Best Practices In Land And Water Management
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Best Practices In Land And Water Management

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Government organizations need to serve farmer clients in more interdisciplinary and participatory ways ...

Government organizations need to serve farmer clients in more interdisciplinary and participatory ways
Re-orient agriculture and rural development programmes to promote and nurture active participation of farmers and their organizations
Target the production chain: GAP-LWM productivity + food quality  markets  health and nutrition
Participatory research and support services to facilitate transition from conventional agriculture to GAP-LWM

Restructure inappropriate macro-economic and agricultural policies
Adopt policies that promote and enforce sustainable and productive land and water use through GAP protocols
Protect the integrity of agricultural families – land tenure, build on indigenous knowledge, promote youth in agriculture, reduce labour/drudgery
Adjust legislation to facilitate initiatives of local groups adopting GAP (help meet their needs)

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  • Dear Pepe: we are working in salinity affected areas in Gujarat in India. will be keen to discuss on our world bank development market place awarded irrigation technology for small farmers in this region.

    regards

    Biplab K Paul

    biplabkp@gmail.com

    ashoka fellow

    world bank DM 2007 awardee in India
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Best Practices In Land And Water Management Best Practices In Land And Water Management Presentation Transcript

  • Best Practices in Land and Water Management by José R. Benites, FAO Land and Water Development Division (AGL) for FAO Workshop on GAPs, October 2004
    • Common practices
    • Removal or burning of pasture/crop residues
    • Continuous ploughing and harrowing
    • Misuse /waste of water
    • Overgrazing
    • Deforestation
    • Mono-cropping
    • Excessive use of fertilisers
    • Misuse of pesticides
      • Consequences
      • Poor soil cover, high runoff
      • Erosion and sedimentation
      • Increase risk of drought and flood
      • Loss of soil fertility/productivity
      • Salinity
      • Falling water table/ drying streams
      • Food and health insecurity
      • Water contamination: ground & surface
      • Greenhouse gas release
      • Increased pest and disease incidence
      • Loss of biodiversity and ecological functions
    Why Best Land Management?
  • Integrated systems approaches Soil biological management Soil moisture management - WHC Soil physical + chemical management Farmer benefits of Integrated land management Human management of the landscape and ecosystem Tied ridges, mulch, cover crops, etc Soil life and OM (crop species; roots, rotations) Soil tillage, fertilizers, manure, lime Reliable yield & quality
  • Programmes / Activities: What? / Where?
    • Land management and conservation approaches and technologies - WOCAT
    • Soil fertility / productivity improvement
    • Visual soil assessment
    • LADA – global land degradation assessment of drylands
    • GIAHS – globally important agricultural heritage systems
    • Watershed and river basin management (Okavango, Kagera and Nile basins)
    • Farmer empowerment and experimentation (LWM-FFS approaches)
    • Land use planning by local institutions (Marmelade, Haiti; Tunisia; Croatia)
    BEFORE AFTER bare hills, erosion, loss of water good land cover and yields
  • Objective: Sustainable and Productive Land Use and Management Practices to work with farmers and decision makers Improving land quality, farming capacity and productivity & food and livelihood security to use multiple stakeholders approaches: linking farmer groups, extension, research, urban land owners/ herders, consumers, government, NGO, private sector
  • Suggested Norms for GAP Protocols in relation to land management COMPULSORY: 100 % OF NORMS SHOULD BE ACCOMPLISHED REQUIRED (MAJORS): 85% OF NORMS SHOULD BE ACCOMPLISHED SUGGESTED (MINORS): MUST BE ENCOURAGED AND SUPPORTED ALTHOUGH THEIR UPTAKE IS NOT COMPULSORY
  • Lessons for GAP work (1): Minimize burning of pastures and crop residues
    • Farmers burn for pasture germination or insect and disease control or to facilitate tillage BUT...
    • Burning reduces return of organic matter to the soil and soil surface protection against raindrop impact and wind.
    • Burning releases greenhouse gases, and may cause air pollution and health problems.
    Straw burning prohibition Help farmers to direct seed into cover crops and residues (as a substitute for burning) Regulate timing and frequency of pasture burning Increase livestock feed and straw marketing
  • Lessons for GAP work (2): Reduce repetitive tillage - cause of land degradation, soil erosion and water loss
    • Frequent tillage results in compaction, high runoff rates and waterlogging, massive erosion, severe losses of soil nutrients and organic matter, and as a result rapidly declining yields.
    • Conventional tillage releases 20 - 30% of native soil C to the atmosphere in the first 20 years in temperate regions, and 50 - 75% in the tropics.
    • Support Conservation Agriculture tools/adapted techniques to:
    • stop repetitive ploughing (inversion) and reduce tillage (chisels, rippers, discs, harrows, etc.)
    • minimize removal or incorporation of crop residues;
    • replace crop monoculture by rotations (break crops) and associations (mixed systems)
    • control traffic to minimize compaction (by feet, draught animals, tractors, harvesters, etc.)
    Regulations to minimize soil disturbance: direct seeding, reduced traffic, integrated weed control techniques Encourage permanent soil cover, minimum soil tillage, enhanced biomass Monitor earthworms, soil structure, soil moisture and erosion.
