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VOLUME 14SPOTLIGHTON APPLICATIONS.FOR A BETTERTOMORROW.TABLEOFCONTENTS
PerkinElmerTABLEOFCONTENTSINTRODUCTIONPerkinElmer Spotlight on Applications e-Zine – Volume 14PerkinElmer knows that the r...
PerkinElmerCONTENTSTABLEOFCONTENTSEnergy & Industrial• Use of the STA 8000 Simultaneous Thermal Analyzer for Melt Analysis...
Download Entire Application NoteTABLEOFCONTENTSIntroductionWhile determining the composition of alloys has traditionallybe...
TABLEOFCONTENTSDownload Entire Application NoteIntroductionThere are more than a thousand products claiming tocontain Engi...
TABLEOFCONTENTSIntroductionIn a process known for millennia, clayis heated to yellow heat where thecomponents are transfor...
Download Entire Application NoteTABLEOFCONTENTSAbstractThe STA 8000 Simultaneous ThermalAnalyzer (STA) is able to analyze ...
TABLEOFCONTENTSIntroductionHops are crucial in beer brewing. They are added after the maltingof the grains and provide bee...
TABLEOFCONTENTSPomegranate JuiceAdulterationIntroductionPomegranate juice’s popularity has skyrocketed in the last10 years...
TABLEOFCONTENTSMilk Authenticity –Organic vs Non-organicWith increasing concerns over contaminants in milk,both intentiona...
TABLEOFCONTENTSTOF MSDirect Sample analySiSEasy to useFast accurate massAssures food safety•	 Residual	thiabendazole	was		...
Download Entire Application NoteTABLEOFCONTENTSSynthetic cathinones are gaining popularityas drugs of abuse and are often ...
Download Application BriefTABLEOFCONTENTSTOF MSDirect Sample analySiSForensics: NitroglycerinFor a complete listing of our...
TABLEOFCONTENTSDownload Application BriefTOF MSDirect Sample analySiSResults in secondsNo method developmentConfirms produ...
TABLEOFCONTENTSHyperDSC™(or High Speed DSC), athermal technique that complementsconventional calorimetry, hasfound applica...
TABLEOFCONTENTSFor a complete listing of our global offices, visit www.perkinelmer.com/ContactUsCopyright ©2012, PerkinElm...
TABLEOFCONTENTSResults in secondsComplete componentanalysisConfirms productauthenticityTOF MSDirect Sample analySiS•	 DSA/...
TABLEOFCONTENTSPerkinElmer, Inc.940 Winter StreetWaltham, MA 02451 USAP: (800) 762-4000 or(+1) 203-925-4602www.perkinelmer...
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Spotlight on Analytical Applications e-Zine – Volume 14

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Spotlight on Applications is a quarterly compendium of recent applications, delivering a variety of topics that address the pressing issues and analytical challenges you may face today. Our e-zine covers a broad range of applications within various industries – all accessible online at your convenience.

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Transcript of "Spotlight on Analytical Applications e-Zine – Volume 14"

  1. 1. VOLUME 14SPOTLIGHTON APPLICATIONS.FOR A BETTERTOMORROW.TABLEOFCONTENTS
  2. 2. PerkinElmerTABLEOFCONTENTSINTRODUCTIONPerkinElmer Spotlight on Applications e-Zine – Volume 14PerkinElmer knows that the right training, methods and application support areas integral to getting answers as the instrumentation. That’s why PerkinElmer hasdeveloped a novel approach to meet the challenges that today’s labs face, deliveringyou complete solutions for your application challenges.We are pleased to share with you our Spotlight on Applications e-zine, whichdelivers a variety of topics that address the pressing issues and analytical challengesyou may face in your application areas today.Our Spotlight on Applications e-zine consists of a broad range of applications you’ll beable to access at your convenience. Each application in the table of contents includesan embedded link which takes you directly to the appropriate page within the e-zine.We invite you to explore, enjoy and learn!Be sure to receive futureissues by subscribing here.
