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  • I don’t know too much about Technology, let alone Advanced technology but my waistline qualifies me to work in FAT.
  • Stays with = Data Carrier Part of = Feature extraction. Accuracy – Have you ever had a tin of baked beans identified as Cornflakes on your Tesco bill?
  • Speed – A pallet of beer kegs can ALL be read at once at the speed a fork lift passes the reader. I.E. the pallet tag, AND all the individual tags. Economics – Toshiba has adopted a similar technique and reduced handling time by 75% and booking costs by 40%
  • Size and Shape might be unique, or at least rare enough for identification purposes
  • This is not an exhaustive list of either technologies or application areas These can be mix and match more than one technology can be combined into varying applications.
  • Biometrics for access control can be used in any one of those sectors.
  • The diagram shows data flowing SERIALLY between the functions Which means any data required in succeeding stages must be carried through from preceding stages. Excessive use of keyboards increases chances of error.
  • Data picked as and when needed from Central Pool Eliminate keying to reduce error rate Use of technology such as Smart Labels on despatches RFID and bar codes Digital Pen & Paper where applicable Data can also be captured directly from such devices as Programmable Logic Controllers which may be automatically linked to M/C counters, measuring devices etc.
  • Wide Range – will concentrate only on a few of the more common technologies
  • The tag only contains an identifier which links to a database of some kind for further information. For example car index numbers uniquely identify a car, but only when you link to Swansea can it relate the number to make, model, colour, engine size, registered owner etc. In retail this would be the back office computer where the bar code would “unlock” the description, price and any “offer” details
  • Advantages Cheap Easy Widely used and understood Problems are Limited Storage capacity Delicate Needs line of sight AND orientation
  • EAN (European Article Number) – GTIN (Global Trade Item Number) 14 digit number issued centrally (usually in chunks to specific manufacturers to UNIQUELY identify an item group i.e. 16 ounce tin Heinz baked beans – not each tin. Acts as a licence plate to unlock “back office” for price, multi-buy data etc. at till. Also used in stock control, if used in conjunction with a loyalty card stored in “data warehouse” for data mining.
  • Advantages Cheap Easy Widely used and understood Problems are Limited Storage capacity Delicate Needs line of sight AND orientation
  • Advantages over linear codes Orientation High density 2000 ch in space of a postage stamp Scaleable – can print small area/low capacity up to about postage stamp size. Contrast – can be read when only 20% contrast. Integrated Error detection and correction Data Redundancy up to 20% can be damaged but still readable. The use of this technology was prompted by the poor logistics the USA had during the first gulf war, their logistics are now much better
  • Especially useful for remote workers such as social workers, delivery drivers etc.
  • People are used to filling out forms little training required. “I don’t know of any other system that can provide so much information from a guy with a shovel standing by the side of the road”. – Nuttall
  • Other examples are Mass transit tickets which only deduct from a single top up. These can be much cheaper media than plastic cards and can be produced for as little as 10 pence. Benefits are less cash with driver, quicker entry at stops.
  • No line of sight means harsh environments, e.g. snow, smoke. Can be read through box, no need to directionalise product on line.
  • Veri-chip 11mm long can go under the skin and be read from about 1 Metre.
  • 1 – General Principle shows antennae and chip 2 – Variety of tags typical of those used in automation 3 – Air France baggage tag 4 – Typical Smart Label used on parcel deliveries 5 - Electronic Product Code Tag 6 – Matching device where it will be impossible to join two incompatible lines together .
  • url is Uniform resource Locator, strictly this should be called a uri Uniform Resource Identifier generally speaking it is a web location.
  • Stays with = Data Carrier Part of = Feature extraction.
  • Again – many potential technologies
  • The one absolutely unique identifier is of course DNA, but at present at least it cannot be measured quickly enough to use as an identifier, (watch this space). Finger print recognition can include temperature sensors too eliminate the possibility of using an unattached finger. The one that cracks me up is Gait where it comes up with the world shattering news that stride length is a function of height
  • Detection taggants are solvent based chemicals which evaporate very slowly and emit detectable odours. Chemical noses or dogs can be trained to “sniff” them out Post Explosive taggants are polymer chain chemicals which stay intact after an explosion, and are changed with every batch.
  • Major turn around Stuart Rose has put it down largely to advances in the supply chain.
