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  • Example of the command format of the microprocessor and SD card
  • command frame from host to card is a fixed length (six bytes) packet The command response time (NCR) is 0 to 8 bytes for SDC, 1 to 8 bytes for MMC The DI signal must be kept high during read transfer
  • Transcript

    • 1. Mike Loptien Kirk Spowart Mike Gauthiere Chris Reid Vincent Wu
    • 2.
      • Read an RFID tag from 10 feet
      • Implement WIFI capabilities
      • GPS integration
      • Use microcontroller
    • 3.
      • Current technology cannot read a passive tag from more than 5 inches
      • Active tags are generally encrypted and very hard to use
      • Active tags would require construction of our own antenna and reader hardware
      • Wifi too difficult for this semester alone
      • GPS too costly and not necessary for our project
    • 4.
      • Read a passive tag from 3-4 inches
      • Implement a touch screen and high-resolution display
      • Store data on an SD card
      • Audio output
      • NIOS II on Cyclone II FPGA
    • 5.
      • Grocery store: embed a passive tag in the price tags of items and store data about that item in the reader
      • Retail stores: similar idea
      • Museum: scan a tag near an exhibit to get info about it
      • Basically a good way to tie information to a physical object
    • 6.
      • ID-12
      • Passive tag reader
      • Max read range: 4”
      • Simple Circuit and data reading
    • 7.  
    • 8.  
    • 9.  
    • 10.  
    • 11.
      • Collision detection is handled by the ID-12
      • It only outputs data when it correctly reads and decodes a tag
    • 12.
      • Output on D1, pin 8
      • LED Control on LED, pin 10
      • Format Select on +/-, pin 7
      • 176 bits of output
    • 13.
      • Output is inverted
      • 176 bits at 9600 baud
      • 16 serial packets, 1 start bit, 8 data bit, 2 stop bits and 0 parity bits
      • Least significant bit first
      • Transmits ASCII characters
    • 14.  
    • 15.  
    • 16.  
    • 17.  
    • 18.  
    • 19.  
    • 20.
      • Checksum
      • XOR of all output packets
    • 21.
      • The Cyclone II
    • 22.
      • Up to 50MHz
      • Will contain the NIOS II, SPI bus, Graphics controller, and RFID translation logic
      • Cyclone II has good documentation, good supporting software, good expandability
    • 23.
      • Implemented on the Cyclone II FPGA
      • Fully customizable processor
      • Customizable onboard RAM
      • C compatible through the Altera IDE
    • 24.
      • Used to control data input and output
      • Video controller
      • RFID input analyzer
      • SD interface
      • Programmed through USB blaster
      • SPI bus, UARTs, Ram, Interrupt Priority, Custom Pin selection
    • 25.  
    • 26.  
    • 27.
      • COM : Common - Connects to the housing
      • WP : Write Protect Detect Switch
      • CD : Card Detect Switch
      • P9 : Not used in SPI mode (Pin 9 on SD Card)
      • IRQ : Not used in SPI mode (Pin 8 on SD Card)
      • DO : Serial Data Out
      • GND : Ground - Connect this to
      • COM to ground the housing
      • CLK : Serial Clock
      • VCC : 3.3V Power
      • DI : Serial Data In
      • CS : Chip Select
    • 28.
      • Standard Capacity SD Memory Card: Up to and including 2 GB
      • High Voltage SD Memory Card – Operating voltage range: 2.7-3.6 V
      • Default mode: Variable clock rate 0 - 25 MHz, up to 12.5 MB/sec interface speed (using 4 parallel data lines)
      • Card removal during read operation will never harm the content
      • Built-in write protection features (permanent and temporary)
      • Card Detection (Insertion/Removal)
    • 29.
      • Learn to communicate with SD/MMC on Altera Board
      • Connect our own SD/MMC breakout board and communicate
    • 30.
      • Six-wire communication channel
      • (clock, command, 4 data lines)
      • Error-protected data transfer
      • Single or Multiple block oriented data transfer
    • 31.
      • When reading and writing to the SD card, the key problem is timing. The program must adhere to strict read/write timing to read and write data to/from the SD card.