  • Lessons for GAP work (3): Improve soil cover and crop rotations
    • A bare, unprotected soil surface:
    • Accelerates runoff, erosion, surface crusting, compaction and declining soil fertility.
    • Requires a lot of labour and energy (often strenuous) and external inputs for soil restoration;
    • Creates calendar constraints (...too dry or wet)
    Regulate crop residue burning and crop rotations Discourage residue incorporation and bare soils Encourage no-or minimum tillage, ridge till and seasonal residue management. Combine rotations of grain crops with cover crops and associations (varied products - food, fodder, biomass) Adapt practices for local soil, climate and socioeconomic conditions
  • Lessons for GAP work (4): Living soil, soil organic matter and Carbon sequestration
    • Incorporation of crop residues by ploughing increases leaching and mineralization of nutrients and release of carbon as CO2.
    • Loss of soil organic matter harms soil structure and life: rainwater does not infiltrate, soil moisture is not retained (surface crusting; reduced pore spaces; runoff causes erosion)
    Build up residues and crops on the ground Avoid ploughing in fresh organic materials Encourage build up of soil organic matter: high biomass rotations, cover crops, reduced or no tillage and rotational grazing. Build capacity in conservation agriculture: direct seeding (no-till), cover crops and strip-cropping
  • Lessons for GAP work (5): Soil Fertility / Productivity Improvement
    • Nutrients are lost from the soil through erosion, leaching, crop removal or via gas release
    • Nutrient mining through intensive monocultures causes an exhaustion of the major nutrients N and P on soils with only small total contents of mineral and organic reserves.
    Regulate and fine farmers for nutrient losses in water supplies – through monocropping, intensive tillage, erosion. Adapt and train farmers in integrated plant nutrient management practices
    • Promote practices that enhance soil fertility:
      • use of animal manures, cover crops, compost;
      • good residue management;
      • selective rotations;
      • zero or reduced tillage;
      • minimize soil compaction and break hardpans;
      • soil and water conservation
  • Lessons for GAP work (6): Drought-resistant soils and landscapes
    • Runoff control measures offer barriers/ diversions across the land (lateral flow), once water has begun to run down-slope.
    • They have no effect to reduce prior impact of erosive raindrops or capture - infiltration into the soil (vertical flow).
    Ban severe mechanical disturbance Replace expensive physical barriers by practices to improve soil health and productivity (soil OM, life, moisture) Provide no/minimum till equipment, tools, pasture, fodder and cover crop seed Promote practices to enhance soil life and biological activity: organic matter and soil moisture management; reduce soil damage; use short rotations How to slow lateral flow? How to protect the soil?
  • Lessons for GAP work (7): Community land use planning
    • Promote use of PRA and survey techniques for diagnosis, mapping, discussion, landscape planning and farm/farmer characterisation (gender and socio-economic analysis)
    • Promote participatory land use planning and mapping to meet community needs (woodlots, trees on farm, water access, secure tenure/ leasehold, rural roads and local markets, etc...)
    • Promote continuous application and updating of community plans through district budgets and support mechanisms
    • Monitor extent to which community needs are being met
  • Lessons for GAP work (8): Monitor using Visual Soil Assessment VSA score <10 (Poor condition): Pasture & crop performance is poor and production costs high. 20–45% decline in crop yield VSA score = 15 (Moderate condition): 10–15% decline in crop yields VSA score >20 (Good condition): Pasture + crop performance excellent, production costs low (provided climatic conditions, soil moisture, soil fertility, pest and plant diseases, etc. are non-limiting. soil structure and texture 1 3 20yrs Maize Williams – E2722760 N6095000 15 August 2001 Kairanga silty clay loam    0.5 1.5 1 2 1.5 3 0 0 1 2 1 1 2 4 16.5 
  • Lessons for GAP work (9): Land degradation Assessment - LADA 2. Establishment of a LADA Task Force 1. Identification of Land Degradation Problems and Users Needs Assessment 3. Stocktaking & Preliminary Analysis 5. Field Surveys & Participatory Assessment 7. Monitoring Strategies & Tools 6. Information Integration 4. Stratification & Sampling Strategy LADA Steps
  • BEST LAND MANAGEMENT PROTOCOL: Example from Spain
    • Straw burning prohibition and contour tillage (COMPULSORY)
    • To keep crop residues over the soil during a minimum period ( 9 €/ ha)
    • Minimum tillage( 54 €/ ha)
    • No-till-direct seeding (103 €/ha)
  • Conclusions: How to promote adoption of GAP in land management
    • Government organizations need to serve farmer clients in more interdisciplinary and participatory ways
      • Re-orient agriculture and rural development programmes to promote and nurture active participation of farmers and their organizations
      • Target the production chain: GAP-LWM  productivity + food quality  markets  health and nutrition
      • Participatory research and support services to facilitate transition from conventional agriculture to GAP-LWM
    • Restructure inappropriate macro-economic and agricultural policies
      • Adopt policies that promote and enforce sustainable and productive land and water use through GAP protocols
      • Protect the integrity of agricultural families – land tenure, build on indigenous knowledge, promote youth in agriculture, reduce labour/drudgery
      • Adjust legislation to facilitate initiatives of local groups adopting GAP (help meet their needs)