/ SENSEI creates an open, business driven architecture that fundamentally addresses the scalability problems for a large number of globally distributed WS&A (Wireless Sensor & Actuator) devices. It provides necessary network and information management services to enable reliable and accurate context information retrieval and interaction with the physical environment. By adding mechanisms ProSense Public Deliverable 9
  10. 10. ProSense Document: D4.1 (REGPOT-205494) Date: 30-08-2008 for accounting, security, privacy and trust it enables an open and secure market space for context- awareness and real world interaction. - FP6 - e-Sense (Capturing Ambient Intelligence for Mobile Communications through Wireless Sensor Networks), http://www.ist-e-sense.org/ e-SENSE proposes a context capturing framework that enables the convergence of many input modalities, mainly focusing on energy efficient wireless sensor networks that are multi-sensory in their composition, heterogeneous in their networking, either mobile or integrated in the environment e.g. from single sensors to thousands or millions of sensors collecting information about the environment, a person or an object. This framework will be able to supply ambient intelligent systems with information in a transparent way hiding underlying technologies thus enabling simple integration. - FP 7 (Starting September, 1st, 2008) - GINSENG (Performance Control in Wireless Sensor Networks), http://www.ict-ginseng.eu/ The GINSENG project plans a significant advance beyond the state-of-the-art by developing a performance controlled WSN that is targeted for use in a range of industrial environments. GINSENG is a planned network that will be based on customised software components and algorithms that will be designed to meet application-specific performance targets. GINSENG will also develop novel middleware solutions that allow the network to integrate with industry IT (Internet Technology) systems. Its operation will be proven in a large-scale oil refinery, where performance is critical for monitoring health & safety, environmental impact, and process efficiency. 1.1.2 Relevant research centres In this section, a short overview of important research groups active in WSN domain is provided. - UCLA Computer Science Department, Network Research Lab, http://netlab.cs.ucla.edu/cgi-bin/usemod10/wiki.cgi This department supports research projects in a broad range of topics in network communications including network protocols and architectures, modelling and analysis, wireless networks, sensor networks, car-to-car networks, peer-to peer techniques, and network measurement. Part of their current projects focus on Underwater Networking, Vehicular Sensor Networks, Vehicular Safety applications and Wireless Network Security. C-VeT (Campus-Vehicular Testbed) provides platform to support car-to-car experiments in various traffic conditions and mobility patterns to test new protocols and applications. - Berkley Wireless Research Centre, http://robotics.eecs.berkeley.edu/~pister/SmartDust/ The research focus of this centre is on highly-integrated CMOS implementations with the lowest possible energy consumption and advanced communication algorithms. Components are fabricated using state-of-the-art processes and evaluated in a realistic test environment. One of the relevant projects is Smart Dust which science/engineering goal is to demonstrate that a complete sensor/communication system can be integrated into a cubic millimetre package. This involves both evolutionary and revolutionary advances in miniaturization, integration, and energy management. - Western Michigan University, Wireless Sensornets Laboratory (WiSe Lab), http://www.cs.wmich.edu/wsn/ Some of the current relevant projects managed by this laboratory are Opportunistic Networks (Oppnets), Smart Occupancy Monitoring System, Collaborative Signal Processing, Location Tracking ProSense Public Deliverable 10
  11. 11. ProSense Document: D4.1 (REGPOT-205494) Date: 30-08-2008 of Mobile Objects, Dynamic Sensor Networks, etc. Lab equipment in this centre consists of following WSN and RFID components: CCS RFID Development Kit, RFID Transponder Read/Write tags, MICAz Development Kit and Tmote Sky Developers Kit (including 10 Nodes with Hum/Temp/Light Sensors). - Harvard Sensor Networks Lab, http://fiji.eecs.harvard.edu/ The Harvard Sensor Networks Lab investigates software solutions for efficient, high-data-rate, adaptive wireless sensor networking systems. Their work is closely with domain scientists in medicine, geophysics, and public health to direct the research towards real-world applications of this technology. MoteLab is indoor, Web-enabled sensor network testbed which consist of 190 TMote Sky sensor "motes" running on TinyOS operating system. Current research projects are: Pixie - An operating system supporting resource-aware programming for sensor networks, and Lance - Utility-driven signal collection in high-data-rate sensor networks. CodeBly is relevant project which explores applications of wireless sensor network technology to a range of medical applications, including pre-hospital and in-hospital emergency care, disaster response, and stroke patient rehabilitation. - University of New Orleans, Department for Computer Science, http://www.cs.uno.edu/research/wireless.htm Current research focus of this department include service discovery, energy efficiency, network lifetime extension, data delivery, routing misbehaviour detection and mitigation, and security provision in wireless sensor networks. This research groups works on interesting issues such as efficient data delivery, mobile data sink, cluster head selection, and multiple channel medium access control schemes in wireless sensor networks. - University of Surrey, Canter for Communication Systems Research, Wireless Sensor Network Research Lab, http://www.ee.surrey.ac.uk/CCSR/facilities/mobile/wsn/wsn_testbed.html The Wireless Sensor Network Research Lab hosts a state-of-the art experimental research facility for WS&AN (Wireless Sensor & Actuator Networks). The testbed facility is used for the prototyping and evaluation of developed protocol solutions and serves as a basis for the development of novel mobile context aware services and applications. The testbed consists of wireless sensor and actuator nodes (70 SensiNode Micro.2420 and 5 SensiNode Nano.2430) that can be organised in different network topologies and individually configured for various experiments. The testbed facility also includes servers hosting an IMS (IP Multimedia Subsystem) service platform and laptops, servers and mobile devices some of them serving as mobile gateways devices, some of them used for protocol and application development and execution of context-aware application and services. - Technische Universität München, Institute of Communication Networks, Wireless Sensor Network Laboratory, http://www.lkn.ei.tum.de/lehre/wsn/index.html?lang=en This laboratory of Wireless Sensor Networks offers students a theoretical and practical introduction to the concepts of wireless networks, focussing on sensor network aspects. The laboratory uses sensor nodes hardware made by Crossbow Technology Inc. - CLARITY: The Centre for Sensor Web Technologies Bringing Information to Live, Dublin http://www.clarity-centre.com/ The CLARITY is a partnership between University College Dublin and Dublin City University, supported by research at the Tyndall National Institute (TNI) Cork. CLARITY is a research centre that ProSense Public Deliverable 11
