Ch22 intro to plant
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    Ch22 intro to plant Ch22 intro to plant Presentation Transcript

    • What are Plants? Chapter 22
    •  
    • A plant is…
      • Autotrophic, multicellular eukaryote
      • Cell walls made of cellulose
      • Carries out photosynthesis
        • Evolved from green algae
    • Once upon a time…
      • There were no plants on land, and it was a barren place.
      • Then algae started to grow near pools of water, and this algae developed ways to stick to the ground – and became mosses, the first plants.
      • But the mosses couldn’t escape the shadows of the rocks…
    • How mosses became plants
      • Some mosses got tall bits. These would become stems. But how to get water to the highest cells?
      • Plants with stems evolved to have pipes.
      • Now they’d be kind of tippy!
    • Foundations
      • The tippy tall stems need lots of water.
      • And so roots evolved to give those stems support and water.
      • What can plants do with these adaptations?
    •  
    • But the new plants had a problem…
      • Mosses and probably early plants had no way to keep water in, and so their descendants to this day stay in shady, moist places.
      • But we even find plants in deserts! How? Waxy skin.
      • But what would happen to you if we wrapped you completely in wax paper??
    • And so came… LITTLE MOUTHS!
    • There were no flowers at the time of the first dinosaurs.
    • What possible benefits are there to flowers? Aren’t they just for show?
    • Plant Adaptations
      • Stems
        • Transport nutrients
          • water from roots to leaves
          • sugars from leaves to roots
        • Add structural support and store food
    • Plant Adaptations
      • waxy Cuticle
        • Prevents water loss
        • Keeps many pathogens out
    • Plant Adaptations
      • Roots
        • Get water and minerals
        • Anchor the plant
        • Store food in the form of starch
          • Radishes, carrots, What Others?
    • Plant Adaptations
      • Leaves
        • Primary photosynthetic organs
      • Most of the gas exchange happens here (O 2 and CO 2 in, some water vapor out)
    • How do we Classify Plants?
      • Seedless, Non-vascular
        • No seeds, no pipes
      • Seedless, Vascular
        • No seeds, but pipes
      • Seeded, Vascular
        • Seeds and pipes
      • Seeded, Vascular, Flowering
        • Seeds made in flowers, pipes
    • Mosses etc. - Bryophytes
      • No seeds & vascular tissues
        • No way to move water and nutrients around
      • Very small and low to the ground
        • Cells rely on pulling up water through osmosis
      • Life Cycle dependent on water
        • Sperm must swim through water (even mosses have sex!)
    • Bryophyte Examples
      • Mosses
      • Liverworts
      • Hornworts
    • Ferns & their Relatives
      • Seedless, Vascular
        • True roots, leaves, and stems
      • Ferns
      • Club Mosses
      • Horsetails
    • Gymnosperms
      • Means “naked seed”
      • Cone-bearing Plants
        • Male pine cone
        • Female pine cone
      • Ex. Cycads, Ginkgoes, Conifers
    • Angiosperms
      • Flowering Plants
        • Produce fruits
      • Split into Monocots and Dicots
    • Angiosperm Seeds
      • Ovary
        • Surrounds and protects the seed
      • Seed
        • Embryo, food source, protective covering
      • After pollination
        • Ovary develops into the fruit
        • Protects the seed and aids in dispersal
          • How?
    • Diversity of Angiosperms
      • Monocots & Dicots
        • Based on # of cotyledon in the embryo
        • Cotyledon = first leaf to develop (aka seed leaf )
    •  
    • Angiosperm Life Cycles
      • Annuals
        • Complete a life cycle in 1 year
        • Ex. marigolds
      • Biennials
        • 2 year life cycle
        • Ex. parsley
      • Perennials
        • Live for more than 2 years
        • Ex. Palm trees
    • Chapter 8&9 Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration
    • Keep your eyes on: ENERGY and GASES As you think about the coming slides
    • Energy
      • All living things require energy
      • ALL organisms use ATP to make things happen in the cell (metabolism)
        • Adenosine triphosphate
        • The molecule that all cells use for energy! (not sugar)
    • Photosynthesis
      • What do plants need that we make?
      • What do we need that plants give us?
      Light 6H 2 0 + 6CO 2 C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2
    • Cellular Respiration
      • What do we need that plants make?
      • What do plants need that we give them?
      6H 2 0 + 6CO 2 +ATP C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2
    • Photosynthesis
      • Happens in chloroplasts
      • Chloroplasts make sugar
        • Contain pigments called chlorophyll
      • Sugar – NOT used by cells for energy
      • So what do cells use for energy?
    • Summary of Photosynthesis
    • Cellular Respiration
      • Happens in mitochondria – in ALL eukaryotes – EVEN plants!
      • Mitochondria make ATP
        • Without that ATP, a cell would die in SECONDS
    • Summary of Cellular Respiration
    •