      • Read Timing
      • Write Timing
      Code Description S Start bit (= 0) T Transmitter bit (Host = 1; Card = 0) P One-cycle pull-up (= 1) E End bit (= 1) Z High impedance state (-> = 1) Code Description D Data bits X Don’t care data bits (from SD card) * Repetition CRC Cyclic redundancy code bits (7 bits) Gray / White Card Active / Host Active
    • 32.
      • Command from host to card is fixed 6 bytes packet
      • NCR-Command Time Response 0-8 bytes for SD
      • DI signal must be kept high during read transfer
      • When a command frame is transmitted to the card, a response to the command will be sent back to the host
    • 33.  
    • 34.
      • One or more data blocks will be sent/received after command response
      • Data block is transferred as a data packet that consist of Token, Data Block and CRC
      • Stop Tran token means the end of multiple block write, it is used in single byte without data block and CRC
    • 35. Single Block Read                                                                                                                                               Multiple Block Read                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
    • 36. Single Block Write                                                                                                                                                   Multiple Block Write                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
    • 37.
      • Sharp PSP Screen:
        • 480x272 Resolution
        • 24 bit color (8 for each R, G, B)
        • CLK, Hsync, Vsync, DISP Control pins
        • CLK = 9MHz
        • Vsync = 17.1 KHz
        • Hsync = 60 Hz
      • Hantouch Touch Panel
        • 4 wire analog resistive
        • Requires A to D converter to determine location of touch
    • 38.
      • Goal: Accept commands from NIOS processor to create image and control output to the LCD screen
      • Solution: Create a “Soft Graphics Controller” on the Cyclone II FPGA
        • Command set
          • Write text
          • Write vector shapes
          • Write bitmaps
          • Manage image ‘layers’
    • 39.
        • Rasterizer
          • Convert characters into bitmaps & write to layer
          • Convert vector shapes into bitmaps & write to layer
          • Write bitmaps to layer
        • Layer Parser
          • Determine layer order, size & position
          • Write parsed layers to frame buffer
        • Screen Control Logic
          • Manage LCD control pins
          • Clock dividers, etc.
      Layer Example
    • 40.  
    • 41.
      • Texas Instruments TSC2102 PDA Controller Chip
        • Configuration & communication via SPI
        • A to D converter for touch panel
        • A to D converter for battery voltage level measurement
        • Stereo audio DAC & headphone amp
          • Multiple audio codecs
    • 42.  
    • 43.  
    • 44.
      • Two ways to design battery power system for RFID reader
      • Main option is to use a flyback regulator and transformer with three secondary windings
      • Alternate option is to use three linear voltage regulators
    • 45.  
    • 46.  
    • 47.  
    • 48.  
    • 49.
      • Pros:
        • May use less power, parts may be less expensive, we would gain practical knowledge and experience
      • Cons:
        • More time would be required, voltage regulators still needed so flyback regulator and transformer may be superfluous, not a very big part of project so may not be worth several weeks of effort that can be spent on other parts of the project
    • 50.
      • Pros:
        • Much simpler to implement battery system, can handle the amount of juice we’ll need to power devices
      • Cons:
        • May consume more power
    • 51. Example of Planned Battery Pack
    • 52.
      • 6 V, 1400 mAH nickel metal hydride battery pack
      • Two ways to build our battery pack
        • Solder end to end
        • Connect with the battery bars
    • 53.  
    • 54.  
    • 55.
      • CDR: Order components, PCB design, board & processor familiarization, begin hardware modules
      • Milestone 1: Finish RFID transceiver, memory, tag ID database
      • Milestone 2: Finish touch screen interface, finish graphics controller, finalize control software
      • Expo: Finish and test the final software, audio output, construct casing
    • 56.
      • Embedded systems & microprocessors: Mike L Mike G
      • Power & batteries: Vince / Chris
      • SD Card: Kirk
      • Circuit construction: Chris / Vince
      • Low level software: Kirk / Mike L
      • High level software: Vince / Mike G / Chris
    • 57.  

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