PerkinElmer Spotlight on Analytical Applications e-Zine – Volume 16

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Spotlight on Applications is a quarterly compendium of recent applications, delivering a variety of topics that address the pressing issues and analytical challenges you may face today. Our e-zine covers a broad range of applications within various industries – all accessible online at your convenience.

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PerkinElmer Spotlight on Analytical Applications e-Zine – Volume 16

  1. 1. TABLE OF CONTENTS SPOTLIGHT ON APPLICATIONS. FOR A BETTER TOMORROW. VOLUME 16
  2. 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION PerkinElmer Spotlight on Applications e-Zine – Volume 16 PerkinElmer knows that the right training, methods and application support are as integral to getting answers as the instrumentation. That’s why PerkinElmer has developed a novel approach to meet the challenges that today’s labs face, delivering you complete solutions for your application challenges. We are pleased to share with you our Spotlight on Applications e-zine, which delivers a variety of topics that address the pressing issues and analytical challenges you may face in your application areas today. Our Spotlight on Applications e-zine consists of a broad range of applications you’ll be able to access at your convenience. Each application in the table of contents includes an embedded link which takes you directly to the appropriate page within the e-zine. We invite you to explore, enjoy and learn! Be sure to receive future issues by subscribing here. PerkinElmer
  3. 3. TABLE OF CONTENTS CONTENTS Consumer Products • Screening for Paraben in Texture Cream using DSA TOF • Detecting Salicylic Acid in Foundation through DSA TOF Environmental • The Analysis of Water and Wastes by U.S. EPA Method 200.7 Using the Optima 8300 ICP-OES and prepFAST Auto-Dilution/ Calibration System • The Measurement of Fullerene C-60 using DSA TOF Food & Beverage • Arsenic Speciation Analysis in Brown Rice by HPLC/ICP-MS • Rapid Measurement of Olive Oil Adulteration with Soybean Oil with Minimal Sample Preparation Using DSA/TOF • Arsenic Speciation Analysis in White Rice by HPLC/ICP-MS • Targeted Screening of 130 Pesticides in QuEChERS Extracts of Lettuce Leaves Using UHPLC-TOF and High Throughput Screening Software Forensics and Toxicology • The Benefits of NexION 300D ICP-MS’ Reaction Mode in Removing the Gd+2 Interference on Selenium in Serum • The Advantages of the NexION 300D ICP-MS for the Determination of Titanium in Serum Pharmaceuticals & Nutraceuticals • Quantitation of the Amorphicity of Lactose Using Material Pockets • Implementation of USP New Chapters <232> and <233> on Elemental Impurities in Pharmaceutical Product PerkinElmer
  4. 4. TABLE OF CONTENTS DIRECT SAMPLE ANALYSIS TOF MS Chemical: Paraben Screening in Texture Cream Easy to use Ensures product safety No sample prep • Parabens are a class of chemicals used in preservation of personal care products and are implicated to negatively impact human health • DSA/TOF allowed for fast screening of paraben-free texture cream and confirmed the absence of parabens with high mass accuracy • Traditional sample preparation and method development of parabens is time consuming, approximately 25 min per sample. • The analysis was performed in 15 seconds with no sample preparation PerkinElmer, Inc. 940 Winter Street Waltham, MA 02451 USA P: (800) 762-4000 or (+1) 203-925-4602 www.perkinelmer.com For a complete listing of our global offices, visit www.perkinelmer.com/ContactUs Copyright ©2013, PerkinElmer, Inc. All rights reserved. PerkinElmer® is a registered trademark of PerkinElmer, Inc. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. 010883_01 Download Application Brief
  5. 5. TOF MS Chemical: Salicylic Acid in Foundation Results in seconds Product integrity No sample prep or chromatography • Salicylic acid is a common ingredient in acne fighting personal care products used to help clear and prevent skin blemishes • DSA/TOF direct analysis of foundation confirms the presence of salicylic acid with accurate mass • Liquid foundation was directly analyzed to determine if salicylic acid was present • The analysis was performed in 15 seconds with no sample preparation PerkinElmer, Inc. 940 Winter Street Waltham, MA 02451 USA P: (800) 762-4000 or (+1) 203-925-4602 www.perkinelmer.com For a complete listing of our global offices, visit www.perkinelmer.com/ContactUs Copyright ©2013, PerkinElmer, Inc. All rights reserved. PerkinElmer® is a registered trademark of PerkinElmer, Inc. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. 010884_01 Download Application Brief TABLE OF CONTENTS DIRECT SAMPLE ANALYSIS