  12. 12. ProSense Document: D4.1 (REGPOT-205494) Date: 30-08-2008 focuses on the intersection between two important research areas -Adaptive Sensing and Information Discovery-to develop innovative new technologies of critical importance to Ireland's future industry base and contribute to improving the quality of life of people in areas such as personal health, digital media and management of our environment. 1.2 WSN equipment available on the market This subsection presents a short comparison survey of the WSN equipment relevant for the ProSense project and currently available on the market. The offered overview of existing sensor network platforms can also be of interest to many newcomers to the field. Technical details of the presented equipment are given in the Appendices. The relevant WSN equipment for the ProSense project includes: Sun SPOTs, BTnodes, SHIMMER, FireFly, eZ430-RF2500, MICAz, Sensinode and Sentilla. Table 1 provides classification, comparison, programming languages and used OS (Operating System) for the WSN nodes, as well as some of their advantages and disadvantages, that are considered to be used within the scope of ProSense project. ProSense Public Deliverable 12
  13. 13. ProSense Document: D4.1 (REGPOT-205494) Date: 30-08-2008 Table 1: Comparison of ProSense relevant sensor equipment Programming WSN nodes OS Advantages Disadvantages language and tools Large processing High price, Sun SPOT Java Java Squawk VM power, ease of possibly short programming battery life High price, C, 2 radios (Bluetooth relatively heavy, AVR-GCC tool TinyOS compatible and low-power support through BTnode rev 3 chain on 433-915 MHz the open-source Win/Linux/MacOS radio) community /BSD Optional second High price, (Bluetooth) radio, nesC TinyOS compatible limited SHIMMER off-the–shelf availability available extensions C, Relatively heavy Nano-RK Very long battery Firefly GNU tool-chain (two AA life batteries) C, None (though IAR Kickstart, Low memory, TinyOS and Small size and Code Compose moderate eZ430-RF2500 Contiki weight, low cost, Essentials Core processing power adaptations exist) SimpliciTI stack Edition Short radio range Low price, nesC TinyOS compatible (80m), MICAz long battery life small processing ability Application installing is performed by NanoStack written Linux and Sensinode IP based upgrading to in C Windows support new firmware containing the application No operating system Small devices, (application meshed installing is Linux and Sentilla Java networking (no performed by Windows support need for a upgrading to gateway) new firmware containing the application) ProSense Public Deliverable 13
  14. 14. ProSense Document: D4.1 (REGPOT-205494) Date: 30-08-2008 1.3 Selected equipment The ProSense partners decided to use modules mainly from Sun Microsystems, called Sun SPOTs (Small Programmable Object Technology) [14], The basic characteristic which made Sun SPOT modules attractive is that they are fully JAVA capable which makes application development less complex than programming in for example TinyOS (used for Crossbow motes). Sun SPOT is an open source platform based on Java VM called “Squawk”. Description of the platform and its technical characteristics is given in subsection 3.1. In addition to Sun SPOTs, certain amount of TinyOS compatible nodes will be used, due to specific needs (in terms of the energy cost of communication) several of the usage scenarios might have. One of ETF’s usage scenarios (“Common Health Gateway”) specifically aims to create a common interface for accessing heterogeneous sensor networks, so it needs at least three different types of sensor nodes to be properly tested. Sensor networks motes which will be additionally utilized are Sensinodes. Sensinode provides wireless sensor network products with seamless enterprise and internet integration. The nodes are running 6Lowpan (IP version for embedded computers) and are handy for networking research. ProSense Public Deliverable 14
  15. 15. ProSense Document: D4.1 (REGPOT-205494) Date: 30-08-2008 Infrastructure specifications This section describes the envisioned research infrastructure that will be deployed in FEEIT (Skopje) and ETF (Belgrade) based on selected application scenarios. The application scenarios were chosen according to the specific regional needs and research interests of the partners. FEEIT’s team targets emergency/disaster recovery usage scenario, while ETF’s team targets personal health monitoring systems usage scenario. The emergency/disaster recovery scenario is composed of three separate use cases: fire detection, earthquake detection and application of RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) for disaster recovery and for making the FEEITs’ premises “smart building”. They are selected to show the duality of the whole concept - to have a system for emergency situations which will additionally monitor key environmental parameters, and separate system that functions under normal circumstances (“smart building” solution). There are plenty of other possible usage scenarios, and therefore the new research infrastructure is planned to be generic enough to enable their realization in the future. The University of Belgrade (ETF) team is working on the following usage scenarios: Smart Running Track, Common Health Gateway and Health Hazard Monitoring. The Smart Running Track project should effectively demonstrate the benefits of remote monitoring of body parameters of the participants (runners), and at the same time, it should make the experience fun, in order to encourage the runners’ participation. The inspiration for this project came from the fact that the young population of Europe is spending an ever increasing amount of time in sedentary activities (such as using their computers), which is having a detrimental effect on their fitness level and their overall health. Common Health Gateway’s project aim is to facilitate rapid development of health applications for sensor networks, in order to increase reusability (in the future) of the deployed sensor network equipment. The third usage scenarios are the Health Hazard Monitoring projects: Interactive Street Sensing (ISS) and Mine Sensor Chat (MSC). These projects are inspired by some recent events – the repeated environmental damage to the town of Pančevo, Serbia and great loss of life in a mining accident in China where 21 miners died as a result of carbon monoxide poisoning. Following subsection will give a deeper insight into usage scenarios details and the appropriate WSN equipment for their realization. 