IDIOMS TEACHING THROUGH  THE MULTIPLE PATHWAYS         MODEL                          1
Difficult to                 acquire                                   Lack of a                                 relations...
SUMMARY OF PRESENTATION•   Definition of idioms.•   The Idiom-meaning guessing method.•   The Multiple Pathways Model.•   ...
DEFINITION OF IDIOMS                3 CHARACTERISTICS1. Compositionality (the degree to which a lexical string   can be un...
LITERAL   FIGURATIVE                        IDIOMMEANING    MEANING                        KICK                        THE...
4 CLUES TO RECOGNIZING             IDIOMS1. They violate true conditions (it rains cats and   dogs)2. They are sometimes n...
• Keeping someone at arm‟s length  DEGREE OFIMAGEABILITY               • Passing the buck  DEGREE OFTRANSPARENCY          ...
THE IDIOM-MEANING GUESSING           METHOD    (Skoufaki’s study, 2006)• adult Greek learners of English who were  univers...
SKOUFAKI’S STUDY COMPARED TO               COOPER’S ONE                                        Strategies used by immigran...
STRATEGIES THAT LEAD TO  STRATEGIES USED BY                THE SUCCESSFUL                                 INTERPRETATION O...
CONSEQUENTLY               11
CONCLUSIONS BY SKOUFAKI       AND COOPERIf teachers start using the   Bearing in mind whichidiom-meaning guessing        s...
THE MULTIPLE PATHWAYS       MODEL   HOW THE BRAIN LEARNS      (Dr. Zadina, 2004)                           13
14
• The brain utilizes  multiple pathways to  fire the needed  neurons, and that  different brains will  utilize different  ...
PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING COMPLYING WITH THE MULTIPLE      PATHWAYS MODEL1. Making connections between new and existing   kno...
TYING THESE PRINCIPLES TO   THE TEACHING OF IDIOMS1. Using the strategy of cross-cultural and cross-   linguistic differen...
THE PATHWAYS1. SENSORY-MOTOR: the visual, the auditory   and the motor (i.e. speech and kinesthetic)   modalities.        ...
2. REWARD/SURVIVAL/PLEASURE• The emotions through which the brain survives are  cognition, control, fear and pleasure.• Th...
3. SOCIAL PATHWAY• Students learn better by “doing” after they  have had a chance to watch others perform the  same activi...
Another two interconnected       pathways: EMOTION and             ATTENTION• “Emotion drives attention and attention driv...
COMBINING THE IDIOM-MEANING GUESSING METHODWITH THE MULTIPLE PATHWAYS          MODEL                         22
THE SENSORY-MOTOR PATHWAY –   MENTAL IMAGERYVISUAL MODALITY      STRATEGY                               23
• Teachers should try to turn ideas into images, or  ask the students to show their images of that idea.• The visual shoul...
EXAMPLE 1“TO POP THE QUESTION”Literal meaning   Figurative meaning                                       25
EXAMPLE 2“BE WAITING IN THE WINGS” Literal meaning        Figurative meaning                   • Ready to enter a situatio...
EXAMPLE 3“STICKING ONE’S NOSE INTO SOMETHING”   Literal meaning        Figurative meaning                     • To interfe...
EXAMPLE 4“JUMPED ON THE BANDWAGON” Literal meaning       Figurative meaning                   • To support something that ...
REWARD/SURVIVAL/   ENCYCLOPEDIC   PLEASURE          KNOWLEDGE   PATHWAY          (i.e.: CULTURE)                          ...
• The fact that idioms mirror the culture of the  language can work as an incentive of  “survival”.• In other words, teach...
WHAT THE TEACHER SHOULD           KNOW1. An idiom is more likely to be correctly   understood if its metaphoric theme is  ...
2. There is some L1 negative transfer for idioms   with a common metaphoric theme.   Therefore, it would be better if teac...
3. Some idioms are deeply rooted in the L2   culture and somewhat alien to the L1 culture.                  Examples:     ...