  6. 6. TABLE OF CONTENTS A P P L I C AT I O N N O T E ICP-Optical Emission Spectroscopy Authors: Deborah K Bradshaw Atomic Spectroscopy Training and Consulting Laura Thompson PerkinElmer, Inc. Shelton, CT The Analysis of Water and Wastes by U.S. EPA Method 200.7 Using the Optima 8300 ICP-OES and prepFAST Auto-Dilution/ Calibration System Introduction The prevention and control of water pollution is of critical importance to protecting human and environmental health. Monitoring of water and wastes is an efficacious way to prevent the introduction of pollutants and costly remediation of drinking and environmentally important waters. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), along with local regulatory bodies, is responsible for regulating water and wastes under the Clean Water Act and the Safe Drinking Water Act. Depending on the number and type of analytes, the number of samples and the productivity requirements, several different analytical techniques can be applied to measure trace elements in water and wastes. U.S. EPA Method 200.7 Version 4.4 covers the use of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) in radial and/or axial viewing for the determination of metals and some non-metals in water and wastes for regulatory compliance.1 Method 200.7 contains a lengthy description of procedures for the collection, preservation and preparation of samples for analysis. The objective of this work was to complete the method using the PerkinElmer® Optima® 8300 ICP-OES coupled with the prepFAST™ Automated In-Line Auto-Dilution/Calibration System (Elemental Scientific Inc., Omaha, NE). Download Entire Application Note
  7. 7. TOF MS Chemical: Fullerene C-60 Easy to use No chromatography Fast accurate mass • Buckminster fullerenes are researched for their technological applications in materials science and nanotechnology. • The analysis was performed in 15 seconds with no sample preparation and external calibration • DSA/TOF analysis, in negative mode, of a 1 mg/mL fullerene C-60 in toluene PerkinElmer, Inc. 940 Winter Street Waltham, MA 02451 USA P: (800) 762-4000 or (+1) 203-925-4602 www.perkinelmer.com For a complete listing of our global offices, visit www.perkinelmer.com/ContactUs Copyright ©2012, PerkinElmer, Inc. All rights reserved. PerkinElmer® is a registered trademark of PerkinElmer, Inc. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. 010564_01 Download Application Brief TABLE OF CONTENTS DIRECT SAMPLE ANALYSIS
  8. 8. TABLE OF CONTENTS APPLICATION NOTE HPLC/ICP-MS Authors: Kyoko Kobayashi, Osamu Shikino Inorganic Product Specialists PerkinElmer Japan Co., Ltd. Arsenic Speciation Analysis in Brown Rice by HPLC/ICP-MS Introduction Arsenic (As) is a well-known toxic element which has been highly regulated, especially for drinking water. Although regulatory limits have been for total arsenic, its toxicity varies widely and is dependent on its chemical form. For example, inorganic forms of arsenic are highly toxic and carcinogenic. However, organic forms (such as monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid, and arsenobetaine) are recognized as non-toxic or as having low toxicity. The Joint Expert Committee on Food and Additives (JECFA) recognizes the importance of monitoring inorganic arsenic intake. In 1988, they established a provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of 0.015 mg/kg body weight inorganic arsenic. However, this recommendation was withdrawn in 2010. In Japan, the average total arsenic intake/person/day is divided between seafood (53.6%), vegetables and seaweed (35.4%), rice (7.1%), and other sources.1 It is known that the majority of arsenic in marine organisms is in the form of arsenobetaine, which is non-toxic. However, because of the large quantities of rice consumed in Japan, it is important to know what forms of arsenic are present in rice. Download Entire Application Note
  9. 9. Mass Spectrometry Author: Avinash Dalmia George L. Perkins PerkinElmer, Inc. Shelton, CT USA Rapid Measurement of Olive Oil Adulteration with Soybean Oil with Minimal Sample Preparation Using DSA/TOF Introduction Among edible oils, olive oil shows important and outstanding characteristics due to its differentiated sensorial qualities (taste and flavor) and higher nutritional value. It is an important oil that is high in nutritional value due to its high content of antioxidants (including vitamin E) 1. Several health benefits, such as its ability to lower LDL cholesterol and its anti-inflammatory activity, associated with its consumption were initially observed among Mediterranean people 2, 3. Olive oil is one of the most adulterated food products of the world due to its relatively low production and higher prices as compared to vegetable and seed oils. Download Entire Application Note TABLE OF CONTENTS APPLICATION NOTE
