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Java API for XML Web Services (JAX-WS)

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Overview of JAX-WS technology for web services (Java API for XML Web Services). …

Overview of JAX-WS technology for web services (Java API for XML Web Services).

JAX-WS is the core Java web service technology for Java EE applications.
It provides a unified client and server-side API for writing SOAP/WSDL based web services.
JAX-WS is platform independent. Many Java platforms like Glassfish, Axis2 or CXF support JAX-WS.
Thus services developed with JAX-WS on one platform can be easily ported to another platform.

JAX-WS is based on annotations like @WebService thus greatly simplifying the development of web services.
POJOs (Plain Old Java Objects) can be simply annotated with JAX-WS annotations thus turning these into web service implementations.

JAX-WS is the core web service technology according to JSR-224 affording basic web service functionality.
WSIT (Web Service Interoperability Technology) sits on top of JAX-WS and adds enhanced functionality like security, reliability and transactions.
WSIT is the standard Java WS protocol stack beyond basic WS functionality (SOAP, WSDL) to achieve interoperability between Java and .Net (for more complex applications that go beyond simple WS requests).

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  • 1. © Peter R. Egli 2015 1/20 Rev. 2.00 JAX-WS - Java API for XML Web Services indigoo.com INTRODUCTION TO JAX-WS, THE JAVA API FOR XML BASED WEB SERVICES (SOAP, WSDL) JAX-WS JAVA API FOR XML WEB SERVICES Peter R. Egli INDIGOO.COM
  • 2. © Peter R. Egli 2015 2/20 Rev. 2.00 JAX-WS - Java API for XML Web Services indigoo.com Contents 1. What is JAX-WS? 2. Glassfish = Reference implementation for JAX-WS 3. Glassfish projects, Java packages 4. POJO / Java bean as web service class 5. JAX-WS JavaBeans versus provider endpoint 6. JAX-WS dispatch client versus dynamic client proxy API 7. JAX-WS development / deployment 8. JAXB – Binding XML documents to Java objects 9. JAXR – JAVA API for XML Registries 10. WSIT – Web Service Interoperability Technologies 11. Short comparison of important Java WS stacks
  • 3. © Peter R. Egli 2015 3/20 Rev. 2.00 JAX-WS - Java API for XML Web Services indigoo.com 1. What is JAX-WS? JAX-WS is the core Java web service technology (standard for Java EE):  JAX-WS is the standard programming model / API for WS on Java (JAX-WS became a standard part of Java as of version 1.6).  JAX-WS is platform independent (many Java platforms like Glassfish, Axis2 or CXF support JAX-WS). Services developed on one platform can be easily ported to another platform.  JAX-WS makes use of annotations like @WebService. This provides better scalability (no central deployment descriptor for different WS classes is required).  JAX-WS uses the POJO concept (use of plain Java classes to define web service interfaces).  JAX-WS replaces / supersedes JAX-RPC (= old Java web services, basically RMI over web service). JAX-WS is more document orientiented instead of RPC-oriented. Glassfish is the JAX-WS reference implementation (RI, see https://jax-ws.java.net/).
