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  • Example of the command format of the microprocessor and SD card
  • command frame from host to card is a fixed length (six bytes) packet The command response time (NCR) is 0 to 8 bytes for SDC, 1 to 8 bytes for MMC The DI signal must be kept high during read transfer

Transcript

  • 1. Mike Loptien Kirk Spowart Mike Gauthiere Chris Reid Vincent Wu
  • 2.
    • Read an RFID tag from 10 feet
    • Implement WIFI capabilities
    • GPS integration
    • Use microcontroller
  • 3.
    • Current technology cannot read a passive tag from more than 5 inches
    • Active tags are generally encrypted and very hard to use
    • Active tags would require construction of our own antenna and reader hardware
    • Wifi too difficult for this semester alone
    • GPS too costly and not necessary for our project
  • 4.
    • Read a passive tag from 3-4 inches
    • Implement a touch screen and high-resolution display
    • Store data on an SD card
    • Audio output
    • NIOS II on Cyclone II FPGA
  • 5.
    • Grocery store: embed a passive tag in the price tags of items and store data about that item in the reader
    • Retail stores: similar idea
    • Museum: scan a tag near an exhibit to get info about it
    • Basically a good way to tie information to a physical object
  • 6.
    • ID-12
    • Passive tag reader
    • Max read range: 4”
    • Simple Circuit and data reading
  • 7.  
  • 8.  
  • 9.  
  • 10.  
  • 11.
    • Collision detection is handled by the ID-12
    • It only outputs data when it correctly reads and decodes a tag
  • 12.
    • Output on D1, pin 8
    • LED Control on LED, pin 10
    • Format Select on +/-, pin 7
    • 176 bits of output
  • 13.
    • Output is inverted
    • 176 bits at 9600 baud
    • 16 serial packets, 1 start bit, 8 data bit, 2 stop bits and 0 parity bits
    • Least significant bit first
    • Transmits ASCII characters
  • 14.  
  • 15.  
  • 16.  
  • 17.  
  • 18.  
  • 19.  
  • 20.
    • Checksum
    • XOR of all output packets
  • 21.
    • The Cyclone II
  • 22.
    • Up to 50MHz
    • Will contain the NIOS II, SPI bus, Graphics controller, and RFID translation logic
    • Cyclone II has good documentation, good supporting software, good expandability
  • 23.
    • Implemented on the Cyclone II FPGA
    • Fully customizable processor
    • Customizable onboard RAM
    • C compatible through the Altera IDE
  • 24.
    • Used to control data input and output
    • Video controller
    • RFID input analyzer
    • SD interface
    • Programmed through USB blaster
    • SPI bus, UARTs, Ram, Interrupt Priority, Custom Pin selection
  • 25.  
  • 26.  
  • 27.
    • COM : Common - Connects to the housing
    • WP : Write Protect Detect Switch
    • CD : Card Detect Switch
    • P9 : Not used in SPI mode (Pin 9 on SD Card)
    • IRQ : Not used in SPI mode (Pin 8 on SD Card)
    • DO : Serial Data Out
    • GND : Ground - Connect this to
    • COM to ground the housing
    • CLK : Serial Clock
    • VCC : 3.3V Power
    • DI : Serial Data In
    • CS : Chip Select
  • 28.
    • Standard Capacity SD Memory Card: Up to and including 2 GB
    • High Voltage SD Memory Card – Operating voltage range: 2.7-3.6 V
    • Default mode: Variable clock rate 0 - 25 MHz, up to 12.5 MB/sec interface speed (using 4 parallel data lines)
    • Card removal during read operation will never harm the content
    • Built-in write protection features (permanent and temporary)
    • Card Detection (Insertion/Removal)
  • 29.
    • Learn to communicate with SD/MMC on Altera Board
    • Connect our own SD/MMC breakout board and communicate
  • 30.
    • Six-wire communication channel
    • (clock, command, 4 data lines)
    • Error-protected data transfer
    • Single or Multiple block oriented data transfer
  • 31.
    • When reading and writing to the SD card, the key problem is timing. The program must adhere to strict read/write timing to read and write data to/from the SD card.
