Animal Welfare in a livestock export market
context – working together to improve
global animal welfare

Dr Derek Belton
H...
Contents
1. Introduction
2. OIE background and standard setting
3. The SPS Agreement
4. OIE Animal Welfare Standards
5. OI...
Introduction
 Animal welfare is a complex multifaceted public policy issue that

includes important scientific, ethical, ...
OIE Background
The International Intergovernmental organisation
responsible for improving animal health and
welfare worldw...
Chronology
An intergovernmental organisation preceding the
United Nations
OIE Objectives

• Transparency of the animal disease situation worldwide
• Scientific information
• International support ...
OIE’s International Standard Setting
OIE develops and publishes


standards for the prevention and control of animal dise...
OIE Standard setting procedure
Commissions, Delegates
and Others
Request
Comments
2 rounds

ad hoc Groups
Updated text
Cod...
Strengths of OIE Standards

1.

Science based

2.

Transparent and democratic process of development and
adoption

3.

178...
The WTO Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and
Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement)
• Agreed in 1994, came into fo...
SPS Agreement – article 2.1
Members have the right to take sanitary and phytosanitary measures
necessary for the protectio...
SPS Agreement – article 3.1
To harmonise sanitary and phytosanitary measures on as wide a
basis as possible, Members shall...
Definition of Animal Welfare for the Purpose of the Terrestrial
Code
Animal welfare means how an animal is coping with the...
OIE Guiding Principles for Animal Welfare
•
•
•
•
•
•

Animal welfare and health are linked
Five freedoms
Three R’s (reduc...
Five Freedoms

1. Freedom from hunger thirst and
malnutrition
2. Freedom from fear and distress
3. Freedom from physical a...
Evolution of the animal welfare agenda
 2000: Animal welfare recognised as a strategic priority in the 3 rd
OIE Strategic...
Current standards on animal welfare in the Terrestrial
Animal Health Code
(http://www.oie.int/en/international-standard-se...
Support to OIE Member Countries
Regular training of OIE Delegates
Seminars for OIE National Focal Points
OIE Collaborating...
Animal Welfare in the OIE Scientific & Technical Review
• Vol. 13 (1994) Animal Welfare and Veterinary Services
• Vol. 24 ...
OIE Global Conferences
Raise awareness, share experiences, improve understanding,
and help build consensus across all inte...
OIE Improved animal welfare programme
• First round of training completed in Indonesia, the Philippines,
Turkey.
• Paralle...
OIE Improved animal welfare programme
• Program dedicated to support implementation of OIE AW standards
(transport and sla...
Private Standards & Specifications
• Animal welfare has become a focus of attention for multinational
food companies
• Mar...
OIE Animal Welfare priorities

Standards Development
 Production systems
Dairy Cattle

 Working animals
 Disaster manag...
Future certainties
• Animal welfare expectations and standards for the live export trade
will continue to evolve.
• True l...
Future Challenges
• Public interest and concern about animal welfare is likely to
continue to increase.
• WTO members are ...
Conclusions
• OIE science based standards developed through an inclusive
and democratic process are a well established and...
Conclusions
• Your investments in improving animal welfare and taking those
improvements to the rest of the world have OIE...
Thank you for your support
Organisation mondiale
de la santé animale
World Organisation
for Animal Health
Organización Mun...
LiveXChange Conference 2013 Animal Welfare Session Dr Derek Belton- Animal welfare in a livestock export context – benchma...
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LiveXChange Conference 2013 Animal Welfare Session Dr Derek Belton- Animal welfare in a livestock export context – benchmarking Australia against the rest of the world

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  • The OIE regularly updates its international standards as new scientific information comes to light, following its established transparent and democratic procedures. The only pathway for adoption of a standard is via approval of the World Assembly of Delegates meeting in May each year at the OIE General Assembly.
  • Issue / problem identified by Delegate, OIE Commission, industry, scientist, individual:
    new scientific information eg from research or disease outbreak
    new disease - emerging
    new approaches eg vaccination
    > Addressed by appropriate Commission as new or revised standard, using working groups and ad hoc groups for specialist tasks eg : animal welfare, BSE, epidemiology, avian influenza, TB
    Experts advice : the OIE utilises all sources:
    individual / expert group from industry / academia / government
    other OIE Commission or Reference Lab
    Transparency:
    NGOs with OIE agreement are consulted as per Member Countries eg IDF
    experts may participate in meetings
    Commission reports on OIE Web site
    Commission proposal circulated for comment to Member Countries, experts, organisations (at least 2 rounds of comments)
    Commission may revise proposal on basis of comments received
    Discussed by the World Assembly of Delegates at General Session
    may be discussed only and returned to Commission for further work
    may be adopted as OIE international standard
    > Opportunity for all Members to be involved in standards development
  • Note: Broiler chicken standard submitted for adoption at GS 79 in 2011, not endorsed because of lack of consensus
    Through the PVS Pathway and other capacity building tools, the OIE is already playing an important role in raising awareness of governments and donors, and supporting the Veterinary Services in Eastern European countries to meet international standards.
  • LiveXChange Conference 2013 Animal Welfare Session Dr Derek Belton- Animal welfare in a livestock export context – benchmarking Australia against the rest of the world

