Case studies are used to articulate the twin processes of neoliberal urban political development: neoliberalism by default and neoliberalism by design.
it added over 100,000 voters. African American percentage of voters increased from 32 percent to 38 percent.
Neoliberalism in the Trenches: UrbanPolitics and Policy in the United States and Britain, 1976-2000 Tim Weaver Political Science
From the age of consensus… Nixon: “I am now a Keynesian on economics” (1971)
…to the Age of FractureCallaghan: “We used to think that you could spend yourway out of a recession…by cutting taxes and boostinggovernment spending. I tell you in all candour that thatoption no longer exists” (1976)
ArgumentThe neoliberal turn: radically undermined cities’ governing capacity and authority; launched a new trajectory of neoliberal political development; proceeded according to two different logics-- neoliberalization by default and by design
Neoliberalism definedA political-economic theory and rhetorical framework thatrests on the notion that freedom, justice, and well-being arebest guaranteed by a political economic system thatpromotes private property, open markets, and free trade andwhich privileges the interests of financial capital. Capital privileged over labor; private over public; market over welfare state. Enterprise zones; empowerment zones; privatization etc.
Docklands Neoliberalism by design: • Process by which national or local elites harness the power of state institutions to impose a neoliberal blueprint. • Flagship enterprise zone—tax reduction and deregulation. • Site of the London Docklands Development Corporation— land and power stripped from local authorities and given to unelected board. • Central government as neoliberal activist; the state is reoriented rather than replaced.