  3. 3. PerkinElmerCONTENTSTABLEOFCONTENTSEnergy & Industrial• Use of the STA 8000 Simultaneous Thermal Analyzer for Melt Analysis of Alloys• Characterizing Interaction of Nanoparticles with Organic Pollutants Using Coupling ThermalAnalysis with Spectroscopic Techniques• Porcelain Clay Analysis Using the STA 8000 Simultaneous Thermal Analyzer• Proximate Analysis of Coal and Coke Using the STA 8000 Simultaneous Thermal AnalyzerFood Beverage• Determination of α-acids in Hops and Beers Using UHPLC• Testing for Pomegranate Juice Adulteration• Testing for the Authenticity of Milk• Fungicide on Apple Peel Using DSA TOFForensics Toxicology• Analysis of Cathinones in Bath Salts by Direct Sample Analysis TOF MS• The Analysis of Nitroglycerin in Gunshot Residue Using DSA TOFPharmaceuticals Nutraceuticals• Analysis of Paracetamol Tablets Using DSA TOF• Practical Applications of HyperDSC in a Pharmaceutical Laboratory• Analysis of Aerosols/Inhalers Using DSA TOF• Components of Panadol®Sinus Max Using DSA TOF
  4. 4. Download Entire Application NoteTABLEOFCONTENTSIntroductionWhile determining the composition of alloys has traditionallybeen the domain of differential scanning calorimeters ordifferential thermal analyzers,1the STA 8000 has shown itselfto be capable of this type of demanding analysis as well. Therequirements for melt analysis are accurate temperature andmelt energy measurement and the ability to exclude oxygen –or if necessary, nitrogen – during the analysis. This note showsexamples of two high temperature melting systems, includingiron-nickel alloys which require oxygen exclusion.ExperimentalThe STA 8000 (Figure 1) provides the analysis of sample sizes typically inthe 10 to 200 milligram range with the samples heated by a small furnace(~20 cc volume) capable of operating from 15 to 1600 degrees Celsius.2The STA sensor is a double pan differential temperature sensor which iscalibrated to generate data for heat flow to the sample with an accuracyof 5% or better. The weight sensor is located remotely below the furnacewhere it is isolated from sample decomposition products by inert purgethrough a narrow channel. This provides microgram-level weight changedetectability of sample loss or oxidative gain. Unless otherwise noted thepurge gas used for this note was nitrogen at a flow rate of 100 cc/min. Theuse of argon instead of nitrogen is supported in the Pyris™software whichcontrols the flow rate of gas through the furnace chamber and provides forgas switching and flow rate changes.Simultaneous Thermal Analysisa p p l i c a t i o n n o t eAuthorsBruce CasselKevin P. MenardPerkinElmer, Inc.Shelton, CT USAProfessor Charles EarnestBerry CollegeDepartment of ChemistryMount Berry, GA USAUse of the STA 8000Simultaneous ThermalAnalyzer for MeltAnalysis of AlloysFigure 1. STA 8000 SimultaneousThermal Analyzer.
