Principles of leadership and management session 3 2010


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Principles of leadership and management session 3 2010

  1. 1. The Context of Leadership and Management Homework…check out your leadership style and Perspectives on leadership
  2. 2. SLaM blog address
  3. 3. What is your style of leadership? Affiliative Leadership Coaching Leadership Democratic Leadership Authoritative Leadership High on social leadership but low on task leadership High on task and social behaviours But used least often as time- consuming Used with ‘experienced followers’ Close to delegation High on task, but low on social leadership. Leader is ‘expert’ Can be warm & friendly
  4. 4. Leadership and Management “ Most definitions of Leadership reflect the assumption that it involves a social influence process whereby intentional influence is exerted by one person [or group] over other people [or groups] to structure the activities and relationships in a group or organisation” (Yukl 2002:2)
  5. 5. Management…. “ Managing is maintaining efficiently and effectively current organisational arrangement. While managing well often exhibits leadership skills, the overall function is towards maintenance rather than change. I prize both management and leading and attach no special value to either since different setting and times call for varied responses.” (Cuban 1988 Cited in Bush 2003)
  6. 6. Leadership vs. Management Leadership Management
  7. 7. Leadership vs. Management Vision ImplementationVision Implementation Strategy OperationalStrategy Operational Transformation TransactionalTransformation Transactional Ends MeansEnds Means People SystemsPeople Systems
  8. 8. What’s in a Name? Leadership………………………..doing the right things………………………..doing the right things Management…………………..doing things right…………………..doing things right Key references:Key references: Coleman (in Bush and West-Burnham)Coleman (in Bush and West-Burnham) Principles of Educational ManagementPrinciples of Educational Management Chpt 3 p55-78Chpt 3 p55-78 Hall (in Middlewood & Lumby)Hall (in Middlewood & Lumby) Strategic Management in Schools and CollegesStrategic Management in Schools and Colleges Chpt 10 p133-147Chpt 10 p133-147
  9. 9. Operational Strategic
  10. 10. Operational Strategic Short TermShort Term Longer termLonger term SectionalSectional Whole organisationWhole organisation Immediate ActionImmediate Action ReflectiveReflective ResourcesResources CapabilitiesCapabilities ConcreteConcrete ConceptualConceptual RoutineRoutine CreativeCreative EfficiencyEfficiency EffectivenessEffectiveness Problem ResolutionProblem Resolution OpportunitiesOpportunities InternalInternal ExternalExternal ‘‘Hands-on’Hands-on’ ‘‘Hands-off’Hands-off’ Chalk-FaceChalk-Face OverviewOverview
  11. 11. Vision and Mission Strategic Tactical Operational Customers Timescale Long term Governing Body and Appropriate staff 3-5 years Senior staff and team leaders Policy 1-3 years Deployment and development of staff Involvement All Staff Budgets All Staff 6-18 Months Davis and West-Burnham 1990 School Improvement Plan Departmental Plan Assignment link
  12. 12. Aspects of Motivation Task: Identify aspects of working for and in an organisation that maybe considered as: • Motivating factors • De-motivating factors
  13. 13. Motivation
  14. 14. Motivational Hygiene: Hertzberg
  15. 15. Maslow Physiological Needs Safety Needs Love and Belongingness Needs Self-Esteem Needs Self-Actualisation Needs
  16. 16. Other models on motivation… • John Stacey Adams - equity theory on job motivation
  17. 17. Motivation… • •
  18. 18. Distributed SchoolDistributed School LeadershipLeadership
  19. 19. People Motivation Needs Levels of energy Career experience Age Pay Attitudes Personalities Training Role Individual skills and abilities Psychological Contract Power groups the leaders Inter-group relations Type of influence Leadership style Rewards and punishments Responsibilities Politics The environment The market Philosophies Values Norms Goals Objectives Ownership History Career Structures Size StructureChange Technology Control Systems
  20. 20. Why? Paradox: ‘ Distributed leadership is unlikely to happen if schools stay as they are. Schools are unlikely to transform themselves without distribution of leadership roles’, David Jackson, Director of the Network Learning Group, NCSL (2009) Moving from one triangle with a ‘situational apex’ to a flattened triangle, as leadership is distributed.
  21. 21. (Spillane et al, 2001). “In developing a distributed perspective on leadership, we moved beyond acknowledging leadership practice as an organisational property in order to investigate how leadership might be conceptualized as a distributed practice stretched over the social and situational contexts of the school”
  22. 22. Video discussion points: •Does your school reflect this style of leadership? •If yes, how? •If no, why not? •Are there different types of DSL?
  23. 23. Loose Organisational Coupling Tight Organisational Coupling Diffuse DL Deep DLAd hoc distribution Flexible structure but Uncoordinated practice Autonomous distribution Flexible structure and deep Coordinated practice Autocratic distribution Rigid structure and random practice Additive distribution Rigid structure with limited but coordinated forms of practice Models of distribution (Harris A 2008)
  24. 24. Models… • Ad-hoc: flexible, lateral, loose but un- coordinated and random. • Autocratic: Unchanged structure although involvement and participation encouraged but structure prevents significant change. • Additive: Structures relatively unchanged but opportunities deliberately created for limited developmental work but impact is additive rather than transformative • Ambitious: flexible, lateral, loose created to generate innovation and change.
  25. 25. and the next session…. Strategic planning and management of change • Why is it so difficult? • What strategies can be adopted? • How is change influenced by the organisation? • What can be the impact upon people in organisations?