  • Shown 1 reader – quite possible there is one per door. The tags used are permanently attached to the crates, and are therefore blanked after use and re-written when next filled. The reader MAY write store location to tag and use RFID readers at output bay to divert, or may use simple count and mechanical methods
  • The US Food & Drug Administration claim that An estimated 44,000 to 98,000 Americans die each year NOT from the medical conditions they checked in with, but from preventable medical errors But the numbers in the report don't tell the whole story, its authors acknowledge. People in the hospital are just a small proportion of those at risk. Doctors' offices, clinics, and outpatient surgical centres treat thousands of patients each day; retail pharmacies fill countless prescriptions; and nursing homes and other institutional settings serve vulnerable patient populations.
  • Michelin put tags in tyres and these can be linked to the VIN of the automobile. Do you want your car broadcasting your every move. Garment Tagging – Some garments may be tagged instead of bar coded, and the tag may not be removed, or even de-activated when purchased The tag can be read at a distance without knowledge If the garment was paid for by credit card or added to a loyalty card the garment could be traced to an individual. As it was put at a US senate hearing “ How would you like it if your underwear was reporting on your whereabouts” Gillette experiment at Tesco in Cambridge, automatically photographed anyone removing a tagged item from the shelf to deter shoplifting.
  • Impossible aim. There are always changes in technology, or changes in the process used which mean it is a moving target. (just like the pig)
  • This is obviously NOT aimed at the attendees, the very fact that they are there means that they have OPEN MINDS. Ask them to go forth and be missionaries on our behalf, talk to their suppliers mention us at the 19 th – If you really want to have an effect just say CEQM at the top of your opponents backswing Invite us to present at any employers organisations they may belong to - on ERP or Quality or both. Tell your wives or partners about us, the word will spread even quicker. (Forgive the stereotyping)
  • AIDClong.ppt

    1. 1. National AIDC Centre for Wales Faculty of Advanced Technology AIDC Centre for Wales Automatic Identification and Data Capture (AIDC) Hywel Williams *
    2. 2. AIDC Centre for Wales What is the biggest single barrier to advancement in IT? <ul><li>Slow, (QWERTY) inaccurate, subject to human frailty </li></ul><ul><li>We need a way of getting rid of the keyboard, either </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce the volume of information we collect OR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automate the capture of as much data as possible </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. AIDC Centre for Wales Background <ul><li>AIDC is a huge topic encompassing many technologies, and used in thousands of different applications. </li></ul><ul><li>AIDC is never an end in itself, but a means to an end. Both the identification and the data capture have to be done for a reason. </li></ul><ul><li>Direct data capture is the lubricant within IT systems. Modern IT systems use so much data that it would be impossible to run them as keyboard operations, both from a volume and accuracy point of view. </li></ul><ul><li>My personal preferred term is Intelligent Data Capture </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligent Data Capture is now all around us, and forms an increasing part of our lives </li></ul>
    4. 4. AIDC Centre for Wales Think of something as routine as a supermarket visit <ul><li>All the products (except some weighable items) are bar coded </li></ul><ul><li>The shelf edge labels are bar coded </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive items have RFID tags which have to be removed </li></ul><ul><li>The Anti-Theft gates at the exit are based on RFID </li></ul><ul><li>The Credit card you pay with has RFID chip and/or magnetic data </li></ul><ul><li>Loyalty cards have magnetic identification or sometimes bar codes </li></ul><ul><li>Has the potential for beneficial use </li></ul><ul><li>Has the potential for intrusive use </li></ul>
    5. 5. AIDC Centre for Wales Some form of Identity which “stays with” or is “part of” the entity it aims to identify and the ability to read and process that identity Wide range of technologies and application areas, but all exhibit certain characteristics. <ul><li>Accuracy – the technology has extremely low error rates on reading or transmitting codes (virtually nil) . </li></ul><ul><li>Keying errors 1:300 </li></ul><ul><li>OCR errors 1:30,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Bar Code errors 1:3,000,000 (3 Million) </li></ul><ul><li>RFID errors 1:10,000,000 (10 Million) </li></ul>What is Automatic Identification and Data Capture?