  10. 10. TABLE OF CONTENTS APPLICATION NOTE HPLC/ICP-MS Authors: Jong Min Park, Sang Kwon Ma Inorganic Product Specialists PerkinElmer South Korea Arsenic Speciation Analysis in White Rice by HPLC/ICP-MS Introduction There has been a rising concern about the presence of arsenic in rice, especially in societies which consume large quantities of rice. Arsenic can enter rice naturally through the environment or through the application of pesticides. Because not all arsenic species are toxic, the ability to measure the different forms is important. In recent years, it has become common to measure different forms of arsenic using HPLC/ICP-MS: HPLC separates the forms and ICP-MS detects them as they elute from the column. The advantage of ICP-MS as an HPLC detector is that it is very sensitive and can measure trace levels, as demonstrated by its use to measure impurities in a wide range of electronic materials and environmental samples. This work demonstrates the ability to measure various arsenic forms in white rice, building upon previous work.1,2 Download Entire Application Note
  11. 11. Liquid Chromatography/ Mass Spectrometry Authors: Sharanya Reddy Ariovaldo Bisi PerkinElmer, Inc. Targeted Screening of 130 Pesticides in QuEChERS Extracts of Lettuce Leaves Using UHPLC-TOF and High Throughput Screening Software Introduction: The Food Quality protection Act (FQPA) in the United States (US) and the European Union (EU) directive 91/414/EEC require that if pesticides are present in food they are below agreed levels due to the health risk posed by pesticides 1, 2. With the advent of large scale agricultural production, hundreds of pesticides have been synthesized in the last century and used widely to protect crops. Newer pesticides continue to be synthesized for crop usage which makes it important to analyze both targeted (or expected analytes) and non-targeted pesticides in food and in the environment. Unlike a triple quadrupole instrument that only measures targeted analytes (defined by selected multiple reaction monitoring of analyte ions or MRMs), the time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer can measure both targeted and non-targeted analytes3. TOF mass spectrometers collect full spectrum information and hence the data can be re-examined for the presence of these “non-targeted” analytes. We present a study of pesticide analysis in a lettuce leaves extract that was obtained by the QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) method of food extraction. The lettuce extract was spiked with varying concentrations of a mix of 130 pesticides and analyzed by Ultra-High Pressure Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) with a PerkinElmer AxION® 2 TOF MS as the detector. We could detect the majority of the pesticides well within the EU limit of detection (LOD) requirement range of 10 ppb. The data was further analyzed using AxION SoloTM high throughput software. The presence of each of the analytes when detected above the 10 ppb threshold was given a specific color code which helped to rapidly screen for presence/absence of all 130 analytes in each sample. A combination of short run times and powerful screening software helped simplify analysis and also reduce the time of analysis. Download Entire Application Note TABLE OF CONTENTS APPLICATION NOTE
  12. 12. TABLE OF CONTENTS A P P L I C AT I O N N O T E ICP-MS Authors Peter Dickenson1, Gavin Robinson2 1 PerkinElmer Australia Melbourne, Victoria 3150 Australia Robinson Scientific Cambridge 3434 New Zealand 2 The Benefits of NexION 300D ICP-MS’ Reaction Mode in Removing the Gd+2 Interference on Selenium in Serum Introduction The analysis of bodily fluids for trace elements is common to monitor individuals’ exposure to toxic elements and assess nutritional deficiencies. To realize these goals, urine, whole blood, and blood serum are commonly analyzed for a variety of trace elements. Although these matrices are similar, there could be wide variation within a matrix type among individuals. This work describes a case study involving the analysis of selenium in blood serum, where the ability to remove the gadolinium (Gd) doubly-charged interference is demonstrated. Experimental Sample Preparation Ten serum samples and two QC samples (UTAK Serum, Normal and High) were prepared by 10x dilution in 1% nitric acid. Germanium (10 µg/L) was added as an internal standard. Quantitative results were determined with Additions Calibrations, which involves preparing the calibration standards in a representative sample and measuring all other samples against this calibration curve. Download Entire Application Note