    1. 1. Animal Welfare in a livestock export market context – working together to improve global animal welfare Dr Derek Belton Head, International Trade Department World Organisation for Animal Health
    2. 2. Contents 1. Introduction 2. OIE background and standard setting 3. The SPS Agreement 4. OIE Animal Welfare Standards 5. OIE support to member countries 6. Private Standards 7. Working together 8. OIE priorities, known challenges & certainties 9. Conclusions
    3. 3. Introduction  Animal welfare is a complex multifaceted public policy issue that includes important scientific, ethical, economic and political dimensions.  OIE Member Countries have widely varying perspectives and experience.  By working together we know that governments, the private sector, international organisations and donors really can successfully address societal expectations for animal welfare.
    4. 4. OIE Background The International Intergovernmental organisation responsible for improving animal health and welfare worldwide Created 1924, now 178 Members Maintain permanent relations with 60 other international and regional organisations Scientific network: • 241 OIE Reference Laboratories (in 37 countries) • 43 Collaborating Centres (in 24 countries)
    5. 5. Chronology An intergovernmental organisation preceding the United Nations
    6. 6. OIE Objectives • Transparency of the animal disease situation worldwide • Scientific information • International support to developing countries and the role played by Veterinary Services • Safety of international trade of animals and animal products • Food safety and animal welfare To achieve these objectives OIE collects, analyses and publishes a lot of information
    7. 7. OIE’s International Standard Setting OIE develops and publishes  standards for the prevention and control of animal diseases as well as for the safe trade of animals and animal products and standards for animal welfare => Codes  biological standards for diagnostic tests and vaccines => Manuals Adopted by OIE Member Countries  during General Session each May by consensus Developed using a science-based approach
    8. 8. OIE Standard setting procedure Commissions, Delegates and Others Request Comments 2 rounds ad hoc Groups Updated text Codes/Manuals AWWG Adopted TAHSC or AAHSC World Assembly Text for adoption Report & texts OIE Members Text for comment
    9. 9. Strengths of OIE Standards 1. Science based 2. Transparent and democratic process of development and adoption 3. 178 Member Countries support
    10. 10. The WTO Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement) • Agreed in 1994, came into force 1 January 1995 • Recognises OIE as the International Standard Setting Body for Animal Health • Most OIE members are also WTO members (but not all) • Does not cover animal welfare (though animal health is a significant component of animal welfare)
    11. 11. SPS Agreement – article 2.1 Members have the right to take sanitary and phytosanitary measures necessary for the protection of human, animal or plant life or health, provided that such measures are not inconsistent with the provisions of this agreement.
    12. 12. SPS Agreement – article 3.1 To harmonise sanitary and phytosanitary measures on as wide a basis as possible, Members shall base their sanitary or phytosanitary measures on international standards, guidelines or recommendations, where they exist, except as otherwise provided in this Agreement, and in particular in paragraph 3.
    13. 13. Definition of Animal Welfare for the Purpose of the Terrestrial Code Animal welfare means how an animal is coping with the conditions in which it lives. An animal is in a good state of welfare if (as indicated by scientific evidence) it is healthy, comfortable, well nourished, safe, able to express innate behaviour, and if it is not suffering from unpleasant states such as pain, fear, and distress. Good animal welfare requires disease prevention and veterinary treatment, appropriate shelter, management, nutrition, humane handling and humane slaughter/killing. Animal welfare refers to the state of the animal; the treatment that an animal receives is covered by other terms such as animal care, animal husbandry, and humane treatment.
    14. 14. OIE Guiding Principles for Animal Welfare • • • • • • Animal welfare and health are linked Five freedoms Three R’s (reduction, refinement, replacement) Scientific basis for standards Contribution to human wellbeing Use of animals carries with it an ethical responsibility to ensure their welfare • Better animal welfare can improve productivity and deliver economic benefits • Equivalent outcomes based on performance criteria are the basis for comparison of animal welfare standards
    15. 15. Five Freedoms 1. Freedom from hunger thirst and malnutrition 2. Freedom from fear and distress 3. Freedom from physical and thermal discomfort 4. Freedom from pain injury and disease 5. Freedom to express normal patterns of behaviour 6. Freedom to live a life worth living
    16. 16. Evolution of the animal welfare agenda  2000: Animal welfare recognised as a strategic priority in the 3 rd OIE Strategic Plan 2001-2005;  2002: Adoption by the World Assembly of OIE Delegates of a Resolution leading to the creation of a permanent Animal Welfare Working Group;  2004: Adoption of the Definition and General Principles on Animal Welfare. Beginning of the drafting of AW Chapters;  Transport and slaughter were the first priorities