    6. 6. AIDC Centre for Wales 2. Speed of data availability – faster than any manual input, thousands of characters can be read every second. Also very often data can be captured while either the goods or the reader are moving. 3. Economics – the speed and accuracy of data collection over manual methods result in greater customer satisfaction, and rapid payback . 4. Versatility – Almost every type of situation requiring recording or measuring will have an answer somewhere within the technology Characteristics (Continued)
    7. 7. AIDC Centre for Wales <ul><li>There are dozens of differing technologies and a myriad of devices which fall within the scope of Automatic Identification & Data Capture but there only two basic classifications: </li></ul><ul><li>Data Carrier :- Sometimes known as “item attendant identification” a device or tag which belongs with or is attached to in some way to the object to be identified. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages:- cost, often relatively simple technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantages:- some carriers can become detached </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Feature Extraction :- An inherent unique feature of the article maybe isolated and used as an identifier. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages:- integral part of the object – can’t be detached </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantages:- can be expensive and highly technical </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. AIDC Centre for Wales Take a moment to think of some:- Technologies Applications
    9. 9. AIDC Centre for Wales Road Tolling Vision Systems Security & Access Control Biometrics Inventory Control Car Keys Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Fraud Prevention Smart (Swipe) Card Document Processing Digital Pen & Paper Asset/Animal Tracking Optical Mark Reading Process Automation Optical Character Reading Total Traceability 2D (Matrix) Bar Codes F M Consumer Goods Linear Bar Codes Applications…. Technologies….
    10. 10. AIDC Centre for Wales <ul><li>Industry Sectors </li></ul><ul><li>Retail – bar codes, anti-theft (RFID), payment methods (swipe cards) </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing – bar codes, RFID process control </li></ul><ul><li>Logistics & Transport – bar codes, RFID </li></ul><ul><li>Healthcare – bar codes, 2D bar codes, RFID </li></ul><ul><li>Social Care – Digital Pen & Paper, RFID </li></ul><ul><li>Warehouse Management Systems – bar codes, RFID </li></ul><ul><li>Security – RFID Biometrics Swipe Cards </li></ul><ul><li>Pharmaceuticals – bar codes, 2D barcodes, RFID </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture – Animal Tagging </li></ul>Wherehouse
    11. 11. AIDC Centre for Wales <ul><li>Historical Milestones </li></ul><ul><li>1949 -- the first barcode is invented (patent 1952) </li></ul><ul><li>1959 -- first wildlife radio tags </li></ul><ul><li>1967 -- first retail barcode scanning system (little used at first) </li></ul><ul><li>1975 -- anti-theft material tags appear in libraries and stores </li></ul><ul><li>1984 – 1989 10 fold increase in retail bar code use </li></ul><ul><li>1980 -- RFID is invented </li></ul><ul><li>1990 -- Automobile toll-collection tags appear </li></ul><ul><li>1997 -- first all-polymer IC tag demonstrated </li></ul><ul><li>1997 to present day -- Increasing use as tag prices fall and application areas grow </li></ul><ul><li>Estimated growth from $300M in 2004 to $3Billion in 2009 </li></ul>“ AIDC is without doubt a source to be exploited by those intent on winning, and a competitive threat to those who choose to ignore it or are unaware of its potential”. (Patricia Hewitt when Secretary of State for the DTI) Booh!!
    12. 12. AIDC Centre for Wales Common Excuses in the Supply Chain I can assure you your shipment is on the water Your shipment is waiting to be released Your order is being put onboard as we speak Your goods have just left the loading dock
    13. 13. Traditional Data Flow in Primary Activities GRN Data Despatch Note POD &Invoicing Based on Michael Porters Value chain – Primary Activities only Imagine therefore the permutations and the amount of keying necessary when secondary activities such as HR, Development, Procurement, Accounting etc. are added AIDC Centre for Wales
    14. 14. Integrated View Using Automatic Identification and Data Capture Data Pool GRN Data Despatch Note POD &Invoicing AIDC Centre for Wales This integrated view owes much to an Enterprise Resource Planning approach to IT, but would still be impractical with manual collection methods.