  13. 13. ICP-Mass Spectrometry Authors: Fadi Abou-Shakra David Price PerkinElmer, Inc. Shelton, CT The Advantages of the NexION 300D ICP-MS for the Determination of Titanium in Serum Introduction Titanium (Ti) is commonly used in metallic hip replacement joints. Owing to wear and tear or different types of electrochemical processes that could take place in the body, there is a serious potential of leakage of Ti into the surrounding tissues. As such, it is important to monitor the Ti serum levels in patients that have undergone or are due to undergo a hip replacement surgery. The analysis of Ti in serum by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) faces many challenges due to significant spectroscopic interferences from Ca on the major isotope of Ti (m/z 48) and other molecular ions such as PO+, SO+, CO2+, ArC+ and NO2+. The PerkinElmer NexION® 300D ICP-MS is a robust, highly innovative cell-based system benefitting from three quadrupoles with the middle one acting as a universal cell. This cell can be used both as a collision cell using inert gases, such as He, and as a true dynamic reaction cell with the benefits of using the most appropriate reactive gas for the efficient targeting of any spectral interference. In this work, we describe a method to shift the Ti ions away from the interferences using Reaction mode with ammonia as the reaction gas to determine the concentration of Ti in serum. Download Entire Application Brief TABLE OF CONTENTS APPLICATION BRIEF
  14. 14. TABLE OF CONTENTS APPLICATION NOTE Thermal Analysis Quantitation of the Amorphicity of Lactose Using Material Pockets Summary Lactose is a very important pharmaceutical excipient used in tablet and inhalation products. It is prone to forming amorphous regions on processing however, and can be problematical to characterize the exact amount of amorphic material in a sample. This application note describes a DMA method for quantitatively determining the amorphic content of lactose using the PerkinElmer® Material Pocket. The complex tan δ response will be interpreted and an indication of the detection limits of the technique will be discussed. Introduction Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) is one of the most appropriate methods to investigate relaxation events. This fact, until now, has not been exploited for powdered materials due to the difficulty in handling them in mechanical tests. The Material Pocket was developed to allow powdered materials to be investigated in a DMA 8000. The size of the observed glass transition in the tan δ response is directly proportional to the amount of amorphous material in the sample. As the crystalline component has no glass transition, it has no contribution to the result obtained. DMA works by applying an oscillating force to the material and the resultant displacement of the sample is measured. From this, the stiffness can be determined and the modulus and tan δ can be calculated. Tan δ is the ratio of the loss modulus to the storage modulus. By measuring the phase lag in the displacement compared to the applied force it is possible to determine the damping properties of the material. Tan δ is plotted against temperature and glass transition is normally observed as a peak since the material will absorb energy as it passes through the glass transition. Download Entire Application Note
  15. 15. Implementation of USP New Chapters <232> and <233> on Elemental Impurities in Pharmaceutical Products Author PerkinElmer, Inc. Shelton, CT Introduction For more than 100 years, the standard method for measuring elemental impurities in pharmaceutical products sold in the United States has been the “Heavy Metals Test,” described in Chapter 231 of the United States Pharmacopeia’s (USP) National Formulary (NF).1 This test is based on a sulfide precipitation of the analyte elements with a thioacetamide (C2H5NS) solution, and assumes that all analytes behave in a similar manner to a lead standard with which samples are compared. When the USP heavy metals method was first published, it was only intended as a screening tool with results being reported as < 10 ppm Pb. Additionally, although USP Chapter <231> is listed as a “Heavy Metals Test,” it was initially intended to detect a larger group of elements like Pb, Hg, Bi, As, Sb, Sn, Cd, Ag, Cu, Mo, and Se, but there was no clear definition of which individual elements the method was expected to detect. One of the many