What is your style of leadership?
task, but low
Leadership and Management
“ Most definitions of Leadership reflect the
assumption that it involves a social influence
process whereby intentional influence is
exerted by one person [or group] over other
people [or groups] to structure the activities
and relationships in a group or organisation”
“ Managing is maintaining efficiently and
effectively current organisational arrangement.
While managing well often exhibits leadership
skills, the overall function is towards
maintenance rather than change. I prize both
management and leading and attach no special
value to either since different setting and times
call for varied responses.”
(Cuban 1988 Cited in Bush 2003)
Leadership vs. Management
Leadership vs. Management
Vision ImplementationVision Implementation
Strategy OperationalStrategy Operational
Transformation TransactionalTransformation Transactional
Ends MeansEnds Means
People SystemsPeople Systems
What’s in a Name?
Leadership………………………..doing the right things………………………..doing the right things
Management…………………..doing things right…………………..doing things right
Key references:Key references:
Coleman (in Bush and West-Burnham)Coleman (in Bush and West-Burnham) Principles of Educational ManagementPrinciples of Educational Management
Chpt 3 p55-78Chpt 3 p55-78
Hall (in Middlewood & Lumby)Hall (in Middlewood & Lumby) Strategic Management in Schools and CollegesStrategic Management in Schools and Colleges
Chpt 10 p133-147Chpt 10 p133-147
Short TermShort Term Longer termLonger term
SectionalSectional Whole organisationWhole organisation
Immediate ActionImmediate Action ReflectiveReflective
Problem ResolutionProblem Resolution OpportunitiesOpportunities
Governing Body and
Senior staff and
development of staff
All Staff 6-18 Months
Davis and West-Burnham 1990
Aspects of Motivation
Identify aspects of working for and in an
organisation that maybe considered as:
• Motivating factors
• De-motivating factors
Distributed SchoolDistributed School
Needs Levels of energy
Rewards and punishments
‘ Distributed leadership is unlikely to happen if schools stay as they
are. Schools are unlikely to transform themselves without
distribution of leadership roles’, David Jackson, Director of the
Network Learning Group, NCSL (2009)
Moving from one triangle with a ‘situational apex’ to a flattened
triangle, as leadership is distributed.
(Spillane et al, 2001).
“In developing a distributed perspective on
leadership, we moved beyond acknowledging
leadership practice as an organisational
property in order to investigate how leadership
might be conceptualized as a distributed
practice stretched over the social and
situational contexts of the school”
Video discussion points:
•Does your school reflect this style of
•If yes, how?
•If no, why not?
•Are there different types of DSL?
Loose Organisational Coupling
Tight Organisational Coupling
DLAd hoc distribution
Flexible structure but
Flexible structure and deep
Rigid structure and random
Rigid structure with limited
but coordinated forms of
Models of distribution (Harris A 2008)
• Ad-hoc: flexible, lateral, loose but un-
coordinated and random.
• Autocratic: Unchanged structure although
involvement and participation encouraged but
structure prevents significant change.
• Additive: Structures relatively unchanged but
opportunities deliberately created for limited
developmental work but impact is additive rather
• Ambitious: flexible, lateral, loose created to
generate innovation and change.
and the next session….
Strategic planning and management of
• Why is it so difficult?
• What strategies can be adopted?
• How is change influenced by the organisation?
• What can be the impact upon people in