THE     LEARN SOCIAL     BYPATHWAY   DOING                  34
SUGGESTIONS• Learners can watch videos (thus also involving  the visual and auditory pathways) of real  conversations betw...
CONCLUSION• Suggest more effective ways of teaching idioms  by combining the idiom-meaning guessing  method with how the b...
REFERENCES•   Baker, M. (1992) In Other Words: A coursebook on translation. London: Routledge•   Boers, F. and Demecheleer...
THANK YOUfrytzala@gmail.com                     38
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Idioms teaching through the multiple pathways model

  1. 1. IDIOMS TEACHING THROUGH THE MULTIPLE PATHWAYS MODEL 1
  2. 2. Difficult to acquire Lack of a relationship Idioms arelinked to L2 culture IDIOMS between their linguistic and their idiomatic meanings Needed for exams 2
  3. 3. SUMMARY OF PRESENTATION• Definition of idioms.• The Idiom-meaning guessing method.• The Multiple Pathways Model.• Combining the Idiom-meaning guessing method with the Multiple Pathways Model. 3
  4. 4. DEFINITION OF IDIOMS 3 CHARACTERISTICS1. Compositionality (the degree to which a lexical string can be understood through the words that compose it)2. Institutionalization (the extent to which idioms are recognized idioms within a speech community)3. Fixedness (the degree to which idioms allow permutation, paradigmatic replacement or deletion of items) Grant and Bauer (2004:42) 4
  5. 5. LITERAL FIGURATIVE IDIOMMEANING MEANING KICK THE BUCKET 5
  6. 6. 4 CLUES TO RECOGNIZING IDIOMS1. They violate true conditions (it rains cats and dogs)2. They are sometimes not structurally correct (blow somebody to kingdom come)3. Some of them start with “like” (like water off a duck‟s back)4. They cannot be explained literally in the specific context although they might also have a literal meaning which makes sense in a different context Baker (1992:65) 6
  7. 7. • Keeping someone at arm‟s length DEGREE OFIMAGEABILITY • Passing the buck DEGREE OFTRANSPARENCY • a conventional scene of one culture CULTURE may not be so conventional in another 7
  8. 8. THE IDIOM-MEANING GUESSING METHOD (Skoufaki’s study, 2006)• adult Greek learners of English who were university students preparing for the CPE examination• verbal protocols• half of the students saw the idioms out of context and the other half had them in context 8
  9. 9. SKOUFAKI’S STUDY COMPARED TO COOPER’S ONE Strategies used by immigrants to Strategies used by learners the USA originating from different (Skoufaki) countries(Cooper, 1999)1. aided by translation or the 1. guessing from context individual meanings of constituent words (Semantic 2. discussing and analyzing meaning) the idiom2. through forming a mental image 3. using the literal meaning of the idiom (Mental image) 4. requesting information3. guessing with the help of an L1 similar idiom (Greek idiom) 5. repeating or paraphrasing4. by referring to background the idiom knowledge including cultural 6. using background knowledge (Encyclopedic knowledge knowledge) 7. reference to an L1 idiom 9
  10. 10. STRATEGIES THAT LEAD TO STRATEGIES USED BY THE SUCCESSFUL INTERPRETATION OF AN LEARNERS IDIOM1. guessing from context 1. guessing from context2. discussing and analyzing 2. the usage of the literal the idiom meaning of the idiom3. using the literal meaning 3. the usage of background4. requesting information knowledge5. repeating or paraphrasing 4. reference to an L1 idiom the idiom6. using background knowledge7. reference to an L1 idiom 10
  11. 11. CONSEQUENTLY 11
  12. 12. CONCLUSIONS BY SKOUFAKI AND COOPERIf teachers start using the Bearing in mind whichidiom-meaning guessing strategies are normally usedmethod, they will not need by learners and which onesso much time to explain all lead to the successfulstrategies for acquiring interpretation of the idiom,idioms since the students teachers can train learners inemploy some of these the use of these strategiesstrategies naturally with the ultimate goal of learners actually becoming able to implement them without any assistance from the teacher 12
