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“EcoBlock” Neighborhoods The Right Scale for Zero Carbon Development?
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“EcoBlock” Neighborhoods The Right Scale for Zero Carbon Development?

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Harrison Fraker's presentation for the Penn IUR conference

Harrison Fraker's presentation for the Penn IUR conference

"Re-Imagining Cities: Urban Design After the Age of Oil"

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  • ~~Animates automatically~~ [Add a few bulletted stats on number of units in eco-block (600), no. of units within Fushan site (5100), no. of people etc (3 per unit)]
  • Superblock - China’s Resource Drain Demonstrating how the current superblocks require lots of off-site infrastructure and are a drain on economic and environmental resources. Compare with next slide of the eco-block, which shows that eco-block is more or less self-sufficient.
  • ENERGY Describe systems diagram Explain process
  • ENERGY Describe systems diagram Explain process
  • WATER + WASTEWATER Describe systems diagram First step reduce consumption and demand for drinking water Use alternative sources of water for non-potable uses
  • WATER + WASTEWATER Describe systems diagram Explain process (potable, non-potable, wastewater, anaerobic digester etc) Decentralized water recycling and treatment processes Potable water top-up only
  • BENEFITS/OUTCOMES OF THE ECO BLOCK Water + Wastewater Litres of water saved Supply strategy
  • WATER + WASTEWATER Describe systems diagram Explain process (potable, non-potable, wastewater, anaerobic digester etc) Decentralized water recycling and treatment processes Potable water top-up only

“EcoBlock” Neighborhoods The Right Scale for Zero Carbon Development? “EcoBlock” Neighborhoods The Right Scale for Zero Carbon Development? Presentation Transcript