  5. 5. TABLEOFCONTENTSDownload Entire Application NoteIntroductionThere are more than a thousand products claiming tocontain Engineered Nanoparticles (ENP) in productsranging from clothing, cosmetics, and electronics, tobiomedical, chemical, energy, environmental, food,materials and optical products. The effects of ENP onenvironmental and human health are strongly related totheir large surface-to-mass ratio and surface properties.Although the influence of natural colloids on theenvironment is well documented, we have limitedunderstanding of the fate, transport, toxicity andpollutant interactions of ENP. The tools to study theseinteractions are being developed.Pollutants-colloid interactionMany nanoparticles suspended in natural water come in contact with pollutants and proteinaceousmaterials. The unique properties and behaviors of ENP are strongly influenced by their physical-chemical characteristics, including their high surface area relative to their volume, high interfaceenergy and high surface-to-charge ratio density.The partitioning and phase distribution of hazardous organic compounds (HOC) can influencethe fate and bioavailability of the contaminants in aquatic systems and aquatic microorganismssignificantly. There are a wide range of organic and inorganic pollutants that become associatedwith partitioning of HOC to the particles. This partitioning has been shown to be inverselyproportional to log solubility of HOC and the log of particle concentration. Dynamics of nanoparticle-water partitioning can significantly influence the speciation, and hence, understanding the fate,transport and toxicological impact of POPs such as PAHs, PCBs is critical. The fate of organicpollutants in aquatic environment depends largely on their partitioning behavior to nanoparticlesand colloids.TGA-GC-MSa p p l i c a t i o n n o t eAuthorsE. Sahle-DemessieAmy ZhaoU.S. Environmental Protection AgencyCincinnati, OH USAAndrew W. SalamonPerkinElmer, Inc.Shelton, CT USACharacterizing Interaction ofNanoparticles with OrganicPollutants Using CouplingThermal Analysis withSpectroscopic Techniques
  6. 6. TABLEOFCONTENTSIntroductionIn a process known for millennia, clayis heated to yellow heat where thecomponents are transformed in a series ofprocesses, as the “mud” is transformedinto a useful vessel, or a beautiful piece ofart. Whether a porcelain clay formulationis being used in the production ofa commercial product, or an artisticcreation, the ceramicist needs to ensure the quality of the finished product, andthis depends in part upon the chemical and physical behavior of the formulationduring the firing process. For example, in the firing of a porcelain clay object,such as shown above,1the physical and chemical properties of the clayformulation determines whether the structure slumps as it is fired, whether thereis cracking around sharp edges, and whether the final product is bright andtranslucent. So what can thermal analysis in general, and Simultaneous ThermalAnalysis (STA) specifically, tell us about such a clay formulation and about thefiring process?2,3,4Simultaneous Thermal Analysisa p p l i c a t i o n n o t eAuthorsBruce CasselPerkinElmer, Inc.Shelton, CT USAJennifer McCurdyVineyard Haven, MA USAProfessor Charles EarnestDept. of Chemistry, Berry CollegeMount Berry, GA, USAPorcelain Clay Analysisusing the STA 8000Simultaneous ThermalAnalyzerDownload Entire Application Note
  7. 7. Download Entire Application NoteTABLEOFCONTENTSAbstractThe STA 8000 Simultaneous ThermalAnalyzer (STA) is able to analyze coal andcoke to obtain Proximate Analysis data– volatiles, fixed carbon and ash – using10 to 100 milligram samples. This paperdemonstrates this utility using standardcoal and coke samples.IntroductionProximate analysis has long been used to determine the rank of coals byseparating volatile components, fixed carbon and inert components. Becauseof the wide ranging quality of coal products and the commercial value ofranking these products the need for good methods is obvious. To meet theseneeds there are ASTM®tests to perform these separations separately usingspecialized industrial equipment.1When using the ASTM®methods, thesetests are carried out with gram sized samples to reduce the effort required toget a representative, smaller sample. Round robin testing using homogenizedsample materials and multiple laboratories identified and documented manyof the considerations for performing this coal-ranking separation reliably.Because of the wide range of volatile and pyrolytic components this is anempirical separation with an arbitrary aspect to it. Therefore, standard samplesare used to allow testers to fine-tune their conditions to get the standardizedanalysis.2These standard samples are available in a -60 mesh (250 micronProximate Analysis ofCoal and Coke using theSTA 8000 SimultaneousThermal AnalyzerThermal Analysisa p p l i c a t i o n n o t eAuthorsBruce CasselKevin MenardPerkinElmer, Inc.Shelton, CT USAProfessor Charles EarnestDept. of ChemistryBerry CollegeMt. Berry, GA USA