  13. 13. THE MULTIPLE PATHWAYS MODEL HOW THE BRAIN LEARNS (Dr. Zadina, 2004) 13
  14. 14. 14
  15. 15. • The brain utilizes multiple pathways to fire the needed neurons, and that different brains will utilize different pathways• Teachers, bearing in mind that students learn in many different ways, should show them how they can approach new knowledge through different pathways 15
  16. 16. PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING COMPLYING WITH THE MULTIPLE PATHWAYS MODEL1. Making connections between new and existing knowledge.2. If one does not use the newly acquired knowledge, he/she will lose it. Therefore, the material must be important to the learner .3. “Wiring” the knowledge after its “firing”. In order for learners to activate the neuronal networks repeatedly, the teachers must provide them with appropriate tasks that allow them to strengthen these networks. Zadina, 2004 16
  17. 17. TYING THESE PRINCIPLES TO THE TEACHING OF IDIOMS1. Using the strategy of cross-cultural and cross- linguistic differences, which links prior knowledge to new one.2. Learners have to realize the essential role they play in the language. a) Learners can be shown how idioms reflect the L2 culture. b) Employing different strategies for idioms learning will enable learners to use the idioms in order not to “lose” them.3. Students cannot really produce idioms even if they understand them (Prodromou, 2003). Therefore, actively engaging them in the interpretation of idioms will lead to better “firing” and ultimately “wiring”. 17
  18. 18. THE PATHWAYS1. SENSORY-MOTOR: the visual, the auditory and the motor (i.e. speech and kinesthetic) modalities. 18
  19. 19. 2. REWARD/SURVIVAL/PLEASURE• The emotions through which the brain survives are cognition, control, fear and pleasure.• The entanglements of these four can be endless, and they can be positive or negative for learning.• The best way to promote positive entanglements is for learners to feel they have control of their learning.• This is achieved through active rather than passive learning since the former is more pleasurable.• To illustrate, what is quite pleasurable to the brain is detecting patterns, so teachers can turn lessons into “puzzles” that encourage students to figure out things on their own rather than just memorizing rules, or in this case idioms. 19
  20. 20. 3. SOCIAL PATHWAY• Students learn better by “doing” after they have had a chance to watch others perform the same activity (Modeling). 20
  21. 21. Another two interconnected pathways: EMOTION and ATTENTION• “Emotion drives attention and attention drives learning.” (Zadina, 2010) Students who view learning in a positive way will pay more attention, but also when teachers direct students‟ attention to specific new knowledge, the latter will be more favourably disposed towards acquiring the specific new knowledge. 21
  22. 22. COMBINING THE IDIOM-MEANING GUESSING METHODWITH THE MULTIPLE PATHWAYS MODEL 22
  23. 23. THE SENSORY-MOTOR PATHWAY – MENTAL IMAGERYVISUAL MODALITY STRATEGY 23
  24. 24. • Teachers should try to turn ideas into images, or ask the students to show their images of that idea.• The visual should be tied together with the auditory and the speech modalities, so that students can also produce the things they see or hear. B E C A U S Estudents‟ attempts at deciphering the meaning of anidiom will enhance retention and thus production. 24
  25. 25. EXAMPLE 1“TO POP THE QUESTION”Literal meaning Figurative meaning 25
  26. 26. EXAMPLE 2“BE WAITING IN THE WINGS” Literal meaning Figurative meaning • Ready to enter a situation, be brought to public attention, or undertake a role, position. • There are five other candidates waiting in the wings for such a job. 26
  27. 27. EXAMPLE 3“STICKING ONE’S NOSE INTO SOMETHING” Literal meaning Figurative meaning • To interfere in someone elses business • Why do you always have to stick your nose in? 27