    • “ EcoBlock” Neighborhoods
    • The Right Scale for Zero Carbon Development?
    • Workshop
    • “ Urban Design after the Age of Oil,”
    • University of Pennsylvania
    • Penn Design
    • November 7, 2008
    • Harrison Fraker, FAIA
    • Former Dean and William W. Wurster Professor
    • College of Environmental Design
    • University of California, Berkeley
    • Part of the Urban Sustainability Project
    • Berkeley Institute of the Environment
    © 2008 by the Regents of the University of California “EcoBlock” Neighborhoods Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  • © 2008 by the Regents of the University of California “EcoBlock” Neighborhoods Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley Source: Energy Information Administration Statistics (Architecture 2030) WHY Carbon Neutral Future Building consumption represents almost half the challenge
  • © 2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “ Eco-Blocks ” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley 2030 0 C hallenge
    • New building project, development and major renovation meet a fossil fuel energy-consumption performance standard of 50% of the regional (or country) average for that building type.  
    • That at a minimum an equal amount of existing building area be renovated to use 50% of the fossil fuel energy they currently consume.
    • New Buildings-50%
    • 2010 – 60%
    • 2015 – 70%
    • 2020 – 80%
    • 2025 – 90%
    • 2030 – Carbon Neutral
    • (no fossil fuel energy to operate)
  • © 2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “ Eco-Blocks ” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley Source: Energy Information Administration Statistics (Architecture 2030) WHY Carbon Neutral Future Buildings and cars represent 65% of the challenge
  • © 2008 by the Regents of the University of California “EcoBlock” Neighborhoods Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley Qingdao Bus Rapid Transit Site
  • High-level of pedestrian accessibility and connectivity © 2008 by the Regents of the University of California “EcoBlock” Neighborhoods Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley Secondary sidewalks Dedicated off-street paths BRT Station Primary sidewalks 10 min. walk 5 min. walk
  • Modal Share Comparisons © 2008 by the Regents of the University of California “EcoBlock” Neighborhoods Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley 0% 100% 50% 75% 25% Bicycle & Pedestrian 7% Bicycle & Pedestrian 30% Bicycle & Pedestrian 80% Bicycle & Pedestrian 80% Transit 3% Transit 10% Car 10% Car 90% Car 50% Transit 20% Car 25% Transit 50% China Today US Today EU Today Japan Today China 2030 ?
  • © 2008 by the Regents of the University of California “EcoBlock” Neighborhoods Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley Flow diagram of the sources and activities across the global economy that produce greenhouse gas emissions. Source: World Resources Institute.
  • © 2008 by the Regents of the University of California “EcoBlock” Neighborhoods Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  • © 2008 by the Regents of the University of California “EcoBlock” Neighborhoods Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  • © 2008 by the Regents of the University of California “EcoBlock” Neighborhoods Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  • Qingdao EcoBlock Prototype: Program Details © 2008 by the Regents of the University of California “EcoBlock” Neighborhoods Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
    • EcoBlock
    • 600 units per EcoBlock
    • Eco-block = 3.5 hectares
    • 1,800 residents per
    • EcoBlock
    • 171 units per hectare
    • Qingdao Prototype Site
    • EcoBlock replicated 8 times
    • 5,100 units at the Qingdao site
    • Increased density near transit
    600 600 600 600 600 600 1200 300
  • The mass-replicated SuperBlocks place significant demands on China’s infrastructure © 2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “ Eco-Blocks ” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley SuperBlock power plant landfill sewage potable water
  • © 2008 by the Regents of the University of California “EcoBlock” Neighborhoods Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley whole systems thinking EcoBlock
  • © 2008 by the Regents of the University of California “EcoBlock” Neighborhoods Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  • © 2008 by the Regents of the University of California “EcoBlock” Neighborhoods Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley Whole Systems Design: Integrated systems that are mutually beneficial
  • Energy Demand Reduction Strategies by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “ Eco-Blocks ” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley Shared Building shading Daylighting High performance glazing Reflective pavement Natural Ventilation Shaded walkways Energy efficient equipment Passive solar heating Efficient lighting
  • Creating a Sustainable Supply of Energy © 2008 by the Regents of the University of California “EcoBlock” Neighborhoods Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley Canopy integrated photovoltaics Roof mounted photovoltaics Building integrated wind turbines Anaerobic Digester
  • © 2008 by the Regents of the University of California “EcoBlock” Neighborhoods Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley Reducing Reliance on Grid Based Energy Conservation and Efficiency On-Site Generation 100% residual energy demand met by on-site renewables Total demand + supply savings = 1,650,000 kWh/year Optimized facade Natural ventilation Daylighting Efficient equipment & lighting Passive heating Photovoltaics Wind turbines Digester
  • © 2008 by the Regents of the University of California “EcoBlock” Neighborhoods Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  • © 2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “ Eco-Blocks ” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley © 2008 by the Regents of the University of California “EcoBlock” Neighborhoods Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  • © 2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “ Eco-Blocks ” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley © 2008 by the Regents of the University of California “EcoBlock” Neighborhoods Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  • © 2007 by the Regents of the University of California Made-In-China “ Eco-Blocks ” Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley © 2008 by the Regents of the University of California “EcoBlock” Neighborhoods Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  • © 2008 by the Regents of the University of California “EcoBlock” Neighborhoods Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley EcoBlock Energy Demand Profile
  • Waste to Energy Anaerobic Digester © 2008 by the Regents of the University of California “EcoBlock” Neighborhoods Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley Household Organic Waste Green Waste Sludge Waste mixed with water Hydrolysis reactor Hydraulic mixing Buffer Tank Water and generated organic acid Hydraulic mixing Biogassification reactor Water drawn off Water recycled to hydrolysis tank Methane out 31% efficient gas-fired electricity turbine Eco Block Energy to buildings
  • Reducing Demand for Potable Water © 2008 by the Regents of the University of California “EcoBlock” Neighborhoods Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley Recycled water for irrigation Xeriscaping Low flow equipment
  • Alternative Sources of Water Supply © 2008 by the Regents of the University of California “EcoBlock” Neighborhoods Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley Constructed wetlands - filtration system Rainwater storage Reverse Osmosis Gray water treatment Wastewater Treatment Porous paving Urban Agriculture 3% of potable water supply from off-site On-site chlorination and UV treatment Rainwater Harvesting Swales
  • © 2008 by the Regents of the University of California “EcoBlock” Neighborhoods Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley Wastewater Recycling Systems
  • © 2008 by the Regents of the University of California “EcoBlock” Neighborhoods Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley Tidal Wetland
  • © 2008 by the Regents of the University of California “EcoBlock” Neighborhoods Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  • Living Machine ® Systems Size / Footprint Aesthetics / Land Use Energy Use Effluent Quality Installed Cost Operating Cost Scalability GHG Emissions ~ 150 sq. ft. per 1,000 gpd Beautiful / Dual use space Very little Tertiary + Significant savings potential Very low / very easy Build as needed Very low ~ 75 sq. ft. per 1,000 gpd Ugly & Hazardous / No other use High Tertiary + Expensive / extensive piping networks High Build all at once High Conventional Technology Comparison Living Machine Systems
  • Reducing Reliance on the Grid © 2008 by the Regents of the University of California “EcoBlock” Neighborhoods Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley 98M liters/year by sustainable supply Total Demand + Supply Savings = 151M 85% savings on potable water demand overall Conservation and Efficiency On-Site Treatment
  • EcoBlock Prototype: Site-wide Utilities © 2008 by the Regents of the University of California “EcoBlock” Neighborhoods Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley Blackwater and Tertiary Treatment All Wastewater, sludge and food waste Digester Central Primary Treatment System for sludge and food waste removal from wastewater Constructed wetlands Localized Reverse Osmosis treatment units at each Ecoblock Wastewater supply for Wetlands
  • © 2008 by the Regents of the University of California “EcoBlock” Neighborhoods Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley Landscapes –10 productive functions, frequently overlooked in a figure/ground analysis
    • Climate -creates comfort/ reduces heat island
    • Air Quality -absorbs carbon, aromatic
    • Storm water -treatment swales
    • Waste water -treatment wetlands
    • Food -urban agriculture
    • Energy -creates biomas fuel
    • Aesthetics -design quality
    • Health -healing effect
    • Recreation -shared activity space
    • Community -perceived as common good, builds consensus
  • © 2008 by the Regents of the University of California “EcoBlock” Neighborhoods Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley 50% of High Density Mixed-Use Urban Land Can Become Part of Whole-System Functions
  • © 2008 by the Regents of the University of California “EcoBlock” Neighborhoods Harrison Fraker, FAIA Dean College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley Implications for Urban Design Education
    • Must become deeply interdisciplinary, informed by whole-systems thinking,
    • - beyond the disciplines of architecture, landscape architecture, planning (landuse and transportation), urban design, structural and mechanical engineering, but
    • - to include infrastructure engineers ( energy, water, waste, IT, etc.), industrial ecologists, renewable energy experts, local organic food production specialists, etc.
    • Must develop a design studio pedagogy which enables interdisciplinary analysis and perspectives to inform desigh exploration…….”a wicked problem”
    • Must prepare students with the knowledge, analytical skills and tools to be effective in interdisciplinary design exploration
    • Must conduct the empirical research which documents the sustainable performance of different built case study examples;
    • - including physical measures for the flows, into and out of different scales of development, such as: energy, waste, food, water, trips, air, greenhouse gases, social interactions,etc
    • - including more careful physical and spatial documentation of the differences between case study examples