1.4 Description of the common sensor networks’ platform for both research laboratories This subsection presents Sun SPOTs as a technology which will be mainly used in the research laboratories in Skopje and Belgrade. This is the common sensor networks’ platform, and the appropriate detailed characteristics of the motes will be discussed in this section, while the other different hardware resources for the laboratories will be discussed separately and presented in the Appendices. 1.4.1 Sun SPOT functionality The Sun SPOT is designed to be a flexible development platform, capable of hosting widely differing application modules. The Sun SPOT development kit, as supplied, contains two different configurations. One of the configurations includes a demonstration application module, the eDemo board. ProSense Public Deliverable 15
  16. 16. ProSense Document: D4.1 (REGPOT-205494) Date: 30-08-2008 The configurations supplied in the development kit are: - Base station. The base station has an eSPOT main board without a battery or an application board. Power is supplied by a USB (Universal Serial Bus) connection to a host workstation. The base station serves as a radio gateway between other Sun SPOTs (and theoretically other 802.15.4 devices) and the host workstation (Figure 1). - eSPOT - This unit contains the main board with a rechargeable LI-ION prismatic battery and an example of an eSPOT daughterboard, the eDEMO board. The development kit also contains: - A wall-mount bracket for the eSPOT - An eSPOT module adapter. This plastic replaces the top eSPOT plastic and allows the eSPOT to be attached to a larger circuit board. Figure 1 : eSPOT Board Configuration and Connectors The eDEMO board is an example of the class of daughterboards that are compatible with the eSPOT main board. The eDemo board contains a 3-axis accelerometer, an ambient light sensor, eight tricolor LEDs (Light Emitting Diodes), two push buttons, six analog input pads, four high current high voltage output pads, and five general I/O (Input/Output) pads. Features: - 180 MHz 32 bit ARM920T processor - 2.4GHz, IEEE 802.15.4 compliant TI CC2420 transceiver - 3-axis accelerometer - Temperature sensor - Light sensor - 8 three-colour LEDs - 6 analog inputs readable by an ADC - 5 general purpose I/O pins and 4 high current output pins - Runs Java VM called “Squawk” Sun SPOTs have power conservation firmware that uses three modes of operation (Figure 2): ProSense Public Deliverable 16
  17. 17. ProSense Document: D4.1 (REGPOT-205494) Date: 30-08-2008 Run - Basic operation with all processors and radio running. Power draw for the eSPOT board in Run mode is between 70ma and 120ma. The application daughter board can consume up to 400ma if enabled. Idle - ARM9 clocks are shut off and the radio is off. Idle mode power consumption is about 24ma. Deep-sleep - All regulators are shut down except for the standby LDO, the power-control Atmega and pSRAM. Deep-sleep power consumption is 32µA. Typical start-up time from deep-sleep is about 2msec to 10msec. Waking the processor up from deep-sleep can be done with the alarm, an external interrupt or pressing the attention button. Figure 2 : Power Consumption Mode Transitions Battery The internal battery is a 3.7V 720maH rechargeable lithium-ion prismatic cell. The battery has internal protection circuit to guard against over discharge, under voltage and overcharge conditions. The battery can be charged from either the USB type mini-B device connector or from an external source with a 5V ±10% supply. Typical shelf life losses at room temperature are about 2% of the batteries capacity per month and the rate can increase with the rise in temperature. The simplest, safest, and easiest way of extending the operating period of a Sun SPOT beyond the length of one battery charge is to provide USB power. There are a variety of USB power dongles available on the market, including AC (Alternating Current) and battery powered models. 1.4.2 Programming the SPOTs SPOTs can be programmed using Java. A user’s application can communicate with Sun SPOTs via a base station which is a Sun SPOT without sensor board connected to a PC (Personal Computer) with the USB port. Some Sun SPOT components are open source both hardware and software. Sun SPOTS can be emulated in software, Sun SPOT SDK (Software Development Kit) and interact with the real Sun SPOTS via a base station connected to the PC. This functionality may extend significantly the size of WSN built just from 2 motes. The Squawk virtual machine is a small JavaTM virtual machine written mostly in Java that runs without an operating system on a wireless sensor platform. Squawk translates standard class file into an internal pre-linked, position independent format that is compact and allows for efficient execution of bytecodes that have been placed into a read-only memory. In addition, Squawk implements an application isolation mechanism whereby applications are represented as object and are therefore treated as first class objects (i.e., the they can be reified). Application isolation also enables Squawk to run multiple applications at once with all immutable state being shared between the applications. ProSense Public Deliverable 17
  18. 18. ProSense Document: D4.1 (REGPOT-205494) Date: 30-08-2008 Mutable state is not shared. The combination of these features reduces the memory footprint of the VM, making it ideal for deployment on small devices. Squawk provides a wireless API (Application Programming Interface) that allows developers to write applications for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), this API is an extension of the Generic Connection Framework (GCF). Authentication of deployed files on the wireless device and migration of applications between devices is also performed by the VM. 1.5 Description of the usage scenario for emergency/disaster recovery applications The objective of the emergency/disaster recovery scenario is to provide a flexible and low-cost sensing mechanism that will reduce eventual casualties. This includes casualties during an earthquake, self- collapsing of old and unstable structures, fires and other natural or man-induced catastrophes. Localization of eventual victims during emergency situations would be provided by additional RFID system. The scenario is composed of three different use cases: fire detection, earthquake detection and “smart building”. The common scenario for WSN and RFID implementation at the FEEITs’ premises is presented in the following Figure 3. The premises include 7 offices, conference room, laboratory, hallway and entrance. Figure 3 : Scheme of WSN and RFID implementation at FEEIT’s premises ProSense Public Deliverable 18
