Rescaling the city—globalization and human settlement patterns


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Susan Wachter's presentation from
Comparative Urban Politics Workshop: Rescaling The City
August 30th, 2006
The American Political Science Association, Philadelphia, PA

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Rescaling the city—globalization and human settlement patterns

  1. 1. Framing the Discussion: Rescaling the city—globalization and human settlement patterns Comparative Urban Politics Workshop: Rescaling The City August 30 th , 2006 The American Political Science Association, Philadelphia, PA Susan M. Wachter Co-Director Penn Institute for Urban Research Richard B. Worley Professor of Financial Management Professor of Real Estate and Finance The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania
  2. 2. Rescaling the city—globalization, locus of control and human settlement patterns <ul><li>Globalization as urbanization </li></ul><ul><li>Altering scale and scope of urban governance—producing multilevel structures </li></ul><ul><li>Reversing local governance dominance in land use decisions in the US </li></ul><ul><li>Posing the question: Is there global convergence? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Globalization as urbanization: New Scale of Governance Structures <ul><li>Global phenomenon—sources? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the consequences for human settlement patterns </li></ul>
  4. 4. Global competition for markets and emergent restructuring of locus of control <ul><li>Global capital seeking access to regional markets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>locations for labor and product markets, regionally scaled </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Regions seeking capital </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regions providing access to markets, land, infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example: India – farmer/owner cooperatives interacting with regional scale governments to provide land for call centers parks </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Argentina– regional governments “selling” land in joint ventures with international developers for shopping malls </li></ul>
  5. 5. Change in US exceptionalism? <ul><li>National policy preempts local forces in industrialized competitors </li></ul><ul><li>US in global continuum, locus of control has been (is still?) predominantly local </li></ul><ul><li>Local governments’ race to the bottom </li></ul><ul><li>Fragmentation, extremes of decentralization and stratification by race and income </li></ul><ul><li>New: Emergence of metropolitan level growth controls </li></ul>
  6. 6. Land Use Regulation: US vs. Europe <ul><li>Fiscal zoning means large lot size development But fiscal zoning does not limit space—supplies new development—leapfrogging into new space </li></ul><ul><li>Current shift from fiscal federalism to metro level growth controls in direction of land use regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Emergence of metropolitan level growth controls, recognition that quality of life on a regional scale, maximizing home values where median voter owns </li></ul><ul><li>Limits to sprawl </li></ul>
  7. 9. Housing prices track inflation in the US until mid-1990s, 10 unprecedented years
  8. 11. Human settlement consequences of multilevel governance structures <ul><li>Global development capital producing agents to enable race to bottom among regions? </li></ul><ul><li>Concentration with edge development or dispersion into new regions? Role of central government in enabling production of new dispersed metropolitan areas </li></ul><ul><li>The political economy of centralized v. decentralized urbanization, primacy v. diffusion, locus of control </li></ul>
  9. 12. Penn IUR Overview <ul><li>Who We Are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Penn Institute for Urban Research is a university-wide body that enhances urban-focused knowledge through place-based research on a local and global scale </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Master of Urban Spatial Analytics (MUSA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Degree program offers a pioneering degree in applying spatial technology solutions to business and public sector decision-making </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IUR Scholarly Commons at Penn </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The website is </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forthcoming Conferences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Penn IUR National Impact Conference: Growing Greener Cities, October 15-17, 2006 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  Penn IUR Research Initiative: Philadelphia-NYC Leadership Exchange, October 24 and November 14, 2006 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Penn IUR National Impact Conference: Anchor Institutions in the City, March 2007 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Penn IUR National Impact Conference: Build-out of America in 2050, March 2007 </li></ul></ul>
  10. 13. The Penn IUR 21st Century City Book Series <ul><li>Addresses both topical and long-range issues confronting the world's cities </li></ul><ul><li>Aims to advance place-based urban scholarship from a range of disciplines </li></ul><ul><li>Selected Published and Forthcoming Titles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roger D. Abrahams, Nick Spitzer, John F. Szwed, and Robert Farris Thompson , Blues for New Orleans: Mardi Gras and America’s Creole Soul (2006) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eugenie L.Birch and Susan Wachter , Rebuilding Urban Places After Disaster: Lessons from Hurricane Katrina ( 2006) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ram Cnaan , How Local Congregations Support Quality of Life in Urban America , (October 2006) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Judith Rodin , Out of the Ivory Tower and into the Streets: How Universities Can Reclaim Urban America, (June 2007) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>John Calamine and Esther Charlesworth , Divided Cities: Belfast, Beirut, Jerusalem, Mostar, and Nicosia , (Fall 2007) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Armando Carbonell and Robert Yaro , America 2050: The Next Exploration , (forthcoming) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 14. <ul><li>Thank you and on behalf of Penn IUR welcome to Penn! </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul> .