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  • 1. 563.9.1 RFIDs in Health Care Ayesha Yasmeen University of Illinois
  • 2. Outline • RFID – What is it? – Why can it be of help? – Where can it help? – Can it help in the medical sector? • How can it help? • Is it a feasible solution? • What problems can arise if RFID is used? 2
  • 3. Radio Frequency Identification • Three main parts to an RFID implementation: – Tag • a chip with memory – so data can be stored and retrieved • an antenna – can respond to queries – Reader – Database & software Fixed RFID Reader LAN Application Server RFID Tag Pocket PC RFID - wikipedia 3
  • 4. Why RFID? • Tag holds unique identification data – a unique serial number and – other attributes of the item • Reader does not require line of sight or contact • Reader can scan tags in motion • Reader can scan in milliseconds • Reader can simultaneously scan multiple items 4
  • 5. RFID uses • Retail & Distribution • Health care • Contact less Payment • Keyless Entry • Livestock Tagging • Pharmaceuticals • Logistics Assets (containers, trailers) • Pet Identification 5
  • 6. RFID in Healthcare 6
  • 7. Motivation • An average of 195,000 people died in US hospitals in each of the years of 2000, 2001, 2002 as a result of potentially preventable, in-hospital medical errors. – Patient went through wrong operation – Patient received unsuitable medication, blood – Equipment got lost • These point to errors in – Patient identification – Medication management – Equipment tracking Fuhrer 07 7
  • 8. Currently available RFID wristband and readers • RFID wristbands for patients developed by Brenmoor has – 13.56 MHz technology – total memory of 1024 bits and – user memory 768 bits. 8
  • 9. How RFID can be used in hospitals Patient arrives at hospital & Take reading gets RFID tag Operating room Give correct amount of medication 9
  • 10. Medication application • All admitted patients are given an RFID-based wristband containing – patient’s ID – blood type, allergy etc. • Nurses have PDA/hand held devices – scans patient’s wristband – scans the medication to be given • The timestamp, patient ID, medication information (and possibly nurse’s ID) is then transmitted via wireless to the central database and verified • Server either sends an alert about wrong medication/wrong time to administer medication or records the administration of the dose at that time 10
  • 11. Use in operating rooms • Once a patient arrives at an OR verify that it is the right patient – scan patient’s ID and automatically display info about the patient scheduled for operation • Before starting the operation ensure all required equipment is present • Once the operation starts can keep scanning drugs, accessories being used • After the operation ends bulk scan all equipment to ensure everything is in correct place 11
  • 12. Current example • Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital (CGMH), part of a seven-facility, 8,800 bed health system in Taiwan RFID-based Hospital Real-time Patient Management System • The integration of RFID using – PDC Smart Band® RFID wristbands, – HP RFID PDA readers, – handheld readers 12
  • 13. RFID based ID in OR in CMGH 13
  • 14. Medical Billing • Even today, a lot of data has to be entered manually to generate the bill once a patient is ready to leave the hospital • RFID based system will keep records of each billable element/procedure used for the patient – Billing will be more accurate and easier 14
  • 15. RFID based Asset Tracking • Requirement/procedure: – each equipment gets a RFID tag embedded – the tag should be embedded at production point or – hospitals should be able to attach a tag to equipment in a manner so that the tag is tough to remove radio signal Wifi network intranet asset locator web interface 15
  • 16. Advantages and Issues • If each medical equipment has an RFID tag it will allow – locating dynamically – stopping theft – reducing time to find assets – increased utilization • Issues: – RFID readers have to be placed all around the hospital • shielding of RFID tags can make it impossible to detect an equipment being stolen 16
  • 17. RFID synergy at a Netherlands Hospital Patient with RFID wristband RFID readers Clinician ID with RFID tag Blood bag with RFID tag RFID Journal, Aug 07 17
  • 18. Challenges for deployment in patient identification • Usability – High frequency devices might drown out the RFID tags : MRI devices – Impact of environment on tags • washing with water, boiling for sterilization • Reliability – Medical sector is a safety critical system – False positives/False Negatives can lead to severe consequences • Safety – RF electromagnetic radiation vs Pacemakers • Cost, DOS attacks Nahas 07 18
  • 19. Security and privacy concerns • Security concerns: – Eavesdropping can lead to tracking of patients – Patient’s medical data can be recorded without knowledge or permission • Privacy concerns: – Doctors, nurses and all other medical personnel will need smart badges containing RFID tags • How the clinicians will feel towards being tracked all the time is unclear. 19
  • 20. RFID security mechanisms • Lots of suggestions – They are costly computation wise • CGMH uses password based mechanism • Pseudonym: – Each tag has a set of pseudonyms • Choose a different pseudonym from the set every time • Prevent an eavesdropper from being able to associate a tag ID with an object – Not really computation heavy – No password needs to be memorized • Cryptography – Key management can be a problem Juels 06 20
  • 21. Summary • RFID based identification and locator systems can – reduce time and labor needed to input and manage data manually, – improve operations and data accuracy – improve patient safety (identification and medication administration), – aid in business flow management, and – improve asset/equipment management • However clear laws and recommendations are needed about security and privacy issues in tracking of human beings 21
  • 22. References • General – Wikipedia entry for RFID • RFID security: – RFID Security and Privacy: A Research Survey, Ari Juels, 2006 • RFID and smart hospitals: – Radio Frequency Identification Applications in Smart Hospitals, Huzifa Al Nahas, Jitender Deogun, CBMS 2007. – Building a Smart Hospital using RFID technologies, Patrik Fuhrer, Dominique Guinard, CBMS 2007. 22