“ The function of identification is to map a known quantity to an unknown entity so as to make it known. The known quantity is called the identifier (or ID) and the unknown entity is what needs identification...” – Wiki
Uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral traits. (but must be unique)
Characteristics: convenient / inconvenient, not very reliable (collision, effect of aging), usually more expensive.
Current uses: Personal laptops, digital IDs, ePassport (US, Brazil, Germany).
Concerns: once compromised it is compromised for life, danger to owner.
Biometrics - Wikipedia Biometrics: Universality Uniqueness Face H L Fingerprint M H Hand geometry M M Keystrokes L L Hand veins M M Iris H H Retinal scan H H Signature L L Voice M L Facial thermograph H H Odor H H DNA H H Gait M L Ear recognition M M
Characteristics: very flexible (HF/LF/UHF, active/passive, implantable..), convenient, does not require line of sight.
Concerns: privacy, cancer (implantable tags).
Emerging market: DoD and Wal-Mart’s mandate, Prescription Drug Marketing Act (PMDA) - pharmaceutical supply chain (pedigree system by Dec 2006 – FDA), China national ID card, Qatar National Identification Project...
Patient misidentification is identified as a root cause of many errors: adverse drugs event, wrong invasive surgical operations...
Study by FDA shows that adverse drug events (ADEs) range from 2.4 percent to 6.5 percent per facility, with a mean rate of 4.3 percent – about 770,000 adverse events in the U.S. each year, $1.7 billion cost – Zebra white paper.
Joint Commission – JCAHO - listed “ improving patient identification accuracy” as the first of its National Patient Safety Goals introduced in 2003, and this continues to be an accreditation requirement from 2004 to 2008.
WHO and JCAHO encourage the use of at least two identifiers.
The Wrong Patient - Mark R. Chassin – 2002, Patient Identification - WHO Press - 2007