  8. 8. TABLEOFCONTENTSIntroductionHops are crucial in beer brewing. They are added after the maltingof the grains and provide beers with their recognizable bitter tasteand aroma. The widespread use of hops in beer dates back to thesixteenth century. However, as early as in the eleventh century itwas used as a natural preservative in central Europe (today Germany); the outcome was not only awell preserved beer, but a beer with a distinctive smell and taste.Hops come from a cone-like plant called Humulus lupulus with luplin gland that contains resinand oils. The resins contain a number of α-acids that impart the bitter taste to most beers; the oilsin large part give beers their aroma.One essential aspect of the quality control in beer brewing is making sure that the type andamount of α-acids are the same from batch to batch, and that their transformation into the bitteriso-α-acids during the brewing process gives individual brand its recognizable taste consistently(Figure 1). To that end, in breweries around the world, α-acids in hops and beers are constantlymonitored. This application note presents a straightforward method to determine the type andamount of α-acids in pellets from five hops varieties. An American IPA beer is analyzed to confirmthe presence of isomerized α-acids.UHPLCa p p l i c a t i o n n o t eAuthorsNjies PedjiePerkinElmer, Inc.Shelton, CT USADeterminationof α-acids in Hopsand BeersFigure 1. Isomerization of hop α-acids to iso-α-acids during brewing.Download Entire Application Note
  9. 9. TABLEOFCONTENTSPomegranate JuiceAdulterationIntroductionPomegranate juice’s popularity has skyrocketed in the last10 years. This has been due to a combination of the perceivedhealth benefits of consuming the juice’s various antioxidantcompounds (punicalagin, anthocyanins and ellagic acid) andits increased mainstream availability through Western pomegranate producers. This increaseis highlighted by the rise in the consumption of 8-ounce servings of pomegranate juice in theU.S., which went from 75M servings in 2004 to 450M servings by 2008.1Interestingly, thisdata indicates that in 2004, there was 50:50 pure-to-blended pomegranate juice consumption,whereas in 2008, 100% pomegranate juice made up 75% of that consumed.1Popular juiceblends, such as apple and grape, are less bitter and can make the overall juice taste morepleasant to those new to pomegranate. These blends have an additional advantage of beingcheaper than pure pomegranate juice. Whereas a gallon of pomegranate juice concentrate costs$30-60, a gallon of apple or grape juice is between $5-7. This means if a pomegranate juiceproduct is labeled as a blend with apple and grape juice, the consumer can expect to pay lessthan the cost of pure pomegranate juice.CasestudyFood FraudDownload Entire Case Study
  10. 10. TABLEOFCONTENTSMilk Authenticity –Organic vs Non-organicWith increasing concerns over contaminants in milk,both intentionally and unintentionally added, a growingnumber of people are switching to organic milk(sales of whole organic milk were up 17% between January and October of 2011 in theU.S. with reduced fat organic milk up 15%).1This surge in popularity, coupled with highfood and fuel prices, has caused shortages in the supply of organic milk.2With demandtherefore outstripping supply, and a gallon of organic milk costing anywhere from 25%to 100% more than conventional milk, the selling of conventional milk as organic is anattractive proposition to fraudsters. In the U.S. and E.U., the labelling of organic productshas meant stricter policing of farming practices but this is not the case with all countries.Furthermore, with the growing export of organic milk powders, these fake organic milkpowders can find their way into the West through distributors or through processedfoods, such as chocolates, which will also command a higher price if claiming to beorganic. While these substitutions invariably do not cause health problems it is still fraud,with consumers not getting what they paid for and hardworking organic farmers losingbusiness and having profit margins eroded.CasestudyFood FraudDownload Entire Case Study
