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Future Urban Transport: When Less is More

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Dinesh Mohan's presentation for the Penn IUR symposium …

Dinesh Mohan's presentation for the Penn IUR symposium

"Re-Imagining Cities: Urban Design After the Age of Oil"

Published in: Education

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  • 1. Future Urban Transport: When Less is More Dinesh Mohan 07 November 2008 RE-IMAGINING CITIES URBAN DESIGN AFTER THE AGE OF OIL UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY DELHI
  • 2. A century of developments IIT Delhi 2008
    • Early 20 th century road surfaces not smooth – same materials and technology used by the Romans
    • The use of asphalt and bitumen only gets perfected between 1910 and 1930
    • The pneumatic tyre for large vehicles takes shape after 1930 and so does the heavy duty diesel engine
    • Therefore, mechanised transport could be comfortable only if vehicles moved on steel rails up to 1920 or so. This is why street trams became very popular as they were more flexible in operation and cheaper to build than underground rail systems.
    Rail preferred for public transport – large vehicles
  • 3. A century of developments IIT Delhi 2008
    • Public Transport came before cars
    • No more Central Business Districts (CBD)
    • High motorcycle ownership in manycountries – personal mobility, peg on fares
    • Cars much more comfortable
  • 4. CO2 and roads
    • 20 th CENTURY SOLUTIONS:
    • One way streets?
    • Road widening & expansion?
    • Flyovers, elevated/underground corridors?
    • Metro/LRT/Monorail/Skybus - providing corridor capacity to serve link demand
    • Underground trains seen as a major solution
    IIT Delhi 2008 Solutions contractor driven Not people driven
    • Underground or elevated transit does not reduce congestion, provides extra supply > CO2
    • CO2 ≈ road area + distance of travel
  • 5. FRIENDS & URBAN TRANSPORT IIT Delhi June 08 3.0 friends 5.3 acquaintances 1.3 friends 4.1 acquaintances 0.9 friends 3.1 acquaintances Light traffic 2,000 v/day Moderate 8,000 v/day Heavy traffic 16,000 v/day Source: Dr.Carlos Dora
  • 6. IIT Delhi 2008 METRO METRO METRO METRO BRT BRT BRT BRT CAR CAR CAR CAR BICYCLE BICYCLE WALK 3 KM 6 KM 12 KM 24 KM DOOR TO DOOR TRIP TIMES
  • 7. CO2 emissions per passenger km IIT Delhi 2008
  • 8. Mar 17, 2011 Productivity (1,000 pass/km/day) vs city population Metro BRT
  • 9. IIT Delhi 2008 Conundrum – Public transport MTW- motorized two-wheeler, PT – Public transport W&C – Walking and cycling 52 16 32 Amsterdam, Neth's 39 25 36 Stuttgart, Germany 37 21 42 Frankfurt, Germany 38 18 44 Brussels, Belgium 33 19 48 Newcastle, UK 19 29 52 Edinburgh, UK 35 12 53 Marseille, France 26 20 54 Helsinki, Finland 28 14 58 Nantes, France 3 36 61 Leeds, UK 23 12 65 Bristol, UK Walking and bicycling Public Transport Car + MTW City Modal share, percent
  • 10. IIT Delhi 2006 Conundrum – Public transport
    • How do we
    • Reduce trip lengths ?
    • Reduce number of trips ?
    • Reduce motor vehicle use ?
    • Increase walking and bicycling ?
    • Increase public transport use ?
    • Select public transport technology ?
    Only 7% drive in Just provision of high capacity systems does not provide solutions
  • 11. IIT Delhi 2008 D Metro Bus Rapid Transit CO2 emission estimates for Taipei Source: Prof Jason Chang
  • 12. IIT Delhi 2008 Fatality risk in traffic crashes by city Q : Does urban street design, infrastructure and life style have greater impact than vehicle technologies and policing ?
  • 13. IIT Delhi June 08 Fatality risk in traffic crashes in US cities Delhi Delhi
  • 14. IIT Delhi 2007 City structure, safety & public transport
    • Actual area devoted to road space may not vary much
    • Residential block/development size can vary in size
    • Width of roads are different across cities
    Large blocks Wide arterial roads More fatalities Large blocks Long walk to bus Less use London Delhi
  • 15. Safe roads a precondition for the future low CO2 city IIT Delhi 2008
    • Children, elderly, walking speed ~ 0.8 m/s
    • Pedestrian green phase < 30 s
    • Therefore, motorised lanes < (30 X 0.8) = < 24 m
    • Shops and/or street vendors by design
    • City blocks ~ 800 m square
    • Maintain urban average speeds at 15 km/h
    • Public transit on surface

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