Life and Work of Ivan Sutherland | Turing100@Persistent


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Mr. Atul Narkhede, CTO, GS Lab talks about Life and Work of 1988 Turing award recipient Ivan Sutherland

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  • Light pen: from SAGE computer system - Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (Cold War) - A network of Radars + Computers + Comm
  • Fuselage
  • Military service – US Army CommissionInformation Processing Techniques OfficeAdvanced Research Projects Agency
  • Philco produced the first HMD system called Headsight – 1961But attached to a remote closed-circuit camera
  • - E&S founded with Prof. David Evans, founding memberof CS Dept at University of Utah-
  • Alan Kay: Xerox PARC, AppleEd Catmul: Z buffering
  • Life and Work of Ivan Sutherland | Turing100@Persistent

    1. 1. Ivan SutherlandAtul NarkhedeApril 2013A pioneer in Human Computer Interaction
    2. 2. Turing AwardIvan Sutherland1988“For his pioneering and visionary contributions tocomputer graphics, starting with Sketchpad, andcontinuing after”2
    3. 3. Key ContributionsAmazing range of fundamental contributions toComputer graphics and other disciplines.Graphical User InterfaceCADVirtual RealityComputer GraphicsAsynchronous circuits3
    4. 4. SketchPadSketchpad: A Man-machine GraphicalCommunications SystemDoctoral Dissertation at MIT1963First GUI ever!!4
    5. 5. SketchPad: HardwareTX-2 computerDeveloped at MIT Lincoln Labs in 1958Computer designed to facilitate HumanComputer Interaction (unlike the batchcomputers prevalent then)o 7” CRT with 512 X 512 pixelso Light pen (to identify locations on the screen)o Button boxo Transistor-based (instead of vacuum tubes)5
    6. 6. SketchPad: Hardware: TX-2Console Memory Bank6
    7. 7. Light Pen7
    8. 8. SketchPad: Video8
    9. 9. Sketchpad innovationsSketchpad was a seminal work which introducedseveral fundamental concepts in Graphics and CAD9
    10. 10. Sketchpad innovationsFirst interactive Graphical User Interface10
    11. 11. The entire drawing is specified using a RINGstructureRecursively composed of objects, along withtransformations (move, scale, rotate)Specifies entire topology as well as constraintsPrecursor to modern Scene Graph11Sketchpad: Innovations: Hierarchical Storage
    12. 12. 12Sketchpad: Innovations: Hierarchical Storage
    13. 13. 13Scene Graph
    14. 14. 14Scene Graph
    15. 15. 15OpenInventor Scene Graph Example
    16. 16. 2DConstraint specificationRubber-bandingCopy-PasteDrag and Drop16Sketchpad: First Interactive CAD program
    17. 17. Co-ordinate spacesPage co-ordinates  Scope co-ordinatesZoom, Viewport, Clipping17Sketchpad: Co-ordinate spacespage co-ordinate spacescope co-ods
    18. 18. 18Bounding box based accept/rejectdraw? decisionx xCulling R&D
    19. 19. SketchpadA display connected to a digital computer gives us achance to gain familiarity with concepts notrealizable in the physical world. It is a looking glassinto a mathematical wonderland.- Ivan Sutherland19
    20. 20. Sutherland realized the clear distinctionbetween generic and specific code20Sketchpad: Programming Style
    21. 21. Sketchpad: Programming StyleGeneral  Parent classSpecific  Child class
    22. 22. 22Sketchpad: Object Oriented ProgrammingClasses and Instances“Master Drawing”  “Instance Drawing"
    23. 23. General (applicable to all entities)o scale()o translate()o rotate()Specific (ex. circle, line, point)o draw()o constrain()Precursor to Object Oriented Programming23Sketchpad: Programming Style
    24. 24. 24Sketchpad  Object Oriented ProgrammingAt Utah sometime after Nov 66 when, influenced bySketchpad, Simula, the design for the ARPAnet, the Burroughs B5000, andmy background in Biology and Mathematics, I thought of an architecturefor programming. It was probably in 1967 when someone asked me what Iwas doing, and I said: "Its object-oriented programming".- Alan Kay, Creator of SmallTalk,2003 Turing Award Recipient