    17. 17. Current standards on animal welfare in the Terrestrial Animal Health Code (http://www.oie.int/en/international-standard-setting/terrestrialcode/access-online/) •Introduction to the recommendations for animal welfare •Transport of animals by land (2005) •Transport of animals by sea (2005) •Transport of animals by air (2005) •Slaughter of animals for human consumption (2005) •Killing of animals for disease control purposes •Control of stray dog populations. •Use of animals in research and education •Animal Welfare and Beef Cattle Production Systems (2012) •Animal Welfare and Broiler Chicken Production Systems
    18. 18. Support to OIE Member Countries Regular training of OIE Delegates Seminars for OIE National Focal Points OIE Collaborating Centre training activities OIE Twinning initiatives Regional Animal Welfare Strategies The PVS Pathway OIE’s Improved Animal Welfare Programme OIE’s informal procedure for dispute mediation Australian investment in improving implementation of OIE animal welfare standards in livestock export and slaughter is both leading and driving international best practice.
    19. 19. Animal Welfare in the OIE Scientific & Technical Review • Vol. 13 (1994) Animal Welfare and Veterinary Services • Vol. 24 (2) (2005) Animal Welfare: global issues, trends and challenges • Vol 32 (3) (2013) Plurithematic Issue: Application of the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code to Animal Welfare. M A Schipp and A D Sheridan • Vol. 33 (2014) Animal Welfare: focussing on the future
    20. 20. OIE Global Conferences Raise awareness, share experiences, improve understanding, and help build consensus across all interested parties. 2004 – Paris: Global Conference on Animal Welfare: an OIE initiative 2008 – Cairo: Putting the OIE Standards to work 2012 - Kuala Lumpur: Implementing the OIE standards – addressing regional expectations 2016 - Chile
    21. 21. OIE Improved animal welfare programme • First round of training completed in Indonesia, the Philippines, Turkey. • Parallel training in Thailand • Training underway in Vietnam. • Planning underway for Jordan (including Egyptian participants) • Further training in Asia and the Middle East according to resources and donor priorities 7
    22. 22. OIE Improved animal welfare programme • Program dedicated to support implementation of OIE AW standards (transport and slaughter) in eligible countries • High level planning workshop in Indonesia paved way for training of trainers (TOT) workshops organised in 2012 • OIE training tools for future TOT interventions in other countries have been developed 7
    23. 23. Private Standards & Specifications • Animal welfare has become a focus of attention for multinational food companies • Market power of large multinationals increasingly drives producer practice • OIE World Assembly Resolutions 2008 and 2010 • 2012 Cooperation Agreement between OIE & ISO • ISO TC 32 working group
    24. 24. OIE Animal Welfare priorities Standards Development  Production systems Dairy Cattle  Working animals  Disaster management Implementation  Improve participation by all OIE Members, and all interested parties, in the standard setting process.  Improve implementation of OIE Animal Health and Welfare Standards  Collaborate with private standard setting organisations (e.g. ISO and Global GAP) to improve and refine implementation of OIE standards.
    25. 25. Future certainties • Animal welfare expectations and standards for the live export trade will continue to evolve. • True learning always takes us out of the known and comfortable, and requires significant investment.
    26. 26. Future Challenges • Public interest and concern about animal welfare is likely to continue to increase. • WTO members are likely to remain hesitant about including animal welfare in WTO negotiations. • Private sector specifications that provide competitive advantage will continue to evolve. • Recognition of alternate systems in developing countries that produce equivalent animal welfare outcomes will probably need more attention.
    27. 27. Conclusions • OIE science based standards developed through an inclusive and democratic process are a well established and powerful tool to establish globally acceptable animal welfare standards. • For effective implementation of OIE standards many countries need: – Support to update legislation – Capacity building assistance and budget support for their veterinary services
    28. 28. Conclusions • Your investments in improving animal welfare and taking those improvements to the rest of the world have OIE’s full support. • Working together governments, the private sector, international organisations, and donors can successfully address societal expectations for animal welfare.
    29. 29. Thank you for your support Organisation mondiale de la santé animale World Organisation for Animal Health Organización Mundial de Sanidad Animal Protecting Animals, Preserving our future “The greatness of a nation and its moral progress can be judged by the way its animals are treated” M. Ghandi 12 rue de Prony, 75017 Paris, France - www.oie.int – oie@oie.int
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