  11. 11. TABLEOFCONTENTSTOF MSDirect Sample analySiSEasy to useFast accurate massAssures food safety• Residual thiabendazole was confirmed using DSA/TOF with high mass accuracy• Analysis performed in 15 seconds with no sample preparation and external calibrationFood and Beverage: Fungicide on Apple PeelFor a complete listing of our global offices, visit www.perkinelmer.com/ContactUscopyright ©2012, perkinelmer, inc. all rights reserved. perkinelmer®is a registered trademark of perkinelmer, inc. all other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.010589_01PerkinElmer, Inc.940 Winter StreetWaltham, ma 02451 USap: (800) 762-4000 or(+1) 203-925-4602www.perkinelmer.com• Thiabendazole is a common ingredient in the waxes applied to the skins of citrus fruits and is also a fungicide used to protect harvest yields.Download Application Brief
  12. 12. Download Entire Application NoteTABLEOFCONTENTSSynthetic cathinones are gaining popularityas drugs of abuse and are often sold in bathsalts. Currently, there is no standard methodto quickly screen and confirm cathinonesin bath salts. To address this issue, use ofthe AxION®Direct Sample Analysis™(DSA™)integrated with the AxION 2 time-of-flightmass spectrometer (TOF) (PerkinElmer, Waltham,MA) was implemented. Cathinone standards and bath salt samples were rapidlyscreened and confirmed in seconds by accurate mass and isotopic distribution ofparent and fragment ions using DSA/TOF and AxION Solo™software.IntroductionCathinone is a beta-ketone amphetamine analogue that is found naturallyin the Catha edulis plant. Derivatives of cathinone have been synthesizedand are grouped together as cathinones.1Synthetic cathinones have gainedpopularity in the U.S. over the last few years as drugs of abuse, and are oftensold as bath salts in head shops. The synthetic stimulants are used as legalsubstitutes for other illicit drugs, such as cocaine and methamphetamine. Bathsalt components continually change as street chemists alter existing compoundsto avoid detection. This in turn makes law enforcement surrounding bath saltsand cathinones difficult. To date, the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) has onlybeen successful in permanently banning two cathionones: mephedrone andmethylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV).2Mass Spectrometrya p p l i c a t i o n n o t eAuthorsNoelle M. ElliottAvinash DalmiaCarl SchwarzPerkinElmer, Inc.Shelton, CT USAAmanda M. LefflerFrank DormanPennsylvania State UniversityUniversity Park, PA USAAnalysis of Cathinonesin Bath Salts by DirectSample Analysis TOF MS
  13. 13. Download Application BriefTABLEOFCONTENTSTOF MSDirect Sample analySiSForensics: NitroglycerinFor a complete listing of our global offices, visit www.perkinelmer.com/ContactUscopyright ©2012, perkinelmer, inc. all rights reserved. perkinelmer®is a registered trademark of perkinelmer, inc. all other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.010565_01PerkinElmer, Inc.940 Winter StreetWaltham, ma 02451 USap: (800) 762-4000 or(+1) 203-925-4602www.perkinelmer.comResults in secondsNo sample preparationNon-destructive• DSA/TOF analysis on fabric identified gunshot residue by confirmation of nitroglyercin with accurate mass• Analysis was performed in 15 seconds with no sample preparation and external calibration• 2% Dichloromethylene in methanol (as a dopant) was infused at 10 µL/min to ionize nitroglycerin as a chloride adduct• Gunshot residue analysis on fabric is important for forensic analysis of crime scenes. Modern gun powders use nitrocellulose and nitroglyercin as basic ingredients.
  14. 14. TABLEOFCONTENTSDownload Application BriefTOF MSDirect Sample analySiSResults in secondsNo method developmentConfirms productauthenticity• DSA/TOF analysis of a tablet directly detects components with a high mass accuracy• Analysis was performed in 15 seconds with no sample preparation and external calibration• Paracetamol is a widely used over the counter analgesic and antipyretic, commonly used for the relief of minor aches and pains.Pharmaceutical: Paracetamol TabletsFor a complete listing of our global offices, visit www.perkinelmer.com/ContactUscopyright ©2012, perkinelmer, inc. all rights reserved. perkinelmer®is a registered trademark of perkinelmer, inc. all other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.010591_01PerkinElmer, Inc.940 Winter StreetWaltham, ma 02451 USap: (800) 762-4000 or(+1) 203-925-4602www.perkinelmer.com
