A Report on NISO's Work on RFID Standards in Libraries

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  • 1. A Report on NISO’s work on RFID Standards in Libraries Dr. Vinod Chachra Chairman, NISO Standards Committee on Library Applications of RFID CEO, VTLS Inc.
  • 2. VTLS Products Main VTLS Other In Beta Test Products VTLS Products Related to Virtua: 1. FRBR 2. URL Checker 3. SRU/SRW 4. Union Catalogs and Consortium Databases 5. Aqua Browser and other partner products Visionary Technology in Library Solutions
  • 3. Visionary Technology in Library Solutions
  • 4. VTLS is the first spin-off corporation from Virginia Tech VTLS does business in 36 countries VTLS has been working with RFID solutions for libraries for over eight years VTLS RFID library management software is now RFID hardware and tag supplier independent. www.vtls.com Visionary Technology in Library Solutions
  • 5. NISO RFID Standards Committee Following types of organizations are participating in the working group: 1. RFID hardware manufacturers 2. RFID solution providers (software and integration) 3. RFID Library users 4. Book jobbers/ book processors 5. Other related organizations Visionary Technology in Library Solutions
  • 6. Focus of NISO RFID Standards • RFID solutions run at several frequencies – Low – from 125KHz to 134KHz High – 13.56MHz Ultra High – 860-960 MHz Micro Wave – 2.45 GHz • NISO’s work is limited to Tags used in libraries – that is, tags operating at 13.56 MHz Visionary Technology in Library Solutions
  • 7. Focus of NISO Standards Group Four issues of importance were identified: 1. Privacy Issues and concerns 2. Support of functional capabilities 3. Performance efficiency 4. Cost considerations (total cost of ownership) Items 2 , 3 and 4 are linked and interdependent. Visionary Technology in Library Solutions
  • 8. First of Two Objectives Interoperability (from Whatis.com) Interoperability (pronounced IHN-tuhr-AHP-uhr-uh-BIHL-ih-tee) is the ability of a system or a product to work with other systems or products without special effort on the part of the customer. Interoperability becomes a quality of increasing importance for information technology products as the concept that "The network is the computer" becomes a reality. For this reason, the term is widely used in product marketing descriptions. Yesterday you heard about some of the interoperability concerns from Livia Bitner from Baker & Taylor. Visionary Technology in Library Solutions
  • 9. First of Two Objectives How is interoperability achieved? (whatis.com) Products achieve interoperability with other products using either or both of two approaches: By adhering to published interface standards By making use of a "broker" of services that can convert one product's interface into another product's interface "on the fly”. The first option is preferred. Visionary Technology in Library Solutions
  • 10. Second of Two Objectives Isolation More specifically, Vertical Application Isolation We do not want CDs purchased at a store trigger library security gates and library books to set off alarms at grocery stores. Application Family Identifiers may be useful here Visionary Technology in Library Solutions
  • 11. Approach taken by NISO Examine existing standards; Adopt what can be adopted Examine existing data models Address the four issues previously mentioned keeping the objectives in mind Create a “Best Practices” document by the end of 2006. Visionary Technology in Library Solutions
  • 12. ISO 18000 Standards 18000-1 Part 1 – Generic Parameters for the Air Interface for Globally Accepted Frequencies 18000-2 Part 2 – Parameters for Air Interface Communications below 135 kHz 18000-3 Part 3 – Parameters for Air Interface Communications at 13.56 MHz 18000-4 Part 4 – Parameters for Air Interface Communications at 2.45 GHz 18000-5 Part 5 – Parameters for Air Interface Communications at 5.8 GHz (Withdrawn) 18000-6 Part 6 – Parameters for Air Interface Communications at 860 to 930 MHz 18000-7 Part 7 – Parameters for Air Interface Communications at 433 MHz Visionary Technology in Library Solutions
  • 13. Scope of ISO 18000-3 “The scope of the ISO 18000-3 standard is to provide Physical Layer, Collision management System and Protocol Values for RFID Systems for Item Identification operating at 13.56 MHz in accordance with the requirements of ISO 18000-1” Some library vendors say they are ISO 18000 or ISO 18000-1 compliant instead of the more specific ISO 18000-3 compliant, but they mean the same thing. Visionary Technology in Library Solutions
  • 14. ISO 15693 The ISO 15693 specification has three main parts: Physical characteristics Signal Interface and Transmission Protocol It holds the promise of interoperability (at the technical level as mentioned by Alastair McArthur, TagSys) among different suppliers of RFID solutions ISO 15693 is not to be confused with ISO 15963 which is used for RFID for Item Management - Unique Identification of RF Tag (also read 15961 & 15962) Visionary Technology in Library Solutions