  28. 28. EXAMPLE 4“JUMPED ON THE BANDWAGON” Literal meaning Figurative meaning • To support something that is popular 28
  29. 29. REWARD/SURVIVAL/ ENCYCLOPEDIC PLEASURE KNOWLEDGE PATHWAY (i.e.: CULTURE) 29
  30. 30. • The fact that idioms mirror the culture of the language can work as an incentive of “survival”.• In other words, teachers can make learners realize that they should be able to understand and produce idioms in order to communicate with the native speakers of the language and also immerse in the L2 culture 30
  31. 31. WHAT THE TEACHER SHOULD KNOW1. An idiom is more likely to be correctly understood if its metaphoric theme is common between the idiom‟s culture and the learners‟ one. Example: “Bite your tongue” 31
  32. 32. 2. There is some L1 negative transfer for idioms with a common metaphoric theme. Therefore, it would be better if teachers were aware of cross-cultural as well as cross- linguistic differences when teaching idioms. Example: “Break a leg” 32
  33. 33. 3. Some idioms are deeply rooted in the L2 culture and somewhat alien to the L1 culture. Examples: “Storm in a teacup” “Penny for your thoughts” 33
  34. 34. THE LEARN SOCIAL BYPATHWAY DOING 34
  35. 35. SUGGESTIONS• Learners can watch videos (thus also involving the visual and auditory pathways) of real conversations between native speakers to see how and how often they use idioms in their speech.• Then, they can act out the conversations as role plays so that they can learn by “doing”.• Students can be given different articles or other kinds of formal or informal writings that include idioms and be asked to produce such writings themselves. 35
  36. 36. CONCLUSION• Suggest more effective ways of teaching idioms by combining the idiom-meaning guessing method with how the brain learns and especially the Multiple Pathways Model.• Promote their importance and usefulness as they are among the linguistic aspects which are quite common and reflect the L2 culture.• Promote the active engagement of students in their learning as this is an essential part of all strategies for the acquisition of idioms. 36
  37. 37. REFERENCES• Baker, M. (1992) In Other Words: A coursebook on translation. London: Routledge• Boers, F. and Demecheleer, M. (2001) „Measuring the impact of cross-cultural differences on learners‟ comprehension of imageable idioms‟. ELT Journal, Vol. 55/3: 255-262.• Bortfeld, H. (2003) „Comprehending idioms cross-linguistically.‟ Experimental Psychology 50(3): 217-230.• Cooper, T.C. (1999) „Processing of Idioms by L2 Learners of English.‟ TESOL Quarterly Vol. 33, No. 2: 233-262.• Glucksberg, S. (2001) Understanding figurative language: form metaphors to idioms. Oxford: Oxford University Press.• Grant, L. and Bauer, L. (2004) „Criteria for redefining idioms: Are we barking up the wrong tree.‟ Applied Linguistics 25/1: 38-61.• Prodromou L. (2003) “Idiomaticity and the non-native speaker.” English Today 74, Vol. 19, No. 2: 42-48.• Skoufaki, S. (2006) Investigating L2 idiom instruction methods. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Cambridge• Smilkstein, R. (2009) Understanding how the brain naturally learns [online]. http://facweb.northseattle.edu/RSmilkstein/Teachingwiththebrain-basedNaturalHumanFACES.ppt [• Zadina, J. (January 2010) Implications of neuroscience research for teaching foreign languages. ELT News• Zadina, J.N. (2004). Brain Research-Based Effectives Strategies to Enhance Learning and Energize Instruction. A presentation at the U.S. Department of Education Office of English Language Acquisition Summit Conference. Pubs.cde.ca.gov/tcsii/prolearningtoolkit/zadina1video• Zull, J. (2002) The art of changing the brain: enriching teaching by exploring the biology of learning. Virginia: Stylus Publishing, LLC. 37
  38. 38. THANK YOUfrytzala@gmail.com 38
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