Changing the Geography of Opportunity by Helping Poor Households Move out of Concentrated Poverty:  An Overview of the Lan...
Key Research Questions Holding Important Policy Implications <ul><li>Does moving out of a concentrated-poverty neighborhoo...
Does moving out of a concentrated-poverty neighborhood substantially improve outcomes for the poor?   <ul><li>Concentrated...
What mechanism(s) of neighborhood effect are at work? <ul><li>Social processes: role modeling & social control </li></ul><...
How long does the neighborhood effect take to work? <ul><li>Exposure duration is mechanism-dependent </li></ul><ul><li>Exp...
Which “neighborhood” matters? <ul><li>Various geographic scales of neighborhood may matter </li></ul><ul><li>Rarely have p...
Which poor / which outcomes are affected? <ul><li>For most key outcomes, size of neighborhood effect differs by:  </li></u...
Policy Implication I:   How can we help the poor move into opportunity-rich neighborhoods?   <ul><li>Operationalize “oppor...
Policy Implication II:   How can we help the poor remain in and get the most out of opportunity-rich neighborhoods?   <ul>...
Policy Implication III:   How can we help opportunity-rich neighborhoods remain so as the poor move in?   <ul><li>Avoid ti...
Conclusion <ul><li>What we know about neighborhood effects    must reform current system for delivering affordable housin...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Changing the Geography of Opportunity by Helping Poor Households Move out of Concentrated Poverty: An Overview of the Landscape

470 views
432 views

Published on

George Galster's presentation for

the Penn IUR and Federal Reserve Conference, “Reinventing Older Communities: How Does Place Matter?”

Published in: Technology, Economy & Finance
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
470
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
2
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Changing the Geography of Opportunity by Helping Poor Households Move out of Concentrated Poverty: An Overview of the Landscape

  1. 1. Changing the Geography of Opportunity by Helping Poor Households Move out of Concentrated Poverty: An Overview of the Landscape George Galster Hilberry Professor of Urban Affairs Wayne State University, Detroit, MI presentation for the PHIL Fed Reserve conference March 27, 2008
  2. 2. Key Research Questions Holding Important Policy Implications <ul><li>Does moving out of a concentrated-poverty neighborhood substantially improve outcomes for the poor? </li></ul><ul><li>If so: </li></ul><ul><li>What mechanism(s) of neighborhood effect are at work? </li></ul><ul><li>How long does the neighborhood effect take? </li></ul><ul><li>Which “neighborhood” matters? </li></ul><ul><li>Which poor/which outcomes are affected? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Does moving out of a concentrated-poverty neighborhood substantially improve outcomes for the poor? <ul><li>Concentrated poverty neighborhoods DO create negative impacts on the poor </li></ul><ul><li>BUT </li></ul><ul><li>How much better off poor will be depends on multi-dimensional CONTEXT associated with low-poverty neighborhood destination </li></ul>
  4. 4. What mechanism(s) of neighborhood effect are at work? <ul><li>Social processes: role modeling & social control </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure to crime & violence </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial mismatch between jobs & residences & transport links </li></ul><ul><li>Inferior institutional resources </li></ul>
  5. 5. How long does the neighborhood effect take to work? <ul><li>Exposure duration is mechanism-dependent </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure duration appears to matter in general </li></ul>
  6. 6. Which “neighborhood” matters? <ul><li>Various geographic scales of neighborhood may matter </li></ul><ul><li>Rarely have potential mechanisms of neighborhood effect been measured directly at any geographic scale; thus unsure which characteristics matter most </li></ul>
  7. 7. Which poor / which outcomes are affected? <ul><li>For most key outcomes, size of neighborhood effect differs by: </li></ul><ul><li>developmental stage </li></ul><ul><li>gender </li></ul><ul><li>race-ethnicity </li></ul>
  8. 8. Policy Implication I: How can we help the poor move into opportunity-rich neighborhoods? <ul><li>Operationalize “opportunity-rich” holistically & at correct neigh’d. scale </li></ul><ul><li>Increase options for poor to live in opportunity-rich neighborhoods </li></ul><ul><li>Assist poor in locating and moving to opportunity-rich neighborhoods </li></ul>
  9. 9. Policy Implication II: How can we help the poor remain in and get the most out of opportunity-rich neighborhoods? <ul><li>Given duration effects and history of great mobility of poor out of low-poverty areas, must intervene with supportive services & institutions </li></ul>
  10. 10. Policy Implication III: How can we help opportunity-rich neighborhoods remain so as the poor move in? <ul><li>Avoid tipping points of max. 15-20% neighborhood poverty rates in destination neighborhoods for poor in-movers </li></ul>
  11. 11. Conclusion <ul><li>What we know about neighborhood effects  must reform current system for delivering affordable housing, otherwise… </li></ul><ul><li>“Equal Opportunity” will remain a </li></ul><ul><li>HOLLOW PROMISE </li></ul><ul><li>Instead of a </li></ul><ul><li>HALLOWED PREMISE </li></ul>

×