limitations of this approach is the assumption that the reaction mechanism for the formation of the sulfides in the sample is very similar to the formation of lead sulfide in the standard solution and is not impacted significantly by the sample matrix. However, since many metals’ sulfides can form colloids, which behave very differently to solutions, the method requires that the visual comparison is performed in a relatively short period of time (< 5 mins.) after the precipitate has formed but before the sample starts to become unstable. The problem is that different analysts can differ in their interpretation of a result by how they perform the visual comparison, and it is fairly typical that inexperienced analysts may not understand the subtleties of how to accurately and consistently read the sample and standard solutions each time. Another limitation of the technique is that ~ 2 g of sample is required in order to achieve the desired detection capability. Such a large sample weight is often difficult to acquire at the early stages of drug development due to the very limited supply. This is additionally compounded by the sample Download Entire White Paper preparation procedure, involving ashing at 600 °C and acid dissolution of the sample residue, which is notoriously prone to sample losses. In fact, some studies have shown that up to 50% of the metals may be lost during the ashing process, particularly the volatile elements like selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg). The loss of metals is also matrix-dependent, and because the procedures are time-consuming and labor-intensive, recoveries can vary significantly among differing analysts. Expert Committee Findings The general consensus by a panel of experts in a 2008 workshop organized by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) was that the current methodology for metals testing was inadequate and should be replaced by instrumental methods of greater specificity and sensitivity for a wide range of metals of interest. The challenge, however, was finding a suitable analytical method and combining it with risk assessment studies to get a better understanding of what metals have a negative impact on public health. Due to known toxicity effects and the potential for contamination in pharmaceutical ingredients, there was agreement that lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), and cadmium (Cd) would need to be measured at toxicologicallyrelevant concentrations. In addition, metal catalysts such as the platinum group metals (PGMs) – platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd), ruthenium (Ru), rhodium (Rh), and rubidium (Rb) – used in the production of many pharmaceuticals, should be included based on the likelihood of them being present. Also, a wider range of metals used as organometallic reagents were used in the manufacturing process and therefore at risk of being present. An important consideration was the form of the metal, particularly with arsenic and mercury. For example, dietary TABLE OF CONTENTS WHITE PAPER
  16. 16. TABLE OF CONTENTS USEFUL LINKS View previous issues of our Spotlight on Applications e-Zine • Volumes 1-15 • Food & Beverage Special Edition • Environmental Special Edition Access our application archives By Industry: • Consumer Products • Energy • Environmental • Food, Beverage & Nutraceuticals • Forensics • Lubricants • Pharmaceutical Development & Manufacturing • Polymers/Plastics • Semiconductor & Electronics Introducing the NEW GC SNFR™ Olfactory Port — designed to provide complete aroma characterization of food, beverages and fragrances By Technology: • Atomic Absorption (AA) • Elemental Analysis • Gas Chromatography (GC) • GC Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) • Hyphenated Technology • ICP Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) • Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP-OES & ICP-AES) • Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR & IR) • LIMS & Data Handling • Liquid Chromatography (HPLC & UHPLC) • Mass Spectrometry • Thermal Analysis • UV/Vis & UV/Vis/NIR Screen for economic adulterants in milk powder with our New DairyGuard™ Milk Powder Analyzer based on the powerful Frontier NIR platform PerkinElmer, Inc. 940 Winter Street Waltham, MA 02451 USA P: (800) 762-4000 or (+1) 203-925-4602 www.perkinelmer.com For a complete listing of our global offices, visit www.perkinelmer.com/ContactUs Copyright ©2013, PerkinElmer, Inc. All rights reserved. PerkinElmer® is a registered trademark of PerkinElmer, Inc. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. 011343_01

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