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Ch22 intro to plant

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Transcript

  • 1. What are Plants? Chapter 22
  • 2.  
  • 3. A plant is…
    • Autotrophic, multicellular eukaryote
    • Cell walls made of cellulose
    • Carries out photosynthesis
      • Evolved from green algae
  • 4. Once upon a time…
    • There were no plants on land, and it was a barren place.
    • Then algae started to grow near pools of water, and this algae developed ways to stick to the ground – and became mosses, the first plants.
    • But the mosses couldn’t escape the shadows of the rocks…
  • 5. How mosses became plants
    • Some mosses got tall bits. These would become stems. But how to get water to the highest cells?
    • Plants with stems evolved to have pipes.
    • Now they’d be kind of tippy!
  • 6. Foundations
    • The tippy tall stems need lots of water.
    • And so roots evolved to give those stems support and water.
    • What can plants do with these adaptations?
  • 7.  
  • 8. But the new plants had a problem…
    • Mosses and probably early plants had no way to keep water in, and so their descendants to this day stay in shady, moist places.
    • But we even find plants in deserts! How? Waxy skin.
    • But what would happen to you if we wrapped you completely in wax paper??
  • 9. And so came… LITTLE MOUTHS!
  • 10. There were no flowers at the time of the first dinosaurs.
  • 11. What possible benefits are there to flowers? Aren’t they just for show?
  • 12. Plant Adaptations
    • Stems
      • Transport nutrients
        • water from roots to leaves
        • sugars from leaves to roots
      • Add structural support and store food
  • 13. Plant Adaptations
    • waxy Cuticle
      • Prevents water loss
      • Keeps many pathogens out
  • 14. Plant Adaptations
    • Roots
      • Get water and minerals
      • Anchor the plant
      • Store food in the form of starch
        • Radishes, carrots, What Others?
  • 15. Plant Adaptations
    • Leaves
      • Primary photosynthetic organs
    • Most of the gas exchange happens here (O 2 and CO 2 in, some water vapor out)
  • 16. How do we Classify Plants?
    • Seedless, Non-vascular
      • No seeds, no pipes
    • Seedless, Vascular
      • No seeds, but pipes
    • Seeded, Vascular
      • Seeds and pipes
    • Seeded, Vascular, Flowering
      • Seeds made in flowers, pipes
  • 17. Mosses etc. - Bryophytes
    • No seeds & vascular tissues
      • No way to move water and nutrients around
    • Very small and low to the ground
      • Cells rely on pulling up water through osmosis
    • Life Cycle dependent on water
      • Sperm must swim through water (even mosses have sex!)
  • 18. Bryophyte Examples
    • Mosses
    • Liverworts
    • Hornworts
  • 19. Ferns & their Relatives
    • Seedless, Vascular
      • True roots, leaves, and stems
    • Ferns
    • Club Mosses
    • Horsetails
  • 20. Gymnosperms
    • Means “naked seed”
    • Cone-bearing Plants
      • Male pine cone
      • Female pine cone
    • Ex. Cycads, Ginkgoes, Conifers
  • 21. Angiosperms
    • Flowering Plants
      • Produce fruits
    • Split into Monocots and Dicots
  • 22. Angiosperm Seeds
    • Ovary
      • Surrounds and protects the seed
    • Seed
      • Embryo, food source, protective covering
    • After pollination
      • Ovary develops into the fruit
      • Protects the seed and aids in dispersal
        • How?
  • 23. Diversity of Angiosperms
    • Monocots & Dicots
      • Based on # of cotyledon in the embryo
      • Cotyledon = first leaf to develop (aka seed leaf )
  • 24.  
  • 25. Angiosperm Life Cycles
    • Annuals
      • Complete a life cycle in 1 year
      • Ex. marigolds
    • Biennials
      • 2 year life cycle
      • Ex. parsley
    • Perennials
      • Live for more than 2 years
      • Ex. Palm trees
  • 26. Chapter 8&9 Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration
  • 27. Keep your eyes on: ENERGY and GASES As you think about the coming slides
  • 28. Energy
    • All living things require energy
    • ALL organisms use ATP to make things happen in the cell (metabolism)
      • Adenosine triphosphate
      • The molecule that all cells use for energy! (not sugar)
  • 29. Photosynthesis
    • What do plants need that we make?
    • What do we need that plants give us?
    Light 6H 2 0 + 6CO 2 C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2
  • 30. Cellular Respiration
    • What do we need that plants make?
    • What do plants need that we give them?
    6H 2 0 + 6CO 2 +ATP C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2
  • 31. Photosynthesis
    • Happens in chloroplasts
    • Chloroplasts make sugar
      • Contain pigments called chlorophyll
    • Sugar – NOT used by cells for energy
    • So what do cells use for energy?
  • 32. Summary of Photosynthesis
  • 33. Cellular Respiration
    • Happens in mitochondria – in ALL eukaryotes – EVEN plants!
    • Mitochondria make ATP
      • Without that ATP, a cell would die in SECONDS
  • 34. Summary of Cellular Respiration
  • 35.