Things you should know off by heart! When I saw off by heart I mean anything that’s written in this PowerPoint you should be able to write in your exam!!
Types of Waste• Biodegradable - will rot away like a banana skin• Non-biodegradable - sits in the ground for years without breaking down, like plastic• Domestic – waste produced in peoples houses• Industrial – waste produced by factories• Hazardous and non-hazardous• Toxic – poisonous to humans and the environment• Recyclable and non-recyclable• Electrical
Difference in Waste Production between LICs and HICsHICs produce more waste because:• We are a consumer society – more money to spend on things so more things to throw away.• We are a throw away society – we don’t reuse or repair we just buy something new.LICs produce less waste because:They do not have the money to buy as many thingsLess packaging is usedA lower literacy rate means that they do not use as much paper because people cant read.
Types of Domestic Waste• E Waste – that’s mobile phones, computers and other electronic equipment• White goods – fridges, freezers and cookers• Packaging – primary, secondary, transit packaging.
Packaging• Paper and cardboard – used widely but not as much as plastic because it is heavier. Can be recycled.• Plastic packaging – used more than paper because is lighter, stronger and lasts better. Very difficult to dispose of.
Local Recycling in Somerset• Somerset Waste Partnership• Weekly food and recycling collection• Fortnightly refuse and garden waste collection.• Amount of waste going into landfill now less than 40%• 27% of all recycling now food waste• Waste then goes to Viridors in Castle Cary – Refuse goes into landfill – Recycling is separated into different categories and remade into new products – Food and garden waste mixed 50/50 and composed for 6-10 weeks – Compost then sold back to local farmers.
Example of Waste Disposal in an HIC - Germany• Landfill – has 160 landfill sites, waste is processed before landfill to reduce its impact.• Incineration – has 68 incinerators, plans to build more, some are mini power plants producing electricity.• Recycling – strict laws on recycling, companies can display the Green Dot emblem to show the packaging is recyclable, exports waste be recycled, recycles 60% of its waste.• Nuclear waste – Germany does not have a deep mine or reprocessing plant, has to sent waste to UK or France for reprocessing – expensive, sends waste to Siberia to be buried in deep mines, they are planning to build a reprocessing plant and convert a deep mine in the future.• Toxic waste – they export much of this as it is expensive to deal with in Germany, 6000 litres of toxic waste was sent to Albania disguised as humanitarian aid where it leaked into a lake killing all aquatic life.
Non-Renewable EnergyCoal, Oil, Natural Gas, NuclearAdvantages:• Much cheaper way of producing electricity• Coal is easy to transport and there is still lots leftDisadvantages:• Burning fossil fuels produces carbon dioxide and contributes to global warming• Non-renewable fuels will eventually run out
Renewable EnergyBiofuels e.g. wood and straw, biogas (methane) from manure, bioethanol (from processing plants ad waste vegetable oil.Advantages:• Biofuels reduce the amount of greenhouse gases• Biofuels will never run outDisadvantages:• Farming and processing the crops uses energy so the benefits are cancelled out• Asian countries may replace rainforest with biofuel plantations in an attempt to make money
Energy Surplus and Deficit• Energy surplus – when a country creates more energy than it needs• Energy deficit – when a country uses more energy than it creates• HICs generally have an energy deficit• LICs generally have an energy surplus
How energy is wasted• Leaving lights on when they are not needed• Leaving phone chargers plugged in• Leaving TV or Xbox on standby• Not having double glazing• Not having loft or cavity wall insulation
Carbon footprints• Carbon footprint is a measure of all the greenhouse gases we are individually responsible for producing.• LICs tend to have smaller carbon footprints than HICs.
Management of energy waste on a domestic scale (in the home)• Turning lights off when not in use.• Unplug chargers after use.• Turn the heating down in summer.• Keep doors and windows closed.• Replace inefficient electrical products.• Loft insulation• Cavity wall insulation• Double or triple glazing.• Solar panels/solar water heating panels.• Wind turbines• Recycling bins
Management of energy waste on a local scale (in your area)• British Gas is working with local councils to improve efficiency. If houses implement changes to save energy they get money off their council tax bill.• Aberdeen Council have installed a communal boiler in a block of flats. This is much more efficient.• Wind turbines can be built at schools and businesses to power them. Any excess energy can be sold to the National Grid.
Management of energy waste on a national scale (in your country)• A grant of £2500 per household is available to install things like wind turbines and solar panels.• No planning permission is needed for solar panels and wind turbines.• Up to £1 million available for public buildings to install green technologies.• UK e-day – when people are asked to think about their energy usage and to turn things off.