  • 4. © Peter R. Egli 2015 4/20 Rev. 2.00 JAX-WS - Java API for XML Web Services indigoo.com Glassfish JEE app. server RI 2. Glassfish = Reference implementation for JAX-WS Glassfish: Java EE reference implementation (RI), reference Java application server. Metro: WS stack as part of Glassfish (consists of JAX-WS and WSIT components). JAXB: Data binding (bind objects to XML documents or fragments). SAAJ: SOAP with Attachments API for Java. JAX-WS: Java core web service stack. WSIT: Web Services Interoperability Technologies (enables interop with .Net). JAXR: Java API for XML Registries (WS registry). StaX: Streaming API for XML. Details see https://glassfish.java.net/downloads/3.1.1-final.html Metro stack JAXB JSR-222 JAX-WS (core WS) JSR-224 Security JAXP StaX JSR-173 RM Trans- actions SAAJ HTTP TCP JMS SMTP WSIT JAX-WS Transports XML Meta- data WSDL Policy Jersey (JAX-RS) CORBA EJB1) 1) Local container only Grizzly / COMET JAXR OpenMQ
  • 5. © Peter R. Egli 2015 5/20 Rev. 2.00 JAX-WS - Java API for XML Web Services indigoo.com 3. Glassfish projects, Java packages (selection) Glassfish is developed in various independent projects. Together, they build the Glassfish service platform. Parent project Project Description Java package Glassfish GF-CORBA CORBA com.sun.corba.se.* Glassfish OpenMQ JMS javax.jms.* Glassfish WADL IDL for REST services org.vnet.ws.wadl.* org.vnet.ws.wadl2java.* Glassfish JAX-RS, Jersey (=RI) REST services javax.ws.rs.* jax-ws-xml, jwsdp JAXB Java API for XML Binding javax.xml.bind.* jax-ws-xml, jwsdp JAX-RPC Java API for XML RPC Old Java WS (superseded by JAX-WS) java.xml.rpc.* Metro (Glassfish) JAX-WS Java API for XML Web Services javax.jws.* javax.xml.ws.* Metro (Glassfish) SAAJ SOAP attachments javax.xml.soap.* Metro (Glassfish) WSIT (previously Tango) Web Services Interoperability Technologies (WS-Trust etc.) Various
  • 6. © Peter R. Egli 2015 6/20 Rev. 2.00 JAX-WS - Java API for XML Web Services indigoo.com Called by container before the implementing class is called the first time. Called by container before the implementing class goes out of operation. 4. POJO / Java bean as web service class (1/2) Web services through simple annotations: The programming model of JAX-WS relies on simple annotations. This allows to turn existing business classes (POJOs) into web services with very little effort. Web service endpoints are either explicit or implicit, depending on the definition or absence of a Java interface that defines the web service interface. Implicit SEI (Service Endpoint Interface): Service does not have an explicit service interface, i.e. the class itself is the service interface. @WebService public class HelloWorld { @WebMethod public String sayHello() {...} public HelloWorld() {...} @PostConstruct public void init() {...} @PreDestroy public void teardown() {...} } Through @WebService annotation, the class HelloWorld becomes an SEI (Service Endpoint Interface) and all public methods are exposed. Annotation for individual method to be exposed as a web service method. The SEI implementing class must have a public default ctor.
  • 7. © Peter R. Egli 2015 7/20 Rev. 2.00 JAX-WS - Java API for XML Web Services indigoo.com Explicit endpoint interface. Reference to explicit service endpoint interface. 4. POJO / Java bean as web service class (2/2) Explicit SEI: The service bean has an associated service endpoint interface (reference to interface). public interface IHello { @WebMethod public String sayHello() {...} } @WebService(endpointInterface=IHello) public class HelloWorld { public String sayHello() {...} }
  • 8. © Peter R. Egli 2015 8/20 Rev. 2.00 JAX-WS - Java API for XML Web Services indigoo.com 5. JAX-WS JavaBeans versus provider endpoint (1/3) Web services on the service provider side can be defined at 2 levels:  The annotation @WebService is a high-level annotation to turn a POJO into a web service.  The @WebServiceProvider is lower-level and gives more control over the web service. RPC call (API) SOAP engine HTTP engine Application Service consumer Procedure (marshaling) SOAP engine HTTP engine Application @WebService Service provider Application @WebServiceProvider
