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2004Fall_RFID.pps 2004Fall_RFID.pps Presentation Transcript

  • RFID Radio frequency identification
  • RFID Journal
    • Frequently Asked Questions
    • www.rfidjournal.com
  • How does an RFID system work?
    • An RFID system consists of a tag, which is made up of a microchip with an antenna; and,
    • An interrogator or reader with an antenna.
    • The reader decodes the data encoded in the tag's integrated circuit and the information is passed to the host computer for processing and/or storage.
  • Are there any health risks associated with RFID and radio waves?
    • The waves coming from readers are no more dangerous than the waves coming to your car radio.
  • Why is RFID better than using bar codes?
    • The big difference between the two is bar codes are line-of-sight technology.
    • Radio frequency identification, by contrast, doesn’t require line of sight. RFID tags can be read as long as they are within range of a reader.
  • I could tell how often you have come in the library, what times of day, what you did while you were there, what books you checked out – and you wouldn’t even know you were being scanned. Combined with other sources of information, this might be a good thing like a Reader’s Advisory service – suggesting other titles you might like. But, in the hands of unscrupulous people, you can see how damaging this kind of information might be.
  • Will RFID replace bar codes?
    • Probably not. Bar codes are inexpensive and effective for certain tasks. It is likely that RFID and bar codes will coexist for many years.
  • Is RFID new?
    • RFID is a proven technology that's been around since at least the 1970s.
  • If RFID has been around so long and is so great, why aren’t we all using it?
    • It’s a closed-loop system
    • It’s proprietary – Company B can’t read tags put on by Company A unless they both use the same RFID system from the same vendor.
    • Many of the benefits of tracking items come from tracking them as they move from one company to another and even one country to another.
  • Is cost a problem?
    • RFID readers typically cost $1,000 or more.
    • Companies would need thousands of readers to cover all their factories, warehouses and stores.
    • RFID tags are also fairly expensive – 20 cents or more – which makes them impractical for identifying millions of items that cost only a few dollars.
    • Library RFID tags run in the neighborhood of $.75 per tag.)
  • low-, high-, and ultra-high frequencies?
    • RFID tags and readers have to be tuned to the same frequency to communicate.
    • Generally the most common are low- (around 125 KHz), high- (13.56 MHz) and ultra-high frequency, or UHF (850-900 MHz).
    • Low-frequency tags are cheaper than ultra high frequency (UHF) tags, use less power and are better able to penetrate non-metallic substances.
    • Library tags are in the high frequency range
  • Passive vs. Active tags?
    • Active RFID tags have a battery, which is used to run the microchip's circuitry and to broadcast a signal to a reader.
    • Passive tags do not have a battery.
    • Passive tag read range isn't as far -- typically less than 20 feet vs. 100 feet or more for active tags.
  • How much information can the tag store?
    • Typically a tag would carry no more than 2KB of data – enough to store some basic information, like a bib record.
  • read-only and read-write tags
    • With read-write chips, you can add information to the tag or write over existing information when the tag is within range of a reader, or interrogator.
    • Library tags are read-write – the information can be changed.
  • What is reader collision?
    • The signal from one reader can interfere with the signal from another where coverage overlaps.
    • Locate the readers far enough apart so the signal doesn’t overlap.
  • What is tag collision?
    • Tag collision occurs when more than one chip reflects back a signal at the same time, confusing the reader.
    • Since they can be read in milliseconds, it appears that all the tags are being read simultaneously.
    • Different vendors have developed different systems for having the tags respond to the reader one at a time.
  • What is the read range for a typical RFID tag?
    • Passive Tags:
    • low-frequency tags are read from a foot or less.
    • High frequency tags are read from about three feet.
    • UHF tags are read from 10 to 20 feet.
    • Active tags use batteries to boost read ranges to 300 feet or more.
  • Who are the leading RFID vendors?
    • For Library purposes the two big ones are 3M and Checkpoint
    • Although there are many different vendors with different areas of expertise.
    • Go to the vendor section of RFID Journal
    • Thousands of companies are using RFID technology
  • American Library Association. Office of Intellectual Freedom RFID Issues Web Page http://www.ala.org/ala/oif/ifissues/rfid.htm RFID Discussion List: RFID_LIB Send email to To: listproc@listproc.sisu.edu In the body, type subscribe RFID_LIB Firstname Lastname
  • Library Law Blog http://blog.librarylaw.com/librarylaw/2004/08 bless_you_lori.html   Position Paper: RFID in Libraries. By Lori Bowen Ayre. August 19, 2004 http://galecia.com/included/docs/position_rifid_ permission.pdf
  • 8 Ways Libraries Use RFID
    • 1. Conversion station – Where library data is written to the tags
    • 2. Staff workstation at circulation – Used to check-in and check-out materials
    • 3. Patron self check-out station – Used to check-out books without staff assistance
    • 4. Exit sensors – Verify that all books leaving the library have been checked out
    • 5. Patron self check-in station – Used to check in books without staff assistance
    • 6. Bookdrop reader – Checks in books when patrons drop them in the bookdrop
    • 7. Sorter – Automated system for returning books to proper area of library
    • 8. Portable reader – Hand-held reader for inventorying and verifying that items are shelved correctly.
  • Library Uses
    • Tags are unique down to the copy level
    • Rather than purchasing additional tags for security, a single tag can be used for identifying items and securing them
    • Self-check systems have become very popular with both patrons and staff.
    • Inventory-related tasks can be done in a fraction of the time
    • Sorting can be accomplished automatically
  • Costs
    • Roughly it will cost about $1.70 per item to implement a system, although costs are coming down.
    • Servers
    • Readers
    • Tags
  • Best Practices
    • Berkeley Public Library
    • Best Practices for RFID Technology
    • http://berkeleypubliclibrary.org/ 
  • Best Practices
    • • Library information on the tag should be limited to the barcode.
    • • Patrons should not have the ability to search the catalog by barcode.
    • • Do not utilize wireless connections to communicate between security gates, self-checks or other RFID-reading devices and the ILS database unless more security is incorporated in these communications.
    • • The implementation of an RFID system only reinforces the current library duty to make sure their ILS database is as secure from unauthorized entry as possible.
    • • Do not implement smart-card RFID patron library cards.
    • • Inform patrons that your library utilizes RFID technology.
  • Our Implementation.
    • 1)      I wanted a theft detection system that was a one-step circulation process
    • 2)      Cut the amount of materials loss
    • 3)      Marry the circulation and theft detection processes
    • 4)      Greater use of circ staff – you can check out multiple books at the same time
    • 5)      Use of Capital Projects Fund monies
    • 6) Timing – We’re building a new Library