    15. 15. AIDC Centre for Wales Data Carrier Technology Three Basic Types Optical Magnetic Electronic
    16. 16. AIDC Centre for Wales <ul><li>Data Carrier:- Three basic types </li></ul><ul><li>Optical:- A range of technologies all of which are read by some form of reflected light source, often some form of laser beam. </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetic :- Various technologies, the most common being the “brown bar” on credit cards and hotel keys etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic :- Most common are RFID tags. These can have a whole range of formats, and technologies, ranging from simple read only tags which may be little more than bar code replacement, to sophisticated rewriteable tags which can be used as decision flags within automated production lines. </li></ul>
    17. 17. AIDC Centre for Wales Optical Data Carriers <ul><li>Two Main Types of Optical Carrier – all need line of sight to read them </li></ul><ul><li>1 Linear Bar Code (Licence Plate Technology – have to be read uni-directional) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Retail Codes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General Codes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi Row Bar Code </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2 Two Dimensional Codes (Can be self contained can be Omni-directional) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Matrix Code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PDF417 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GS1 Data Bar Composites </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. AIDC Centre for Wales Optical Data Carriers Linear Bar Codes <ul><li>In use since the 1970’s especially in retailing. Very simple to print either on to special labels or direct on to product or immediate packaging. </li></ul><ul><li>Need to be read by a line of sight reader which may be fixed, semi-fixed or portable. Supermarkets use X lasers to compensate for angular presentation. </li></ul>
    19. 19. AIDC Centre for Wales Global Trade Identity Number (GTIN) numbering system this replaces what was known as EAN (European Article Number) and UPC (American equivalent Universal Product Code) In retailing every product sold to the public which carries a bar code is unique and centrally registered worldwide with a group of organisations under the GS1 umbrella. Each country has its own organisation but they work to a common standard. It is a 14 digit number the format of which varies a bit but basically, the first part of the number identifies the manufacturer, and the second identifies the product within that manufacturer. The final digit is always a check digit. Companies with a large product range have a short company identifier leaving room for lots of products, whilst companies with smaller product ranges may have longer company id’s but shorter product codes. Codes with 50 as first 2 digits are registered in UK. Retail Numbering Systems
    20. 20. General Linear Bar Codes Wide range of symbologies in existence the most common being 3 of 9 and 128. Optical Data Carriers Low capacity up to about 50 characters. Some symbologies can accommodate alpha, numeric, and special characters. Wide range of affordable hardware available, some specialised, some can be general purpose, e.g. print bar codes direct on documents using laser printer Used extensively in document tracking through production areas, in warehouse management systems and also in logistics for “pallet labelling” 1234567 1234567 Very easy to use most systems you just install a special font
    21. 21. AIDC Centre for Wales Example of 3 of 9 Bar Codes on a Dye House Route Card, 1 per operation
    22. 22. AIDC Centre for Wales <ul><li>Multi-row bar codes:- series of linear barcodes stacked one on top of the other. Label must “pass” under reader for each line to be read. Data can be appended (like word wrap) to carry more data. Often found on “outers”. </li></ul>Optical Data Carriers
    23. 23. AIDC Centre for Wales 2-D Dimensional Bar Codes – (Matrix) <ul><li>Matrix Codes:- Consist of a block of cells, which are filled with “mini bar codes”, can be interpreted and translated into blocks of up to 2000 characters. The borders act as “registration” so that code can be read in any orientation </li></ul>UID – DoD Identity on everything supplied to US Armed Forces <ul><ul><li>Many product marking methods: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Printing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Laser </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Punching, drilling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Embossing, dot peen </li></ul></ul></ul>2. Up to 2 Kb of information – often enough to carry all data (no need for lookup) 3. Data redundancy and error correction mean code can survive a certain degree of damage 4. Low contrast patterns can be read 5. Omni directional in that border provides registration Example is 8 x 8 i.e. 6 x 6 useable. Factorial 6 = 720 x 6 rows Full Code
    24. 24. AIDC Centre for Wales 2- Dimensional Bar Codes (Matrix Codes) The technique is widely used in Direct Part Marking. Useable in hostile environments Shows a 2D bar code dot peened on a brake calliper of a car. Can also be used on pistons laser etched on piston top and dot peened on the side Marks can be very small, the example shows a 2D matrix on a pin head
    25. 25. AIDC Centre for Wales 2-D Dimensional Bar Codes (Others) PDF 417 - An alternative 2D system which can be considered as multiple rows of linear bar codes (between 3 and 90). Has much the same advantages as 2D Matrix, can be read from bottom up or top down. Sound Carrier – Dolby films carry all the sound for each frame as a dot matrix block held between the sprocket holes of the film GS1 Data Bar Composite Code – Combines 1D and 2D elements in a single code. Not very widely used, partly because as it’s not universal not all scanners can read this symbology.
