Cargotags_Background..

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Cargotags_Background..

  1. 1. Micropower Active Tags for Supply Chain Management Matt Malinowski Responsive Environments
  2. 2. New Directives in Shipping/Logistics <ul><li>Container Security Initiative/Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (Jan/Apr 2002) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moves customs inspections further upstream </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Documentation of packing and loading </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Advanced Manifest Rule (Feb 2003) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cargo data must be submitted to U.S. Customs 24 hours in advance—focuses inspections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eventually to be submitted electronically </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Additional Concerns <ul><li>Inventory Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better estimate of lead times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent shortages/overstock </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supply Chain “Transparency” and “Visibility” </li></ul>
  4. 4. Private-Sector Responses <ul><li>Smart and Secure Tradelanes (Jul 2003) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaboration between three largest port operators to automate port security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic tracking and identification of cargo entering U.S. ports </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Implemented as Electronic Seals on Shipping Containters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Active RFID tags on container doors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Associated passive and active technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Security Integrated into Supply Chain </li></ul>
  5. 5. Synnergy <ul><li>Passive RFID </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Applied to items/crates in factory for identification and tracking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Associated with container active tag upon loading: “virtual container” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Active Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gateways/beacons send location information via short-range, low-frequency RF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active tags record and communicate this information back to readers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linked to GPS/OmniTrac for real-time monitoring </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Platform 1: Savi SensorTag ST-676 <ul><li>Sensors: door open, light, temperature, vibration, humidity </li></ul><ul><li>RF links: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>433.92 Mhz, ~ 100m </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>123 kHz, ~ 4m </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Storage: 32 kB </li></ul><ul><li>Power: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3.6 V replaceable Li </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 years at 2 samples/day </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Platform 2: Sensitech TempTaleRF <ul><li>Sensors: temperature </li></ul><ul><li>RF links: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>915 Mhz, ~ 100m </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Storage: 2 kB </li></ul><ul><li>Power: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Battery lasts 1 year </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. My Proposed Design <ul><li>TI MSP430 µController (0.2μA, $3) </li></ul><ul><li>Philips PCF8563T Real-time Clock (0.25μA, $0.82) </li></ul><ul><li>Chipcon CC2500 Transceiver (0.4μA, $2.45) </li></ul><ul><li>LTC1540 Comparator (0.3μA, $1.65) </li></ul><ul><li>Sensors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MSI Vibratab ($1.25) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kyocera PSAC ($1) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensirion SHT-11 ($17) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reed switch? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phototransistor? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RF wakeup? </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Advantages <ul><li>Smaller and cheaper platform allows item- and crate-level tagging </li></ul><ul><li>Lower power consumption extends battery life </li></ul><ul><li>Better granularity of measurements </li></ul><ul><li>Less bias compared with door-mounted sensor </li></ul>
  10. 10. Not Just Tags: A Sensor Network <ul><li>Multihop communication between tags </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No need to scan each object/crate individually—objects scan each other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constant monitoring of cargo, not just at read points </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verification of suspicious sensor readings across network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clock synchronization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other? </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Timeline <ul><li>Now </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Background research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Part selection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spring 2006 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design/construction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Summer 2006 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Testing/redesign </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fall 2006 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Further tests/writing </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. References <ul><li>Lee, H.L. and Whang S., “Higher Supply Chain Security with Lower Cost: Lessons from Total Quality Management”, Int J Prod Econ. 96 (2005). </li></ul><ul><li>“ Savi SensorTag ST-676 Datasheet”, (Unpublished), Jan 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Integrated RF-enabled Temperature Monitoring Infrastructure”, http://www.sensitech.com/applications/coldstream_pts/ColdStream_Infra_DataSheet.pdf, Mar 2006. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Savi Transportation Security System”, (Unpublished), 2004. </li></ul>

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