    • Read Timing
    • Write Timing
    Code Description S Start bit (= 0) T Transmitter bit (Host = 1; Card = 0) P One-cycle pull-up (= 1) E End bit (= 1) Z High impedance state (-> = 1) Code Description D Data bits X Don’t care data bits (from SD card) * Repetition CRC Cyclic redundancy code bits (7 bits) Gray / White Card Active / Host Active
  • 32.
    • Command from host to card is fixed 6 bytes packet
    • NCR-Command Time Response 0-8 bytes for SD
    • DI signal must be kept high during read transfer
    • When a command frame is transmitted to the card, a response to the command will be sent back to the host
  • 33.  
  • 34.
    • One or more data blocks will be sent/received after command response
    • Data block is transferred as a data packet that consist of Token, Data Block and CRC
    • Stop Tran token means the end of multiple block write, it is used in single byte without data block and CRC
  • 35. Single Block Read                                                                                                                                               Multiple Block Read                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
  • 36. Single Block Write                                                                                                                                                   Multiple Block Write                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
  • 37.
    • Sharp PSP Screen:
      • 480x272 Resolution
      • 24 bit color (8 for each R, G, B)
      • CLK, Hsync, Vsync, DISP Control pins
      • CLK = 9MHz
      • Vsync = 17.1 KHz
      • Hsync = 60 Hz
    • Hantouch Touch Panel
      • 4 wire analog resistive
      • Requires A to D converter to determine location of touch
  • 38.
    • Goal: Accept commands from NIOS processor to create image and control output to the LCD screen
    • Solution: Create a “Soft Graphics Controller” on the Cyclone II FPGA
      • Command set
        • Write text
        • Write vector shapes
        • Write bitmaps
        • Manage image ‘layers’
  • 39.
      • Rasterizer
        • Convert characters into bitmaps & write to layer
        • Convert vector shapes into bitmaps & write to layer
        • Write bitmaps to layer
      • Layer Parser
        • Determine layer order, size & position
        • Write parsed layers to frame buffer
      • Screen Control Logic
        • Manage LCD control pins
        • Clock dividers, etc.
    Layer Example
  • 40.  
  • 41.
    • Texas Instruments TSC2102 PDA Controller Chip
      • Configuration & communication via SPI
      • A to D converter for touch panel
      • A to D converter for battery voltage level measurement
      • Stereo audio DAC & headphone amp
        • Multiple audio codecs
  • 42.  
  • 43.  
  • 44.
    • Two ways to design battery power system for RFID reader
    • Main option is to use a flyback regulator and transformer with three secondary windings
    • Alternate option is to use three linear voltage regulators
  • 45.  
  • 46.  
  • 47.  
  • 48.  
  • 49.
    • Pros:
      • May use less power, parts may be less expensive, we would gain practical knowledge and experience
    • Cons:
      • More time would be required, voltage regulators still needed so flyback regulator and transformer may be superfluous, not a very big part of project so may not be worth several weeks of effort that can be spent on other parts of the project
  • 50.
    • Pros:
      • Much simpler to implement battery system, can handle the amount of juice we’ll need to power devices
    • Cons:
      • May consume more power
  • 51. Example of Planned Battery Pack
  • 52.
    • 6 V, 1400 mAH nickel metal hydride battery pack
    • Two ways to build our battery pack
      • Solder end to end
      • Connect with the battery bars
  • 53.  
  • 54.  
  • 55.
    • CDR: Order components, PCB design, board & processor familiarization, begin hardware modules
    • Milestone 1: Finish RFID transceiver, memory, tag ID database
    • Milestone 2: Finish touch screen interface, finish graphics controller, finalize control software
    • Expo: Finish and test the final software, audio output, construct casing
  • 56.
    • Embedded systems & microprocessors: Mike L Mike G
    • Power & batteries: Vince / Chris
    • SD Card: Kirk
    • Circuit construction: Chris / Vince
    • Low level software: Kirk / Mike L
    • High level software: Vince / Mike G / Chris
  • 57.