    26. 26. AIDC Centre for Wales 2-D Dimensional Bar Codes (Others) <ul><li>Maxi Code – used by United Parcel Service (UPS) Standard size 1.1inches square. Registers around 3 concentric circles in the middle of the code. Holds up to 128 characters </li></ul><ul><li>Code 1 – Alternative little used code. Various standards and sizes of code exist </li></ul><ul><li>Aztec Code – Identified by Registration around 3 concentric squares in middle of the code. Can hold up to 4,000 text </li></ul><ul><li>QR Code- Can hold 4000 text, 7,000 digits or almost 2000 Japanese and Chinese codes as well as English text and digits </li></ul>
    27. 27. AIDC Centre for Wales Other Optical Methods <ul><li>Optical Character Readers – Originally special stylised fonts either OCR-A or OCR-B Best known on bank cheques. </li></ul><ul><li>Can now read text from a scanned document (Omnipage etc) but not accurately enough to collect data for decision making. </li></ul><ul><li>Optical Mark Readers – extension of punch cards – best known example is Lotto. The lottery till has to be capable of reading five different “masks”, for the different games </li></ul>
    28. 28. AIDC Centre for Wales Digital Pen & Paper – a unique combination of technologies The camera photographs the handwriting at 100 fps, either the image is sent to the phone via bluetooth or the pen is plugged into the cradle, in either case the image is passed on to the server, where it “overlays” the master. It can then be stored as an image, and also translated to text using very sophisticated context sensitive handwriting recognition. This is far more accurate than conventional OCR text recognition
    29. 29. AIDC Centre for Wales Digital Pen & Paper – Typical Applications Remote Service Engineers – Well designed forms can be little more than tick boxes, but can a) record details of the call, and b) be used to trigger despatch of replacement parts c)T&A Delivery Drivers – No need for multi part sets of POD. The customer can sign and keep the original, electronic copy retained on line – no need for expensive PDA’s etc. Exhibitions – Can record all enquiries and book them straight in to CRM system Major User - Leeds City Council have 1500 workers on home visits, social workers, carers etc. each with their own pen. System allows mileage, time sheets etc to be kept. Savings identified of £1.2M per year. Cheaper and less risky than PDA’s or laptops.
    30. 30. AIDC Centre for Wales Magnetic Data Carriers <ul><li>Magnetic Stripe:- </li></ul><ul><li>Widely used on credit cards, debit cards, loyalty cards, hotel door keys etc. Durable and fairly cheap. Low storage capacity. Chip and Pin uses RFID instead of the magnetic strip </li></ul><ul><li>Also widely used as access control devices. </li></ul><ul><li>Form the basis of many Time & Attendance systems including Job Time Logs </li></ul><ul><li>Smart Cards are an extension of this technology, which are chip based, and have read/write properties and larger storage potential. Cashless Systems, like the Oyster Card is an example which is capable of top up, and balance retention. These systems hold data on the card rather than in a remote database. </li></ul>*
    31. 31. AIDC Centre for Wales Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) <ul><li>The term covers a range of devices from simple licence plate systems, up to complex tags capable of integration to GPS systems for satellite tracking. Also often used to maintain information “on-board” rather than just link to other computer records. </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages over bar codes:- Do not need line of sight, Can hold far more data, Data more secure (smudging) Data can be read/write and added to, Can be read much faster. Can be used in harsh environments e.g. smoke, snow, or heat </li></ul><ul><li>System consists of two parts, a transponder and a transceiver. The transceiver emits a signal to which the transponder responds, which in turn is picked up by the transceiver. The system was first invented 1939 to distinguish between friendly and enemy aircraft. </li></ul><ul><li>High growth area as costs of tags and readers reduce, and as software becomes more available. </li></ul><ul><li>RFID can be classified as:- chipped or chip-less, active or passive, and frequency in which they operate. </li></ul>Bar Codes have changed our lives over the past 20 years, the next 20 will be changed even more by the uptake of RFID Electronic Data Carriers
    32. 32. AIDC Centre for Wales Outline Principles of RFID Handheld Option Static Option Wake up call Response RF signal converted to power (Faradays Law) Key