  • 15. Privacy Concerns Proper caution and concern raised by some privacy advocates … including EFF (Electronic Frontier Foundation) and by Deirdre Mulligan at the RFID meeting in Texas. Exaggerated concerns raised by some librarians. Issue is very sensitive for it can potentially cause privacy problems and/or possibly derail or slow down RFID implementations and/or add to the implementation costs Organizations like BISG, EFF and American Library Association, Center for Democracy and Technology (CDT Group) are providing leadership in this area. Visionary Technology in Library Solutions
  • 16. Book Industry Study Group (BISG) RFID Privacy Principles (This is a direct quote from the BISG web site) All businesses, organizations, libraries, educational institutions and non- profits that buy, sell, loan, or otherwise make available books and other content to the public utilizing RFID technologies shall: 1) Implement and enforce an up-to-date organizational privacy policy that gives notice and full disclosure as to the use, terms of use, and any change in the terms of use for data collected via new technologies and processes, including RFID. 2) Ensure that no personal information is recorded on RFID tags which, however, may contain a variety of transactional data. Visionary Technology in Library Solutions
  • 17. Book Industry Study Group (BISG) 3) Protect data by reasonable security safeguards against interpretation by any unauthorized third party. 4) Comply with relevant federal, state , and local laws as well as industry best practices and policies. 5) Ensure that the four principles outlined above must be verifiable by an independent audit. This policy has been developed and released by the Book Industry Study Group in cooperation with the American Library Association, Office of Information Technology and the Office for Intellectual Freedom, as well as the National Information Standards Organization Visionary Technology in Library Solutions
  • 18. Potential exposure from ILS In my opinion there is potentially greater exposure from ILS systems than from RFID systems (see paper “Personal Privacy and Use of RFID Technology in Libraries” at www.vtls.com) This exposure comes when circulation links between book and patron are not erased in order to a. gather library statistics b. record unpaid fines c. provide “value added services” d. support recovery functions Visionary Technology in Library Solutions
  • 19. RFID function related concerns Functions supported by RFID systems in libraries Self Checkouts including bulk checkouts Checkins and book drops Security functions (EAS Gates) Sortation functions Inventory functions Visionary Technology in Library Solutions
  • 20. RFID Security and Interoperability Three security methods used today AFI (Application Family Identifier) based security EAS (Electronic Article Surveillance) bit Database lookup Which method is NISO going to recommend? (STC) Allow all three methods to be used Insist on Interoperability Requirements Leave security as a place of differentiation among vendors Visionary Technology in Library Solutions
  • 21. Importance of AFI T h e A F I: A P o w e r fu l T o o l to S e le c t O n ly R e le v a n t T a g s Reader L ib ra rie s & IS O R F ID S ta n d a rd s June 2006 C o p y rig h t p ra x is c o n s u lta n ts ,2 0 0 6 Visionary Technology in Library Solutions
  • 22. RFID Security and Interoperability Requirements for interoperability Standard AFI Code for library applications for books checked out - code assigned by Keep the AFI code unlocked Standard AFI Code for library applications for books checked in (checked in books can use a locally assigned (locally as in USA) – but standard AFI code) Visionary Technology in Library Solutions
  • 23. Joint Application for AFI Code EDItEUR, NISO and Danish National Library are filing a joint application to JTC1/SC31 WG4 for the assignment and registration for a library specific AFI code to be used for books that are checked out. (Already done earlier this month – June 2006) Visionary Technology in Library Solutions
  • 24. The Data Model How much data should be placed on the RFID tags? There are two schools of thought -- 1. As little as possible (just an ID) 2. More in support of efficiency & performance - security data - sorting and shelving data - last use data for weeding and inventory - book title for finding lost books or for checkouts 3. The more the data the slower the tag read! Visionary Technology in Library Solutions
  • 25. The Danish Data Model It is an RFID data model for libraries. The data model has four parts: 1. Data elements 2. Values and range 3. Encoding and 4. Physical mapping. Click here to read the model Visionary Technology in Library Solutions
  • 26. NISO WG and the Danish Model Copy of the data model is available on the internet NISO working group is now studying the data model to see if The model meets the needs of USA RFID applications The models meets the needs of USA applications with some modifications A new model will have to be developed to meet our needs. Based on the outcome of the study a course of action for the future will be defined. This project in ongoing. Visionary Technology in Library Solutions
  • 27. Outline of NISO report Click here for Outline Visionary Technology in Library Solutions
  • 28. Thanks • To the conference organizers for inviting me here • To all of you for being here, being attentive and staying awake!! Parting thought “Go as far as you can see for you will be able to see farther when you get there” Source unknown Visionary Technology in Library Solutions