  19. 19. ProSense Document: D4.1 (REGPOT-205494) Date: 30-08-2008 The complete network consists of: Sun SPOT (Small Programmable Object Technology) modules, two RFID readers, two servers, monitor, cameras, alarm, UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply), relay and dialling device. All of the premises are equipped with at least one SPOT module, each one with temperature and vibration sensors and some of them with additional CO (carbon monoxide) sensor. The gateways are located in the centrally positioned laboratory and at the entrance. This provides good clustering for energy saving and at the same time is a good way to provide back up in the case of a gateway failure. One RFID reader is positioned at the entrance to register people equipped with RFID tags when they enter the premises. Their presence is announced on a LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) display. The other RFID reader is connected to the server in the laboratory for back up and eventually for better resolution. The readers are connected via a WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network) network. A dialling device and the SMS (Short Message Service) gateway are connected with the server in the laboratory. One of the SPOTs has an alarm speaker connected to it. 4 web cameras are set in the premises and are used for monitoring. The SPOTs (especially the ones placed in the external parts of the institute) will be connected with smoke detectors. Since the main goal is to create an independent system, an UPS device would keep alive the network after eventual disaster and power failure. Relay is provided to switch off the current in case of emergency. Sun SPOT nodes have two modes of operation: awake and sleep (idle). The nodes will be in sleep mode a number of times longer than being awake, thus providing network increased lifetime through improved power efficiency. When in sleep mode - the nodes can be woken up by the smoke detector only (in case when a higher level of smoke is detected) or when the sleeping time period expires. When the node wakes up, it floods beacons and based on the received acknowledgements learns about the other nodes in the neighbourhood. This is the way the node makes a routing table for how to transfer the information to the sink. This table is kept only when the mote is awake and is not changed during that time. More than 50% of the nodes will be awake at any time, thus providing accurate earthquake detection (explanation in the second use/case). The programming part of the scenario will be based on J2ME and Java API for the Sun SPOTs. Base station application is also based on J2ME and Java API for the Sun SPOTs, while server application is J2SE compatible. RFID system’s programming depends of the specific equipment which will be purchased (see Appendix 2.1). In addition, FEEIT’s team investigates possibilities for online key environmental parameters monitoring. For that purpose, the team has initialized a creation of a web interface (http://prosense.free2hoxt.com/), which is still under construction. Different scenarios presented in the subsections that follow will take into account general scenario presented above. Based on these scenarios, the requirements for specific equipment are compiled. Except the common platform composed of Sun SPOT modules, the rest of the hardware resources will be described in the Appendices. ProSense Public Deliverable 19
  20. 20. ProSense Document: D4.1 (REGPOT-205494) Date: 30-08-2008 1.5.1 Usage scenario for fire detection This section exemplifies how the above described WSN react in case of a fire, which has been originated at the end of the hallway (see Figure 3). The CO sensor associated with the SPOT No.1 detects an increased level of smoke. Since the node is in sleep mode, the CO sensor wakes up the SPOT node. The temperature sensor detects increased temperature and at the same time the node floods beacon frames to learn about the neighbour nodes which are awake. This possible WSN reaction about the situation is as presented in the following chart (Figure 4): Sink Web alar rem CO1 1 2 3 4 1 cam m dial ote rfid WAKE UP! beacons beacons beacons I am awake Information - fire, temperature , sensor No.1 Turn on Turn on Turn on YES, there is a fire No. persons? 1 person is inside Figure 4 : Messages flow in a case of fire detection The information about the possible fire (plus measured temperature and SPOTs ID) arrives at the sink through multi-hop routing. The sink SPOT will turn on the camera, turn on the alarm and activate the dialling device that will warn the responsible people about the possible danger. False alarms will be avoided by using the cameras, at the same time as the relay will switch off the current in the premises to avoid additional complications. The RFID reader at the entrance will detect who left the building after the alarm was activated. If someone (for any reason) did not leave, the system detects that and this additional information is added to the recorded message, which is sent to the people in charge (using the auto-dial device): emergency services, managers. The message should look like this: “The building X, located on street Y No.Z, is in fire, and the number of people that are trapped is: B” ProSense Public Deliverable 20
  21. 21. ProSense Document: D4.1 (REGPOT-205494) Date: 30-08-2008 1.5.2 Usage scenario for earthquake detection Earthquake detection is the second use case. Sensors 1, 4 and 7 are awake and they detect low frequency and high amplitude vibrations, using their on-board accelerometer. They have active tables with nodes they can use for delivering the information about the level of vibration to the sink node. The WSN will announce that there is an earthquake if 3 or more SPOTs (any 3 SPOTs) have send this kind of information to the sink. The sink will calculate the overall level of vibrations. If this level exceeds certain threshold value, the sink will send commands to the alarm and the dialling device to turn on. Figure 5 presents short illustration of messages flow in the WSN network when sensors 1, 4 and 7 detect high level of vibration. In this example the nodes 9 and 6 are used as hop nodes to transfer the information to the sink, since there are only awaken neighbour nodes. Sink Web alar rem 1 4 7 9 6 1 cam m dial ote rfid Information – vibration, level Information – vibration, level Information – vibration, level YES, there is a earthquake Turn on Turn on No. persons? 1 person is inside Figure 5 : Messages flow in a case of earthquake detection After the sink has calculated the potential earthquake and the remote department for emergency situations has been notified, the information stored in the RFID system will be used (about the number of persons inside the potential ruins). The RFID reader at the entrance will detect who left the building after alarm sounded off the earthquake. The information of the recorded message will be send to the people in charge, and it should look like this: “The building X, located on street Y No.Z, is damaged or ruined, and the number of people that are trapped is: B” ProSense Public Deliverable 21