    33. 33. AIDC Centre for Wales RFID V Bar Code Can modify tag during its life Can be RW WORM Read Write Real Time data access Up to several Kbytes Limited to about 50 Characters Data Storage Targeted recall Can be to unique item level Generally only to type or group Identification Error free inventory count Can be fully automated, and very accurate Problematic in terms of automated presentation Automation and Accuracy Very fast inventory count Many One Number of items that can be scanned No need to orientate item Not Required Required Line of sight requirement RFID Benefit RFID Bar Code Technology Capability
    34. 34. AIDC Centre for Wales Chipped Tags <ul><li>Passive Tags </li></ul><ul><li>No internal power supply. The “chip” needs to become excited, which it does by means of a radio signal sent out from the reader. The internal Arial is designed to generate enough power from the signal to activate the chip and then to transmit a signal back to the reader. The tag can contain information other than just its number. The read only memory can have data added to it (usually only once at creation). Read distances only a metre or so. </li></ul><ul><li>They come in all shapes and sizes dependant upon the application to which they will be put </li></ul><ul><li>Can be VERY small 0.4mm X 0.4mm and thinner than paper (about a grain of sand) </li></ul>
    35. 35. AIDC Centre for Wales <ul><li>Active Tags – (Beacons) </li></ul><ul><li>They use an internal power supply to generate an outgoing signal, sometimes continuously sometimes at fixed intervals. </li></ul><ul><li>Transmission range up to 100 metres and battery life up to 10 years. </li></ul>Chipped Tags Semi Passive – Have a small battery to reduce the need of the Antennae to act as power source, but still only respond when tag reader “wakes them up”
    36. 36. AIDC Centre for Wales Tags come in all shapes and sizes depending on the use to which they will be put
    37. 37. AIDC Centre for Wales Storage Capabilities <ul><li>There are 3 basic types of chip </li></ul><ul><li>Read Only – these have their identity number “hard wired” in during manufacture, no other data can ever be added, but they can be read many times. Can only be used as licence plates </li></ul><ul><li>Write Once Read Many (WORM) – these have an identity hard wired during manufacture, but are capable of having more data added once only at the first application. For example maybe a batch number or a product code </li></ul><ul><li>Read/Write – these are fully accessible to readers and writers. They have a unique id at manufacture, but also areas on the chip which can be added to and/or overwritten. For example in process control the chip could be modified after each process to indicate success, and then once all process are completed it can be totally overwritten for its next use. </li></ul>
    38. 38. AIDC Centre for Wales RFID Frequencies RFID Tags are available in a range of frequencies, each of which have their particular advantages and disadvantages, and it is CRITICAL the right one is chosen to match the application, e.g. read distance, cost, read/write ability <ul><li>Low Frequency (125 – 134 KHz) </li></ul><ul><li>High Frequency (13.56MHz) </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra High Frequency (850-950MHz) </li></ul><ul><li>Microwave (2.45 – 5.8GHz) </li></ul>Speed Distance Cost Throw Away Re-use
    39. 39. AIDC Centre for Wales Fast moving objects, road tolls, high speed automation Asset Tracking Supply chain logistics Tracking Systems baggage handling Access Control Animal Identification Typical Applications Dependant on capacity of chip Similar to HF, target set for bulk at 5C US As little as 40 pence Depends on complexity but pence Cost Op Temp -25C to +70C Usually specifically designed Op temp -25C to +70C Op temp -40C to +85C Robustness Up to 30M for active tags Up to 100M usually lower 1.2M for R/W slightly more for RO Near contact for passive 2M for Active Range Depends on volume of data Similar to HF 2Msec can read 400/sec 0.1 sec – 0.5 sec Read Time 100Kb up to 1Mb Similar to HF 25Kb up to 100Kb 200bits/sec up to 1Kb/sec Transfer Rate 128bit up to 32Kb Similar to HF 512bit up to 8Kb 64bit RO up to 2Kb RW Data Capacity Microwave 2.45 – 5.8GHz U H F 433, 860 or 928 MHz High Frequency 13.56MHz Low Frequency <135KHz Attribute
    40. 40. AIDC Centre for Wales Chip-less Tags (Polymer Integrated Circuits) A development area currently A tag will be developed with just enough “intelligence” built in to a circuit that can be printed using special conductive inks that a separate silicon IC will not be required. Low cost, Low data capacity Low range (often near contact), but more rugged than silicon based equivalents. To replace chipped tags as a carrier for the Electronic Product Code (EPC) which would be a bit like current GS1 bar codes in that a world wide universal code is developed for all products. Instead of details being replicated on every “back office system” the EPC tag can pick up detail from the internet as it carries a url.
