Ch22 intro to plant


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Ch22 intro to plant

  1. 1. What are Plants? Chapter 22
  2. 3. A plant is… <ul><li>Autotrophic, multicellular eukaryote </li></ul><ul><li>Cell walls made of cellulose </li></ul><ul><li>Carries out photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolved from green algae </li></ul></ul>
  3. 4. Once upon a time… <ul><li>There were no plants on land, and it was a barren place. </li></ul><ul><li>Then algae started to grow near pools of water, and this algae developed ways to stick to the ground – and became mosses, the first plants. </li></ul><ul><li>But the mosses couldn’t escape the shadows of the rocks… </li></ul>
  4. 5. How mosses became plants <ul><li>Some mosses got tall bits. These would become stems. But how to get water to the highest cells? </li></ul><ul><li>Plants with stems evolved to have pipes. </li></ul><ul><li>Now they’d be kind of tippy! </li></ul>
  5. 6. Foundations <ul><li>The tippy tall stems need lots of water. </li></ul><ul><li>And so roots evolved to give those stems support and water. </li></ul><ul><li>What can plants do with these adaptations? </li></ul>
  6. 8. But the new plants had a problem… <ul><li>Mosses and probably early plants had no way to keep water in, and so their descendants to this day stay in shady, moist places. </li></ul><ul><li>But we even find plants in deserts! How? Waxy skin. </li></ul><ul><li>But what would happen to you if we wrapped you completely in wax paper?? </li></ul>
  7. 9. And so came… LITTLE MOUTHS!
  8. 10. There were no flowers at the time of the first dinosaurs.
  9. 11. What possible benefits are there to flowers? Aren’t they just for show?
  10. 12. Plant Adaptations <ul><li>Stems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transport nutrients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>water from roots to leaves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sugars from leaves to roots </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add structural support and store food </li></ul></ul>
  11. 13. Plant Adaptations <ul><li>waxy Cuticle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevents water loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keeps many pathogens out </li></ul></ul>
  12. 14. Plant Adaptations <ul><li>Roots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Get water and minerals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anchor the plant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Store food in the form of starch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Radishes, carrots, What Others? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 15. Plant Adaptations <ul><li>Leaves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary photosynthetic organs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most of the gas exchange happens here (O 2 and CO 2 in, some water vapor out) </li></ul>
  14. 16. How do we Classify Plants? <ul><li>Seedless, Non-vascular </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No seeds, no pipes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Seedless, Vascular </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No seeds, but pipes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Seeded, Vascular </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeds and pipes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Seeded, Vascular, Flowering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeds made in flowers, pipes </li></ul></ul>
  15. 17. Mosses etc. - Bryophytes <ul><li>No seeds & vascular tissues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No way to move water and nutrients around </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Very small and low to the ground </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells rely on pulling up water through osmosis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Life Cycle dependent on water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sperm must swim through water (even mosses have sex!) </li></ul></ul>
  16. 18. Bryophyte Examples <ul><li>Mosses </li></ul><ul><li>Liverworts </li></ul><ul><li>Hornworts </li></ul>
  17. 19. Ferns & their Relatives <ul><li>Seedless, Vascular </li></ul><ul><ul><li>True roots, leaves, and stems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ferns </li></ul><ul><li>Club Mosses </li></ul><ul><li>Horsetails </li></ul>
  18. 20. Gymnosperms <ul><li>Means “naked seed” </li></ul><ul><li>Cone-bearing Plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Male pine cone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Female pine cone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ex. Cycads, Ginkgoes, Conifers </li></ul>
  19. 21. Angiosperms <ul><li>Flowering Plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce fruits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Split into Monocots and Dicots </li></ul>
  20. 22. Angiosperm Seeds <ul><li>Ovary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surrounds and protects the seed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Seed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Embryo, food source, protective covering </li></ul></ul><ul><li>After pollination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ovary develops into the fruit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protects the seed and aids in dispersal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 23. Diversity of Angiosperms <ul><li>Monocots & Dicots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on # of cotyledon in the embryo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cotyledon = first leaf to develop (aka seed leaf ) </li></ul></ul>
  22. 25. Angiosperm Life Cycles <ul><li>Annuals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complete a life cycle in 1 year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. marigolds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biennials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 year life cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. parsley </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Perennials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Live for more than 2 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Palm trees </li></ul></ul>
  23. 26. Chapter 8&9 Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration
  24. 27. Keep your eyes on: ENERGY and GASES As you think about the coming slides
  25. 28. Energy <ul><li>All living things require energy </li></ul><ul><li>ALL organisms use ATP to make things happen in the cell (metabolism) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adenosine triphosphate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The molecule that all cells use for energy! (not sugar) </li></ul></ul>
  26. 29. Photosynthesis <ul><li>What do plants need that we make? </li></ul><ul><li>What do we need that plants give us? </li></ul>Light 6H 2 0 + 6CO 2 C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2
  27. 30. Cellular Respiration <ul><li>What do we need that plants make? </li></ul><ul><li>What do plants need that we give them? </li></ul>6H 2 0 + 6CO 2 +ATP C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2
  28. 31. Photosynthesis <ul><li>Happens in chloroplasts </li></ul><ul><li>Chloroplasts make sugar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contain pigments called chlorophyll </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sugar – NOT used by cells for energy </li></ul><ul><li>So what do cells use for energy? </li></ul>
  29. 32. Summary of Photosynthesis
  30. 33. Cellular Respiration <ul><li>Happens in mitochondria – in ALL eukaryotes – EVEN plants! </li></ul><ul><li>Mitochondria make ATP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Without that ATP, a cell would die in SECONDS </li></ul></ul>
  31. 34. Summary of Cellular Respiration