  22. 22. ProSense Document: D4.1 (REGPOT-205494) Date: 30-08-2008 1.5.3 RFID for disaster recovery and for “smart building” The RFID system consists of two active readers and about 20 active tags. Additional tags can be added upon request depending of the number of employees, since our scenario allocate an active RFID tag to each employee. Active RFID components are utilized due to their inbuilt memory storage and larger operating ranges. The following Figure 6 presents messages flow, according to the current system events. Persons with tags number 1 and 3 get into the premises; the RFID at the entrance notices their presence and displays this information on the LCD monitor. When the employee with the tag number 2 gets out of the RFID readers’ coverage, the monitor will signal that the person is not present in the premises. Additionally, the reader can be used for finding items associated with tags (more information in the equipment description in Appendix 2.1). Tag 1 Tag 2 Tag 3 RFID 1 RFID 2 display relay remote Signal HELLO Employee 1 is present Turn-on the light and the power Signal HELLO Employee 2 is present Where is the item 3? I am here -beep Signal BYE Employee 2 is not present There is a earthquake – how much persons are in the premises ? ONE Figure 6 : Message flow among the devices in the RFID system The RFID system will have precise identification and location of people in real time. This information will assist in fast detection of employees when unexpected disaster would occur, thus providing in time response. Apart from this scenario, RFID would be used to make our faculty premises a “smart building”. The display at the entrance door would provide information about which professors and teaching assistants are at their workplaces. This will save students’ time and would provide effective system for preventing unnecessary professors’ disturbance. ProSense Public Deliverable 22
  23. 23. ProSense Document: D4.1 (REGPOT-205494) Date: 30-08-2008 In addition to that we plan to attach small RFID tags to important devices, such as laptops, PDAs (Personal Digital Assistant) or remote controllers, to ensure their easy localisation. Furthermore, readers’ output relays can be used for triggering the power and light switches according to people presence in the premises. 1.6 Description of the usage scenario for personal health care monitoring system The University of Belgrade (ETF) team is working on several scenarios, which can be broadly categorized to: public health monitoring, personal health monitoring, sport and fitness and common infrastructure. 1.6.1 Smart Running Track The Smart Running Track (SRT) project is a sport and fitness/personal health project. The idea is to provide a smart, competitive environment for runners. The runners should be able to see their position and the position of other runners on the track map displayed on their mobile phones. They should, also, be able to review their main health parameters (such as blood pressure, body temperature, the amount of calories burned). In order to increase competitiveness, the new ranking criteria other than the usual running order will be provided (e.g. amount of calories burned, or if the track is a trim-track, the number of exercises performed). Personal health monitoring will be performed by a physician, who will use a supervisor computer to review the body parameters of all runners at once. SRT Hardware In the Smart Running Track project: four types of hardware devices are used: i. Mobile sensor nodes, one per each runner ii. Stationary sensor nodes (“tracking stations”), deployed along the running path iii. Mobile phones, one per each runner, used to provide feedback to the runners iv. A supervisor computer, used by a trained physician to monitor body parameters of the runners. ` Figure 7: Smart Running Track system architecture ProSense Public Deliverable 23
  24. 24. ProSense Document: D4.1 (REGPOT-205494) Date: 30-08-2008 The mobile sensor nodes utilize sensors to measure the runners’ heart rate, current running speed, acceleration and body temperature. The collected information is used for two purposes: a) to measure how much calories runners have spent, which provides valuable feedback to the runners themselves and can also be used as a parameter based on which runners are ranked; b) to enable the supervisor physician to react, if, for instance, some runner’s heart rate gets too high and it is no longer advisable for him or her to continue running. The tracking stations are used to avoid using GPS (Global Positioning System) equipment which is costly in terms of both money and energy consumption. Instead, stationary nodes with manually provided GPS information will help passing mobile nodes to establish their position, using distances to at least two tracking stations and discarding one of the two possible intersections which is not on the specified running path. All sensor nodes collect and disseminate the sensed data; this way, all sensor nodes should have the most recent position of all other sensor nodes along with body parameter data for each runner (heart rate, amount of calories burned). This information is presented to runners through an application running on their mobile phones. The data are transmitted using Bluetooth. SRT Software On each of the different hardware devices of the SRT project, different software is being developed to implement the proposed capabilities: i. SRT Track Server Application – running on the supervisor computer ii. SRT Mobile Application – running on mobile phones iii. A sensing and forwarding application, deployed on sensor nodes iv. Stub Application – simulates the entire system as a black box, to provide test input to the Track Server Application until the network is deployed SRT Track Server Application will be used by a physician to supervise the runners and track their individual bodily parameters. Development on the Track Server Application has begun with artificial data in place of real network readings. It is developed in Java using Eclipse IDE (Integrated Development Environment) enhanced with the Visual Editor plugin. Figure 8: Screenshot of the SRT Server Application ProSense Public Deliverable 24