    41. 41. AIDC Centre for Wales Contact (or Button) Memory:- 1. Robust data carriers up to 64K of memory. Basically the device is an EEPROM (Electronically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory. They can contain up to 40 A4 pages of text for up to 100 Years. Used a lot by the military. Need a “probe” to read them externally, but can be integrated into bigger systems. Other Electronic Systems (1)
    42. 42. AIDC Centre for Wales <ul><li>GPS/GPRS systems – used extensively for vehicle tracking </li></ul><ul><li>The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a receiver, which picks up signals from 3 satellites and triangulates position. </li></ul><ul><li>The General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) modem transmits data via a mobile phone provider to a computer in real time, including the latitude and longitude derived from GPS. </li></ul><ul><li>The computer system can superimpose the data onto a Geographical Information System (GIS) to locate the vehicle </li></ul><ul><li>Simple systems are used to track “stolen” vehicles – car is constantly outputting signal, but only listened for when reported stolen. </li></ul><ul><li>More sophisticated systems can be used to monitor petrol consumption, route optimisation etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Potential in future as the basis for mileage based insurance </li></ul>Other Electronic Systems (2) *
    43. 43. AIDC Centre for Wales Vision Systems <ul><li>Camera systems can be used in a variety of ways for example:- </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring product conformity – product on a line can be continually checked against a “standard” and corrective action taken when deviation occurs. </li></ul><ul><li>As part of a biometric system e.g. facial recognition or Iris recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Traffic Identification – recognise number plates for City congestion charges and possibly road tolls in the future. </li></ul>
    44. 44. AIDC Centre for Wales Feature Extraction Technology These systems depend on a property of the item itself, rather than data about the item
    45. 45. AIDC Centre for Wales Person Based Systems (Biometrics) <ul><li>Facial Recognition – key co-ordinates of faces are recorded and compared </li></ul><ul><li>Handwriting Recognition – used forensically, but now in use on PDA’s and tablet PC’s. </li></ul><ul><li>Speech Recognition – Record and compare sound as wave patterns. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Patterns – e.g. iris recognition, finger print recognition, hand geometry and vasculature – can be used in conjunction with other means, e.g. smartcards* </li></ul><ul><li>Gait – Step length, walking speed, joint rotation are combined to a pattern for comparison. </li></ul><ul><li>DNA – Who goes on the database? </li></ul>*
    46. 46. AIDC Centre for Wales Substance Based recognition <ul><li>Physical or Chemical properties of substances can be used to identify “batches” </li></ul><ul><li>Inert trace elements may be added to chemicals in varying strengths to identify the source and batch. Classic example being detection taggants and post explosive taggants which allow tracking of plastic explosives via chromatography </li></ul><ul><li>Inherent unique properties may be used for example the use of a “chemical nose”. Substance specific sensors are used to measure ammonia, SO 2 etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Emission sensors – e.g. thermal images can be compared against stored patterns to detect some substances </li></ul>
    47. 47. AIDC Centre for Wales Application & Integration of AIDC <ul><li>All the technologies require some form of reader and or writer, and some form of interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>Bar Codes – need printers (special or general) need readers, handheld or permanent even matrix codes are relatively simple </li></ul><ul><li>RFID – need more electronics, including software level to unscramble messages </li></ul><ul><li>Feature systems – require cameras or other sensors </li></ul><ul><li>ALL require IT systems to both provide them with data and to accept the received data and sensibly process it into meaningful information – AIDC is nothing without IT. </li></ul>
    48. 48. AIDC Centre for Wales Some Practical Examples
    49. 49. AIDC Centre for Wales Practical Example of Major Retail Chain moving from Bar Coding to RFID Clothing Food <ul><li>5 million tagged returnable trays </li></ul><ul><li>100 suppliers writing to tags </li></ul><ul><li>Read/Write 24 million trays per week </li></ul><ul><li>Each tag contains product code, use by date, supplier code, batch number – allowing full traceability </li></ul><ul><li>Cross docking warehouses drop trays from suppliers onto conveyors which are automatically labelled with the store and directed to the correct output bay. </li></ul>“Throw away tag” System now adopted in MOST M&S stores on high value items such as Men's Suits, Ladies jackets etc. Still to become cheap enough for underwear and socks etc.