  15. 15. TABLEOFCONTENTSHyperDSC™(or High Speed DSC), athermal technique that complementsconventional calorimetry, hasfound applications in the fieldsof pharmaceutical, polymers andcompounds.This technique features measurements taken at high heating (or cooling)rates, from 100 to 500 °C/min. It is an approach that makes it easier to detectsuch events as glass transition or the melting of a compound when theyare concealed by kinetic phenomena like, for example, water vaporization,crystallization or chemical degradation.Furthermore, HyperDSC offers greatly enhanced analysissensitivity due to the concentration of the energy phenomenameasured into a very brief space of time. Calorimetricanalyses on samples of very low mass (below 10 µg) arethus made possible. The detection limits permitted by thistechnique can be lowered considerably as compared withconventional DSC, down to values 1% when quantifyingphysical forms (amorphous or crystalline). HyperDSC analysescan be carried out on the power compensation DSC 8500from PerkinElmer shown in Figure 1. Figure 1. DSC 8500.Differential Scanning Calorimetrya p p l i c a t i o n n o t eAuthorsSvenja GothPerkinElmer, Inc.Rodgau, GermanyDidier ClénetSanofi-AventisAnalytical Sciences DepartmentPhysical Characterization LaboratoryVitry-sur-Seine, FrancePractical Applicationsof HyperDSC in aPharmaceuticalLaboratoryDownload Entire Application Note
  16. 16. TABLEOFCONTENTSFor a complete listing of our global offices, visit www.perkinelmer.com/ContactUsCopyright ©2012, PerkinElmer, Inc. All rights reserved. PerkinElmer®is a registered trademark of PerkinElmer, Inc. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.010561_01PerkinElmer, Inc.940 Winter StreetWaltham, MA 02451 USAP: (800) 762-4000 or(+1) 203-925-4602www.perkinelmer.comTOF MSDIrECt SAMPlE AnAlySISNo method developmentFast accurate massAssures product safety• The active compound was measured using DSA/TOF which provided accurate mass confirmation• Analysis was performed in 15 seconds with no sample preparation and external calibration• Albuterol sulfate inhalation aerosol is intended for oral inhalation as a treatment for bronchospasm. It contains a microcrystalline suspension of albuterol sulfate in a propellant, and no other excipients.Pharmaceutical: Aerosols/InhalersDownload Application Brief
  17. 17. TABLEOFCONTENTSResults in secondsComplete componentanalysisConfirms productauthenticityTOF MSDirect Sample analySiS• DSA/TOF analysis of a tablet directly detects components with a high mass accuracy • Analysis was performed in 15 seconds with no sample preparation and external calibrationFor a complete listing of our global offices, visit www.perkinelmer.com/ContactUscopyright ©2012, perkinelmer, inc. all rights reserved. perkinelmer®is a registered trademark of perkinelmer, inc. all other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.010741_01PerkinElmer, Inc.940 Winter StreetWaltham, ma 02451 USap: (800) 762-4000 or(+1) 203-925-4602www.perkinelmer.com• Panadol® Sinus Max is designed for fast and effective relief of sinus congestion and pressure.Pharmaceutical: Components of Panadol®Sinus MaxDownload Application Brief
  18. 18. TABLEOFCONTENTSPerkinElmer, Inc.940 Winter StreetWaltham, MA 02451 USAP: (800) 762-4000 or(+1) 203-925-4602www.perkinelmer.comFor a complete listing of our global offices, visit www.perkinelmer.com/ContactUsCopyright ©2013, PerkinElmer, Inc.All rights reserved. PerkinElmer® is a registered trademark of PerkinElmer, Inc.All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.010948_01USEFUL LINKSView previous issues of our Spotlight on Applications e-Zine• Volumes 1-14• Food Beverage Special Edition• Environmental Special EditionAccess our application archivesBy Industry:• Consumer Products• Energy• Environmental• Food, Beverage Nutraceuticals• Forensics• Lubricants• Pharmaceutical Development Manufacturing• Polymers/Plastics• Semiconductor ElectronicsBy Technology:• Atomic Absorption (AA)• Elemental Analysis• Gas Chromatography (GC)• GC Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS)• Hyphenated Technology• ICP Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS)• Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP-OES ICP-AES)• Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR IR)• LIMS Data Handling• Liquid Chromatography (HPLC UHPLC)• Mass Spectrometry• Thermal Analysis• UV/Vis UV/Vis/NIRSee the AxION DSAin action through theLive Lab video serieswww.perkinelmer.com/dsaSPE Application NotebookA comprehensive guide that walks youstep-by-step through each SPE method

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