  25. 25. ProSense Document: D4.1 (REGPOT-205494) Date: 30-08-2008 SRT Mobile Application will be used by the runners. It should provide a “score list” to the runners, ranking them by their present running order or the number of calories spent; a “map view”, where they can observe their location and the location of the other runners graphically, and a “bio-screen view”, where a summary of their bodily parameters is presented. SRT Mobile Application is developed in Java Mobile Edition (J2ME) through Eclipse enhanced with the EclipseME plugin. Figure 9: Proposed look of SRT Mobile Application Implementation of the Sensing and forwarding application will start once the required equipment is commissioned; until then, a Stub application is used to simulate input. 1.6.2 Common Health Gateway Another project that has been initiated at the University of Belgrade is creation of a software component which is used as a common infrastructure component in various personal health care monitoring systems. The idea is to create a gateway software component that lies on desktop computer and functions as a gateway to the various WBSNs based on different protocols and platforms (ZigBee based, SUN SPOT, Bluetooth…). Such a component should offer a unique interface based on XML messages to the user desktop graphical applications in order to acquire sensor data. Practically, that means our component unifies and translates specific WSN formats of messages to one format that is more descriptive and suitable for users. This should enable an easier implementation of graphical applications that should interpret gathered data from sensors. The good feature is also that such graphical applications that use our gateway component could be located practically anywhere, since the service is publicly published on the Internet as long as the users have appropriate rights to use available sensor data. Also, it is allowed that several applications executed at different devices and locations could use the same sensor data at the same time. ProSense Public Deliverable 25
  26. 26. ProSense Document: D4.1 (REGPOT-205494) Date: 30-08-2008 Figure 10: Basic Diagram of Common Health Gateway ProSense Public Deliverable 26
  27. 27. ProSense Document: D4.1 (REGPOT-205494) Date: 30-08-2008 The typical working scenario is as follows: a user application first issues a request to the Common Health Gateway. The request is in XML format, and consists of the type of the request, id of wsn (or alias name), id of sensor node (or alias name), and id of certain sensor. The Common Health Gateway translates the received message into an internal format, and after validating access rights executes it. During the execution, the database will be queried to check if the requested data has already been stored (for example as a result of previous requests). If requested data are not found, the internal request will be translated to the appropriate format for selected WSN. There are specific components, so-called Connectors, which are responsible for translation of requests to the format for certain wireless sensor networks. Figure 11: Sequence diagram of typical working scenario with Common Health Gateway In order to achieve compatibility of the Common Health Gateway with different WSN platforms, three typical nodes per specific platform (three SUN SPOTs, three MICAz, three Bluetooth enabled motes) will be required. It is expected that it will be possible to use the same SDKs that will be used in other ETF’s projects. 1.6.3 Health Hazard Monitoring Health hazard monitoring efforts of the ETF team include two use cases in the general domain of public and personal healthcare. These are monitoring systems, capable of relevant data dissemination to all interested parties. ProSense Public Deliverable 27
  28. 28. ProSense Document: D4.1 (REGPOT-205494) Date: 30-08-2008 Interactive Street Sensing The first scenario, formally called Interactive Street Sensing (ISS), presents innovative approach to walking activity, from the medical as well as from the human daily life perspective. The main idea is to make streets “alive” by using sensor network infrastructure and human interaction. The network will be arranged as the composition of nodes equipped with different sensors, like temperature, light, pressure, humidity, CO, CO2, O2 etc. (number of sensors in use is limited by number of available pins on the nodes and by number of available commercial sensor products). Human interaction to deployed sensor network infrastructure will primarily be based on mobile phone usage. This use-case assumes that the deployed small scale network will be integrated into larger scale networks, especially the Internet. ISS Hardware ISS network architecture contains four conceptual parts: sensor nodes, mobile phones, a base station and a server component. Sensor nodes are Sun SPOT devices equipped with a number of sensors. These nodes are capable of gathering relevant medical information from the environment and transferring the information to cell phones (via Bluetooth link) and to the base station (via 802.15.4). Bluetooth enabled cell phones are in charge of data interpretation and production of the appropriate output to interested parties. In this case, the interested parties are people willing to know the state of the environment they’re facing. A base station, a Sun SPOT device without sensor board, is attached to server component through USB connection. This device is used for data transfer from nodes to the server computer unit. The server component maintains a database in which collected information is stored and integrates the whole ISS sensor infrastructure with Internet. Figure 12: ISS Architecture Overview ISS Software ISS software component is formed from four applications, running on four different hardware elements: sensor node, mobile phone, base station and server application. Sensor node application is ProSense Public Deliverable 28