    25. 25. The Ultimate Display - 1965Sutherland headed IPTO - ARPAOutlined his vision of the ultimate displayo Using this display, a person could look into avirtual world that would appear as real as thephysical world the user lived ino Visionary predictions, most of which have cometrue25
    26. 26. Head Mounted DisplayFirst Virtual Reality (VR) and AugmentedReality (AR) systemFirst Head Mounted Display (HMD) coupledwith graphics- Present the user with a perspective imagewhich changes as he moves- Surround the user with displayed 3Dinformation26
    27. 27. The Sword of Damocles27
    28. 28. Head Mounted DisplayRealtime graphics system, with dedicatedgraphics hardware (matrix multiplier)Birth of the graphics pipelineWorked with Bob Sproull28
    29. 29. HMD System29
    30. 30. 30The Camera Analogy
    31. 31. HMD pipelineThe matrix multiplier unit is aseparate, dedicated hardware systemo Matrix multiplication, perspective division andclippingo Each module is an independently timed digitaldevice with its own input and outputsynchronizationo Vertex data streams through the pipeline31
    32. 32. HMD System32
    33. 33. 33Vertex Transformation Pipeline: OpenGLHomogeneous co-ordinates, 4x4 matrices, transforms,perspective projection, clipping… all there in this 1968 paper!
    34. 34. Modern Graphics Pipeline34
    35. 35. The Sword of DamoclesFirst Augmented Reality System“half-silvered mirrors in the prisms throughwhich the user looks allow him to see both theimages from the cathode ray tubes and objectsin the room simultaneously”Super-imposition of real-world imagery withgraphical imagery35
    36. 36. Utah – 1968+Professor of Computer Science at Universityof Utaho At the frontiers of Computer Graphics researchFounder of Evans & Sutherland ComputerCorporation (E&S)o Pioneer company in real-timehardware, accelerated 3D graphics hardware36
    37. 37. Graphics action at SLC, UtahAlan Kay: Smalltalk,Windowing GUIHenri Gouraud: Gouraud shadingEd Catmull: Texture mapping,Animation, Pixar, DisneyFrank Crow: Anti-aliasingJim Clark: Geometry pipeline, SGIJohn Warnock: Postscript, Adobe37
    38. 38. Evans & SutherlandCompany formed to produce hardware torealize the graphics techniques developed atUniversity of UtahComputers as simulatorso Flight simulators: Military, Commercial Aircrafto Molecular visualizationLeader in real-time graphics systems until late-80s38
    39. 39. Evans and Sutherland39Wireframe  Polygonal surfaces
    40. 40. E&S: Flight Simulators40Shading  Texture  Fog
    41. 41. E&S: Flight Simulators41CT5 Flight simulator: 1981
    42. 42. Illustrious CareerB.S. (CMU), M.S. (Caltech), Ph.D. (MIT) in EE (1963)Associate Professor of CS at Harvard (1966-1967)Professor of CS at University of Utah (1968-1974)Professor and Founding Head of CS at Caltech (1974-1978)Director of Information Processing Techniques, ARPACo-founder of E&SFounding Partner of Advanced Technology VenturesVP of Sutherland, Sproull and AssociatesVP and Sun Fellow at Sun Microsystems (Sun Labs)Currently @ Asynchronous Research Center, Portland State42
    43. 43. The Trojan Cockroach43Machines that walk
    44. 44. Words of wisdom“Do things that you like and you’re good at!”“Focus on one thing, and do it well”“If it isn’t fun, you’re doing the wrong technology”44
    45. 45. References1. Sutherland, Ivan E., Sketchpad: A man-machine graphical communicationsystem, Doctoral Thesis, MIT, 19632. Sutherland, Ivan E., The Ultimate Display, Proceedings of the IFIPCongress, 1965, pages 506--5083. Sutherland, Ivan E., A Head-Mounted, Three-Dimensional Display, AFIPS Proceedings ofthe Fall Joint Computer Conference, Part I, pp. 757-764, 1968.4. Kay. The early history of Smalltalk. ACMSIGPLAN Notices, 28(3):69.95, 1993. Also inT.J. Bergin and R.G. Gibson, editors, History of Programming Languages II, pages511.578. Addison-Wesley, 19965. “Ivan Sutherland – Sketchpad Demo” – Youtube6. “Mom loved him best: Bert and Ivan Sutherland” - Youtube45
    46. 46. Thank you46