  • 9. © Peter R. Egli 2015 9/20 Rev. 2.00 JAX-WS - Java API for XML Web Services indigoo.com 5. JAX-WS JavaBeans versus provider endpoint (2/3) A. JavaBeans endpoints (@WebService annotation): JavaBeans as endpoints allow to expose Java classes (actually methods) as web services. This hides most of the WS complexity to the programmer. JavaBeans endpoint example: @WebService public class HelloWorld { @WebMethod public String sayHello() {...} }
  • 10. © Peter R. Egli 2015 10/20 Rev. 2.00 JAX-WS - Java API for XML Web Services indigoo.com 5. JAX-WS JavaBeans versus provider endpoint (3/3) B. Provider endpoints (@WebServiceProvider annotation): Provider endpoints are more generic, message-based service implementations. The service operates directly on (SOAP) message level. The service implementation defines 1 generic method "invoke" that accepts a SOAP message and returns a SOAP result. The provider interface allows to operate a web service in payload mode (service method directly receives XML messages). Provider endpoint example: The web service class has only a single method invoke. This method receives the SOAP messages. Decoding of the message takes place in this method. @WebServiceProvider( portName="HelloPort", serviceName="HelloService", targetNamespace="http://helloservice.org/wsdl", wsdlLocation="WEB-INF/wsdl/HelloService.wsdl" ) @BindingType(value="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/wsdl/soap/http") @ServiceMode(value=javax.xml.ws.Service.Mode.MESSAGE) public class HelloProvider implements Provider<SOAPMessage> { private static final String helloResponse = ... public SOAPMessage invoke(SOAPMessage req) { ... } }
  • 11. © Peter R. Egli 2015 11/20 Rev. 2.00 JAX-WS - Java API for XML Web Services indigoo.com 6. JAX-WS dispatch client versus dynamic client proxy API (1/3) Similar to the server APIs, JAX-WS clients may use 2 different APIs for sending web service requests.  A dispatch client gives direct access to XML / SOAP messages.  A dynamic proxy client provides an RPC-like interface to the client application. RPC call (API) SOAP engine HTTP engine Application Service consumer Procedure (marshaling) SOAP engine HTTP engine Application Service provider Dispatch client API Dynamic proxy client API
  • 12. © Peter R. Egli 2015 12/20 Rev. 2.00 JAX-WS - Java API for XML Web Services indigoo.com 6. JAX-WS dispatch client versus dynamic client proxy API (2/3) A. Dispatch client (dynamic client programming model): The dispatch client has direct access to XML (SOAP) messages. The dispatch client is responsible for creating SOAP messages. It is called dynamic because it constructs SOAP messages at runtime. Dispatch client example (source: axis.apache.org): String endpointUrl = ...; QName serviceName = new QName("http://org/apache/ws/axis2/sample/echo/", "EchoService"); QName portName = new QName("http://org/apache/ws/axis2/sample/echo/", "EchoServicePort"); /** Create a service and add at least one port to it. **/ Service service = Service.create(serviceName); service.addPort(portName, SOAPBinding.SOAP11HTTP_BINDING, endpointUrl); /** Create a Dispatch instance from a service.**/ Dispatch<SOAPMessage> dispatch = service.createDispatch(portName, SOAPMessage.class, Service.Mode.MESSAGE); /** Create SOAPMessage request message. **/ MessageFactory mf = MessageFactory.newInstance(SOAPConstants.SOAP_1_1_PROTOCOL); // Create a message. This example works with the SOAPPART. SOAPMessage request = mf.createMessage(); SOAPPart part = request.getSOAPPart(); // Obtain the SOAPEnvelope and header and body elements. SOAPEnvelope env = part.getEnvelope(); SOAPHeader header = env.getHeader(); SOAPBody body = env.getBody(); // Construct the message payload. SOAPElement operation = body.addChildElement("invoke", "ns1", "http://org/apache/ws/axis2/sample/echo/"); SOAPElement value = operation.addChildElement("arg0"); value.addTextNode("ping"); request.saveChanges(); /** Invoke the service endpoint. **/ SOAPMessage response = dispatch.invoke(request);
  • 13. © Peter R. Egli 2015 13/20 Rev. 2.00 JAX-WS - Java API for XML Web Services indigoo.com 6. JAX-WS dispatch client versus dynamic client proxy API (3/3) B. Dynamic proxy client (static client programming model): A dynamic proxy client is similar to a stub client in the JAX-RPC programming model (=RPC model). A dynamic proxy client uses a service endpoint interface (SEI) which must be provided. The dynamic proxy client classes are generated at runtime (by the Java dynamic proxy functionality). Dynamic proxy client example: EchoService port = new EchoService().getEchoServicePort(); String echo = port.echo("Hello World");