  29. 29. ProSense Document: D4.1 (REGPOT-205494) Date: 30-08-2008 based on J2ME and Java API for Sun SPOTs. Mobile phone application is J2ME based component. Base station application is also based on J2ME and Java API for Sun SPOTs. Server application is J2SE compatible, with additional SQL programming. This usage scenario also includes proper simulation software, entirely Java-based. Mine Sensor Chat The second health hazard monitoring scenario, formally called Mine Sensor Chat (MSC), is a relatively simple scenario but with a lot of benefits for the miners’ health and life threats prevention. The system should prevent dangerous accidents in the mine areas and provide more security for the miners. The idea is to enable sensor nodes to detect dangerous substances in the mines (CO, CO2 as the most hazardous), in order to secure miners’ activity. This will be achieved by placing the nodes as part of the miners’ equipment, and enabling communication among them. The physical means of communication will be determined after careful analysis, when the best method (wireless, optical, or a combination) will be selected based on the estimate of its performance in an underground setting. MSC hardware MSC network architecture is completely based on Sun SPOT devices, equipped with a minimal number of necessary sensors. Sensor list contains sensors for detecting the concentration level of CO and CO2, as two biggest contaminants in mine areas. The nodes operate as pollutant detector and miner’s information supplier. Output signals should be relevant only to the mine workers, in order to coordinate miners’ steps which include decisions of “what to do next” type. These “what to do next” decisions refer to miners’ motion actions and mode switching of sensor nodes. The architecture is formed as small system pattern because of the proper use-case nature as “emergency on the spot” type of application. The described scenario is, in its essence, the medical emergency case and as such is suitable for presented infrastructure. Figure 13: MSC architecture overview ProSense Public Deliverable 29
  30. 30. ProSense Document: D4.1 (REGPOT-205494) Date: 30-08-2008 MSC software In this case, programming is based on J2ME and Java API for Sun SPOTs. The main part of the application is a precise definition of the communication protocol, which will be accurately provided during the implementation process. 1.6.4 Remote Pulse Monitoring Finally, the ETF team is working on a Remote Pulse Monitoring application, which should enable remote monitoring of the patient’s heart pulse. This could be useful for post-hospital treatment of heart patients, to facilitate rapid reaction if any of the symptoms the patient has been suffering from returns. There are several positions on the human body where the heart pulse could be measured. The ED mote, with its low pressure sensor, could be attached by the belt (a necklace or a bracelet), on specific places of human body, as shown on following figures. Figure 15: Measuring the pulse at Arteria radialis Figure 16: Measuring the pulse Figure 14: Measuring the pulse at Arteria brachialis at Arteria carottis communis The signal, measured by a heart pulse sensor, should have the following appearance. Figure 17: Heart pulse waveform From this signal, the amplitude and the frequency of the heart pulse can be precisely determined. The signal, taken from a human neck or a hand, would be pre-processed by an ED’s microcontroller, to eliminate the noise or human body movement oscillations. Wireless communication between ED mote and AP (Access Point) could be reduced, by sending the clean compressed heart pulse signal. That signal, should be decompressed by AP, or the software application. The extended system, with more ED motes, could be used for wireless condition monitoring of the group of patients in a hospital, or the whole team in a sports hall. ProSense Public Deliverable 30
  31. 31. ProSense Document: D4.1 (REGPOT-205494) Date: 30-08-2008 Sustainability Infrastructure described in this report is sustainable, meaning it can exist and work irrespective of its initial application. The equipment that will be purchased is of general purpose and flexible thus making its reusability in various new and diverse applications in the future possible. As a result, both research laboratories in Skopje and Belgrade will benefit from the commissioned infrastructure beyond the scope of the ProSense project. Since knowledge generation and, by implication, innovation, directly depend on the quality and availability of research infrastructures, the ProSense platform will serve as a laboratory open for students and researchers, not just for ProSense activities. FEEIT will use its infrastructure to create and support sensor networks courses (for undergraduate and as well for MSc and PhD studies), as well as for implementation of different testbeds and validation of research results. As knowledge dissemination is one of the ProSense main objectives, FEEIT will provide thematic presentations with special focus on feasible real-world applications of sensor networks, with the aim of attracting the attention of industry and governmental organizations. These presentations, except for interested researchers, will be open to participants from governmental organizations (for example from the areas of natural disaster protection and recovery, Health, transportation, water management, etc) and business/industry experts (for example from software/hardware manufacturers, industry trend watchers, market research organizations), in order to pay special attention to the importance of the real-world applications of sensor networks and possible near-future implementations. The research infrastructure and acquired competence will assist industry to strengthen its base of knowledge and technological know-how. The ETF team will put strong emphasis on helping young researchers write papers and publish in renowned magazines, without the need to seek the necessary equipment outside of Serbia. To this end, following the completion of the project, ETF will provide access to its sensor network laboratory to interested MSc and PhD students. Moreover, the ETF team plans to introduce an undergraduate sensor network course in its Computer Engineering curriculum. This course should include lectures, classroom exercises and laboratory exercises; for the third part, in addition to sensor network simulators, ETF would provide opportunities for undergraduate students to interact with the technology first-hand, through a sensor network laboratory equipped under the auspices of the ProSense project. ProSense Public Deliverable 31
  32. 32. ProSense Document: D4.1 (REGPOT-205494) Date: 30-08-2008 Conclusion The document presents a research infrastructure that will be used to establish two WSN research labs including required equipment for the usage scenarios which will be implemented in FEEIT’s and ETF’s laboratories. The equipment responds to the specific usage scenarios requirements, is within the framework of the provided budget and is presented in accordance with the constant market observation and current trends in WSN applications development. FEEIT and ETF will commission a state-of-the-art equipment and thus will establish themselves as potential “Regions of knowledge“, aiming to strengthen their research potential in this particularly interesting and significant field of Wireless Sensor Networks. The selected infrastructure will meet the designated requirements because of its resilience, robustness, sustainability and ultimately because of its price. It will serve as sensor networks platform for the ProSense objectives and for the future purposes, leading towards many new opportunities for WBC countries development and promotion among the WSN research community. ProSense Public Deliverable 32