    50. 50. AIDC Centre for Wales Reader Bay 1 Out Bay 2 Out Bay 3 Out Bay 4 Out From Bay1 In From Bay2 In From Bay3 In From Bay4 In Bay 1 – Potatoes Bay 2 – Sandwiches Bay 3 – Cauliflowers Bay 4 - Onions Bay 1 – Newport Bay 2 - Cribbs Causeway Bay 3 - Bristol Centre Bay 4 - Cardiff Bulk Deliveries of one product Single drop loads or small groups of shops of mixed products Advance Notification from supplier Orders from Store Allocation Program Verify Delivery & pick up allocation details Amend Allocations if Necessary Count Trays into output bays Modify roller path when count is met Automated Cross Dock Warehouse
    51. 51. AIDC Centre for Wales <ul><li>Some Other Examples:- </li></ul><ul><li>Airport security and baggage handling – bar codes, RFID and biometrics are all either in use or shortly to be put into use </li></ul><ul><li>London (and other ) Marathon – all runners have microchips to record their time </li></ul><ul><li>Ticketing Systems – All 2006 World Cup tickets had RFID tags which eliminated forged tickets. Also allowed traceability if touting of genuine tickets was reported. </li></ul>
    52. 52. AIDC Centre for Wales Healthcare * Unique identification of all surgical instruments with 2D bar codes makes tracking and recording of which instruments were used in which operations, which can be sterilised and which have to be discarded (CJD etc) All blood is identified by donor as well as blood type. Records need to be kept especially when blood is turned into other products like plasma etc when several bloods may be merged Which leg, right or left? Coded tags can eliminate notes mix up, and reduce the effect of poor handwriting and consequent mistakes
    53. 53. AIDC Centre for Wales The Power of ID in Healthcare Conference in Cardiff on Tuesday 30 th October jointly organised by ourselves and Informing Healthcare <ul><li>Morning will be split into:- </li></ul><ul><li>Background – i.e. putting AIDC in Context within Wales and Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>Technical Advances – smart cards RFID and other technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Afternoon session </li></ul><ul><li>Specific applications in Health Care sector including Community care </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion led by Informing Healthcare as to the future adoption of these technologies into the Welsh NHS </li></ul>
    54. 54. AIDC Centre for Wales <ul><li>Myths – a lot of myths exist around RFID tags in particular, about the loss of anonymity </li></ul><ul><li>You can be located anywhere by any random tag you may have. </li></ul><ul><li>Most retail tags are removed at the till, they have performed their function by then </li></ul><ul><li>Tags are usually part of the packaging rather than the item </li></ul><ul><li>You must be within 4 feet of a reader, the reader must be able to identify the tag, it then needs a link back to a database to tie your details up to the tag. A bit tenuous to say the least. </li></ul><ul><li>Cash – tagged Euro’s help counting avoid counterfeiting – traceable? No there is no link from you to the cash when you hand it over – unless of course you have to provide personal id for every transaction – then we would have to worry </li></ul>
    55. 55. <ul><li>If you ever visit an organisation that claims that they are making maximum use of AIDC technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Tell me I’d love to use them as a case study </li></ul><ul><li>Look out of the window </li></ul>AIDC Centre for Wales
    56. 56. <ul><li>Some people within organisations pretend that they have no applications which AIDC could streamline. That position is </li></ul><ul><li>Uncomfortable </li></ul><ul><li>Unsustainable </li></ul><ul><li>Its dangerous if anyone is looking for somewhere to park their bike </li></ul><ul><li>If you are a Welsh organisation, let us at the National AIDC Centre for Wales help you to see the future. Initial consultations are FOC to all Welsh organisations be they private or public, large or small, North or South </li></ul><ul><li>If you are outside Wales </li></ul><ul><li>Why not relocate – it’s good down here </li></ul><ul><li>If you can’t relocate, we should still be able to re-direct you </li></ul>
    57. 57. AIDC Centre for Wales Thank You very much for your attention, I hope that the chat has been somewhat informative. Website (English) (Cymraeg) Telephone 01443-654542 Email [email_address]
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