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Ashley cook 8 stages of genocide
 

Ashley cook 8 stages of genocide

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    Ashley cook 8 stages of genocide Ashley cook 8 stages of genocide Presentation Transcript

    • By Ashley Cook
    • Classification All cultures have categories to distinguish people into “us and them” by ethnicity, race religion, or nationality. Bipolar societies that lack mixed categories, such as Rwanda and Burundi, are the most likely to have genocide.
    • Classification Example During the holocaust, Aryans were the highest class. To Hitler, if you were not Aryan, you were to be destroyed.
    • Symbolization We give names or other symbols to the classifications. We name people “Jews” or “Gypsies”, or distinguish them by colors or dress; and apply the symbols to members of groups. Classification and symbolization are universally human and do not necessarily result in genocide unless they lead to the next stage; dehumanization.
    • Symbolization (cont.) When combined with hatred, symbols may be forced upon unwilling members of pariah groups: the yellow star got Jews under Nazi rule, the blue scarf for people from the Eastern Zone in Khmer Rouge Cambodia.
    • Symbolization Example Nazis forced Jews to wear this badge of a Jewish star. This allowed Nazis to keep track of the Jews.
    • Dehumanization One group denies the humanity of the other group. Members of a group are equated with animals, vermin, insects, or diseases. Dehumanization overcomes the normal human revulsion against murder. Hate propaganda in print and on hate radios is used to vilify the victim group.
    • Dehumanization ExamplesJews were forced into tight Jewish prisoners sufferedquarters, starved, and tortured by greatly and were extremelythe Nazis. malnourished.
    • Organization Genocide is always organized, usually by the state, often using militias to provide deniability of state responsibility. Sometimes organization is informal or decentralized. Special army units or militias are often trained and armed. Plans are made for genocidal killings.
    • Organization Example During the Holocaust, the Nazis organized and trained millions of soldiers to exterminate non- Aryans, especially Jews.
    • Polarization Extremists drive the groups apart. Hate groups broadcast polarizing propaganda Laws may forbid intermarriage or social interaction.
    • Polarization (cont.) Extremist terrorism targets moderates, intimidating and silencing the center. Moderates from the perpetrators’ own group are most able to stop genocide, so are the first to be arrested and killed.
    • Polarization Example Nazi propaganda against Jews stating “He who wears this symbol is an enemy of our people.”
    • Preparation Victims are identified and separated out because of their ethnic or religious identity. Death lists are drawn up. Members of victim groups are forced to wear identifying symbols. Their property is expropriated.
    • Preparation (cont.) They are often segregated into ghettos, deported into concentration camps, or confined to a famine- struck region and starved
    • Preparation Examples Jewish ghetto in Warsaw, Poland.
    • Extermination Begins and quickly becomes the mass killing legally called “genocide.” It is “extermination” to the killers because they do not believe their victims to be fully human.
    • Extermination Examples Millions of Jews were killed at the hands of the Nazis who wanted to destroy all Jewish people.
    • Denial The eighth stage that always follows a genocide. It is among the surest indicators of further genocidal massacres. The perpetrators of genocide dig up the mass graves, burn the bodies, try to cover up the evidence and intimidate the witnesses.
    • Denial (cont.) The perpetrators deny that they committed any crimes, and often blame what happened on the victims. ○ They block investigations of the crimes, and continue to govern until driven from power by force, when they flee into exile. ○ In exile, they remain with impunity, like Pol Pot or Idi Amin, unless they are captured and a tribunal is established to try them.
    • Denial Example Even in today’s generation, there are still people that deny that the Holocaust even happened.
    • The Darfur Genocide The Darfur genocide is occurring in Darfur, a region in Sudan.
    • Who is involved? ○ Muslims are involved. Some are nomads and some are farmers.
    • What happened? 2003: 2 Darfuri rebel movements took action against the Sudanese government  These movements include the Sudan Liberation Army and the Justice and Equality Movement Sudan responded by sending Arab militias known as Janjaweed to attack villages in Darfur The Janjaweed displaced over 2,500,000 people and five thousand people are killed each month. There were many attempts to try to regain peace but none of them have been effective.
    • When did it happen? February 2003 to the present The Janjaweed Darfur Village during Genocide
    • Where is it happening? Darfur, Sudan  Darfur is located in the western part of Sudan, bordering on Libya, Chad, and the Central African Republic. Aerial view of Darfur
    • Why is it happening? The Sudan Liberation Army and the Justice and Equality Movement complained about the marginalization of Darfur and the failure to protect people from nomad attacks. The Sudan Liberation Army
    • Video Darfur YouTube Video
    • Making Connections Classification: In Darfur, there are many classes involved in the genocide that include black African farmers and Arab Africans. Symbolization: Skin color is used to decipher between Black Africans and Arab Africans. Dehumanization: People are mistreated and put into slavery. Organization: Arab militias known as Janjaweed were organized.
    • Making connections cont. Polarization: Sudan’s president took the side of Arab Africans. Preparation: Militias were prepared and trained for the extermination of the Black Africans. Extermination: Villages were burned, people were killed and villages looted. Denial: Sudanese government officials deny the genocide.
    • Works Cited http://www.cija.ca/israeli-culture/israel- moves-to-outlaw-use-of-nazi-symbols/ http://www.rjgeib.com/thoughts/frankl/frankl .html http://www.sanskrit.org/www/Hindu%20Pri mer/swastika.html http://www.calvin.edu/academic/cas/gpa/pa role.htm http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/H olocaust/ghettowall.html
    • Works Cited (cont.) http://www.historyplace.com/worldwar2/triumph/tr- fuehrer.htm http://www.unitedhumanrights.org/genocide/genocide-in- sudan.htm http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2007/jul/26/sudan.jonath ansteele http://www.lnsart.com/darfur%20dateline.htm http://thewe.cc/contents/more/archive/darfur_sudan.html http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DjkKwQU6ERI http://edu.glogster.com/glog.php?glog_id=18933584&scal e=54&isprofile=true http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/commentisfree+ world/omar-al-bashir http://techcrunch.com/2009/08/06/google-steps-up-its- darfur-genocide-coverage-in-google-earth/