  33. 33. ProSense Document: D4.1 (REGPOT-205494) Date: 30-08-2008 References [1] Official website for BTnode http://www.btnode.ethz.ch (Accessed on 25 August 2008). [2] Wireless Sensor Platform for Wearable Applications, SHIMMER™, http://shimmer-research.com (Accessed on 25 August 2008). [3] FireFly, Real-Time Wireless Sensor Network Platform, http://www.ece.cmu.edu/firefly/ (Accessed on 25 August 2008). [4] MSP430x21x1, Mixed Signal Microcontroller from Texas Instruments (TI). Product datasheet available at focus.ti.com/lit/ds/symlink/msp430f2131.pdf (Accessed on 25 August 2008). [5] Complete Suite of Wireless Sensor Networking Products, Crossbow Technology, Inc. http://www.xbow.com (Accessed on 25 August 2008). [6] Sensinode Ltd. website http://www.sensinode.com (Accessed on 28 August 2008). [7] Sentilla website http://www.sentilla.com (Accessed on 28 August 2008). [8] TinyNode platform developed at Shockfish SA, http://www.shockfish.com (Accessed on 25 August 2008). [9] Tmote hardware products developed at Motive, Inc. http://www.moteiv.com (Accessed on 25 August 2008). [10] Smart-Its Particle Prototypes, Sensor and Add-On Boards. University of Karlsruhe, http://particle.teco.edu (Accessed on 25 August 2008). [11] Atmel 8-bit Microcontroller, product datascheet available at http://www.atmel.com/atmel/acrobat/doc2467.pdf (Accessed on 25 August 2008). [12] ZigBee® Solutions, Texas Instruments website http://focus.ti.com/analog/docs/rfifcomponentshome.tsp? familyId=367&contentType=4&DCMP=TIHomeTracking&HQS=Other+OT+home_p_rf_if&DCMP=HP A_RFIC_General&HQS=NotApplicable+OT+lprf (Accessed on 25 August 2008). [13] XE1205 integrated transceiver from Semtech, http://www.semtech.com/products/Wireless&Sensing/Wireless/WirelessRF/XE1205 (Accessed on 25 August 2008). [14] SUN Spot World, official Website for Sun SPOTs http://www.sunspotworld.com (Accessed on 20 May 2008). [15] Anhoch website http://www.anhoch.com (Accessed on 20 May 2008). [16] DSC Wireless Photoelectric Smoke Detectors, http://www.safemart.com/DSC-Security- Wireless-Accessories/DSC-Wireless-Photoelectric-Smoke-Detector-WS4916.htm (Accessed on 20 May 2008). [17] SINTEL 7 dialling device. Pro Alarm website http://www. proalarm.hr (Accessed on 20 May 2008). [18] Sparkfun Electronics website http://www.sparkfun.com (Accessed on 20 May 2008). [19] Set Computers website http:// www.set.com.mk (Accessed on 20 May 2008). [20] Zikol website http://www.zikol.com.mk (Accessed on 20 May 2008). [21] HVW Technologies website http://www.hvwtech.com (Accessed on 20 May 2008). [22] Micro XP and Linux Server Configurations, Micro-Server Website http://www.micro- servers.com/xpconfigurations.html (Accessed on 20 May 2008). [23] Wizard Systems website http://www.wizard.com.mk (Accessed on 20 May 2008). [24] Rade Koncar Contactors & Relays L.t.d. http://www.radekoncar.pl (Accessed on 20 May 2008). [25] Active Wave, Complete RFID solutions, http://www.activewaveinc.com (Accessed on 20 May 2008). [26] TagSense Inc, Custom RFID solutions for tracking, identification, and sensing. http://www.tagsense.com (Accessed on 20 May 2008). [27] SecuriCode, Supplier of Active RFID identity and tracking solutions, http://www.securicode.co.uk (Accessed on 20 May 2008). ProSense Public Deliverable 33
  34. 34. ProSense Document: D4.1 (REGPOT-205494) Date: 30-08-2008 [28] Oximeters & Sensors from Nonin Medical, Inc. http://www.nonin.com (Accessed on 25 August 2008). [29] Pulse Oximetry, Capnography and Patient Monitoring, MedLab Medizinische Diagnosegeräte GmbH, http://www.medlab-gmbh.de (Accessed on 25 August 2008). [30] The Temperature Solutions, Advanced Industrial Systems, Inc. http://www.advindsys.com (Accessed on 25 August 2008). [31] Emtcompany.com, Inc. Online electronics store for batteries, electronics, accessories and other mobile products, http://www.emtcompany.com/the_company.htm (Accessed on 25 August 2008). [32] Temperature, Humidity and Controller Kele Distribution Products. Precon, A Division of Kele Website http://www.preconusa.com/distributor.htm (Accessed on 25 August 2008). [33] Sensors for Carbon Monoxide, KWJ Engineering Inc. http://www.kwjengineering.com/ (Accessed on 25 August 2008). [34] Motorola/Freescale Semiconductor’s MPXC2011DT1/ MPXC2012DT1, datasheet available at http://www.rlocman.ru/datasheet/data.html?di=35826&/MPXC2011DT1 (Accessed on 25 August 2008). ProSense Public Deliverable 34
  35. 35. ProSense Document: D4.1 (REGPOT-205494) Date: 30-08-2008 Appendices This section provides technical details of the common WSN equipment to be used in both laboratories (Appendix 1), specific WSN equipment to be used for the selected usage scenarios (Appendix 2) and some details on the necessary software resources (Appendix 3). Appendix :1 Specification of the common WSN equipment Introduction and classification of the available WSN equipment is presented in the subsection 2.2 of the deliverable report. This Appendix gives advanced description of the different sensor nodes and their potential use. Sun SPOT Manufacturer: SUN Microsystems Developed at: SUN Price: EUR 627 for Sun SPOT Development Kit Figure 18 : Sun SPOT Description: Sun SPOT are a specific kind of sensor nodes with larger processing ability, which allows them to use a Java virtual machine (Squawk) instead of a special purpose operating system. This allows for an easier programming model compared to other reviewed motes. Sun SPOTs do not support ZigBee directly, but they use an 802.15.4 MAC layer (the same as ZigBee), which means that ZigBee might be implemented with a software add-on, thus enabling connectivity with other ZigBee-using nodes. However, the large processing power might mean that Sun SPOTs use up their battery quicker than other nodes [14]. Potential use: Due to relative ease of programming and possibly short battery life, SUN Spots are probably best used in a classroom setting as an educational tool. Other use might be to develop a proof-of-concept for an application quickly and easily. BTnode rev 3 Manufacturer: Art of Technology, Zurich, Switzerland Developed at: ETH Zurich Price: - 165 EUR for samples - 520 EUR for Developer Kit (2 BTnodes rev3, 1 usbprog rev2, 1 Atmel ATAVRISP MK2 ProSense Public Deliverable 35

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