  • 14. © Peter R. Egli 2015 14/20 Rev. 2.00 JAX-WS - Java API for XML Web Services indigoo.com 7. JAX-WS development / deployment (1/2) 1. Start with POJO / bean class as service class (bottom-up development): Server stub files and (optionally) WSDL files are created from Java class file(s). The deployment descriptor web.xml is optional (JAX-WS defaults are sufficient for many / most applications, "configuration by exception" principle). wsgen.exe *.java CodeCodeJAXB classes Annotated Service Endpoint Interface / Implementation (POJO). Public methods are web (exposed) methods or use @WebMethod annotation. SEI (Service Endpoint Interface) = Java class with methods that can be called by client. javac.exe *.class Portable JAXB classes for marshalling / unmarshalling messages WSDL file Service description as WSDL file web.xml (deployment descriptor, optional) Platform specific packaging and deployment WAR, AAR etc.
  • 15. © Peter R. Egli 2015 15/20 Rev. 2.00 JAX-WS - Java API for XML Web Services indigoo.com 7. JAX-WS development / deployment (2/2) 2. Start with WSDL file (top-down development): Server stub files are created from an existing WSDL file. 3. Creation of client stub files from a WSDL file (dynamic proxy client): wsimport.exe CodeCode Server stub classes WSDL file Portable artefacts for client & server: • Service class • SEI class • Exception class • JAXB classes for marshalling messages Platform specific packaging and deployment web.xml (deployment descriptor, optional) WAR, AAR etc. wsimport.exe WSDL file CodeCode client stub files
  • 16. © Peter R. Egli 2015 16/20 Rev. 2.00 JAX-WS - Java API for XML Web Services indigoo.com 8. JAXB – Binding XML documents to Java objects JAX-WS uses JAXB for the binding between Java objects and XML documents. The binding / JAXB details are hidden from the JAX-WS programmer. Schema JAXB mapped classes JAXB mapped classes JAXB mapped classes ObjectsObjectsObjects Document (XML) bind unmarshal (validate) marshal (validate) follows instances of XML schema type Java data type xsd:string java.lang.String xsd:integer java.math.BigInteger xsd:int int xsd:long long xsd:short short JAXB mapping of XML schema built-in types to Java built-in types (selection): Relationship between schema, document, Java objects and classes with JAXB:
  • 17. © Peter R. Egli 2015 17/20 Rev. 2.00 JAX-WS - Java API for XML Web Services indigoo.com 9. JAXR – JAVA API for XML Registries JAXR is a uniform and standard API for accessing different kinds of XML registries. XML registries are used for registering (by server / service) and discovering (by client) web services. JAXR follows the well-known pattern in Java with a service provider interface (SPI for registering XML metadata) and a client interface (see also JMS or JNDI). Source: docs.oracle.com JAXR Client JAXR API Capability-Specific Interfaces ebXML Provider UDDI Provider Other Provider ebXML UDDI Other Registry-specific JAXR provider ebXML / SOAP UDDI / SOAP Other Registries
  • 18. © Peter R. Egli 2015 18/20 Rev. 2.00 JAX-WS - Java API for XML Web Services indigoo.com 10. WSIT – Web Service Interoperability Technologies (1/2) Interoperability is crucial for web services (web services in general claim platform independence and interoperability). WSIT is the standard Java WS protocol stack beyond basic WS functionality (SOAP, WSDL) to achieve interoperability between Java and .Net (for more complex applications that go beyond simple WS requests). JAX-WS defines the WS core stack while WSIT provides many of the WS-* standards required for interoperability. WSIT is an open source project started by Sun Microsystems to promote WS-interoperability with .Net 3.0 (WCF). WSIT is bundled inside the Metro WS stack. The Metro stack in turn is bundled inside Glassfish (see Slide 2). WS-I (Web Service Interoperability) defines profiles (sets of WS standards, see www.oasis-ws-i.org/) for which WS stacks can claim compatibility such as: WS-I Basic Profile 1.1: SOAP 1.1 + HTTP 1.1 + WSDL 1.1 WS-I Basic Profile 1.2: SOAP 1.1 + HTTP 1.1 + WSDL 1.1 + WS-Addressing 1.0 + MTOM 1.0 WS-I Simple SOAP Binding Profile 1.0: SOAP 1.1 + HTTP 1.1 + WSDL 1.1 + UDDI WSIT versus WS-I? WS-I defines profiles while WSIT implements them.
  • 19. © Peter R. Egli 2015 19/20 Rev. 2.00 JAX-WS - Java API for XML Web Services indigoo.com 10. WSIT – Web Service Interoperability Technologies (2/2) Overview of WS-standards compliance by JAX-WS / Metro-stack and WCF: Standard JAX-WS (Metro@Glassfish) Microsoft WCF Description WS-I Basic Profile Yes (JAX-WS) Yes SOAP 1.1 + HTTP 1.1 + WSDL 1.1. WS-MetadataExchange Yes (WSIT) Yes Exchange of web service meta-data files. WS-Transfer Yes (WSIT) Yes Protocol for accessing XML-representations of WS resources. WS-Policy Yes (WSIT) Yes XML-representations of WS policies (security, QoS). WS-Security Yes (WSIT) Yes Framework protocol for applying security to web services. WS-SecureConversation Yes (WSIT) Yes Protocol for sharing security contexts between sites. WS-Trust Yes (WSIT) Yes Protocol for establishing trust between WS provider and consumer. WS-SecurityPolicy Yes (WSIT) Yes Set of security policy assertions to be used with WS-Policy. WS-ReliableMessaging Yes (WSIT) Yes Protocol for reliable WS message delivery (in-order, exactly-once). WS-RMPolicy Yes (WSIT) Yes XML-representations of WS policies of RM-WS-endpoints. WS-Coordination Yes (WSIT) Yes Protocol for coordinating web service participants (providers, consumers). WS-AtomicTransaction Yes (WSIT) Yes Protocol for atomic transactions with groups of web services. WS-BusinessActivity No Yes (.Net 4.0) Business activity coordination to be used in the WS-Coordination framework. WS-Eventing No No Protocol for subscribe / publish to WS for receiving notifications. WS-Notification No No Protocol for subscribe / publish to topic-based WS for receiving notifications.
  • 20. © Peter R. Egli 2015 20/20 Rev. 2.00 JAX-WS - Java API for XML Web Services indigoo.com 11. Short comparison of important Java WS stacks 1. JAX-WS (Glassfish RI):  JAX-WS compliant (the reference implementation defines the standard).  Supported by many WS frameworks. 2. Apache CXF framework:  Easy to use, slim. 3. Apache Axis2:  Features-rich, but also high complexity.  Not (fully) JAX-WS compliant (not JAX-WS technology compatibility kit compliant).  Support for different XML-Java binding frameworks (XMLBeans etc.). 4. JBoss:  Actually uses Glassfish / Metro as WS-stack (http://jbossws.jboss.org/). 5. Spring WS:  Contract-first development (first WSDL, then code).  Support for different XML-Java binding frameworks (XMLBeans, JiXB etc.). Comparison of Java WS stacks se also http://wiki.apache.org/ws/StackComparison.