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Asian Immigration to American

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  1. 1. Looking at Asians Through a Different Mirror<br />Jordan Hall, KiraOppici, Melissa Gorman, Daniel Grosso<br />
  2. 2. Reasons For leaving<br />Many sought sanctuary from intense conflicts in China caused by British Opium Wars<br />Fleeing from turmoil of peasant rebellions such as the Taiping Rebellion<br />Also, the bloody strife between the Punti (“Local People”) and the Hakkas (“Guest People”) over possession of the fertile delta lands<br />Harsh economic conditions also drove Chinese migrants to seek survival in America<br />Qing government imposed high taxes and many lost their land<br />Flooding also intensified suffering<br />
  3. 3. Various Employments<br />The “Gold Hills” offered opportunities for employment<br />325 Chinese immigrants joined the Forty-Niners in the Gold Rush; a year later 450 more joined them<br />By 1930 400,000 had come to America.<br />By 1860’s 24,000 were working in the California mines<br />In 1867 12,000 got jobs with the Central Pacific Railroad<br />From 1860-1880 a wide array of Chinese became farmers and shared their agricultural knowledge<br />
  4. 4. Early chinese Discrimination<br />The managers of the Central Pacific Railroad forced the Chinese laborers to work through the winter of 1866. Work was dangerous and killed many men.<br />After that, they went on strike, however, Superintendent Crocker isolated the strikers and cut off their food supply.<br />Chinese workers became targets of white labor resentment, especially during hard times.<br />Whites would lead violent anti-Chinese riots throughout California<br />Chinese were beaten and shot by white workers and often loaded onto trains and shipped out of town<br />”Ethnic Antagonism” in the mines, factories, and fields forced thousands of Chinese into self-employment<br />Racial discrimination drove Chinese into work they disdained as degrading to them as men<br />
  5. 5. Discrimination Continued…<br />“nagurs” “God damn Chinamen” “Chinks”<br />known as heathen, morally inferior, savage, childlike, and lustful <br />Like blacks, Chinese men were viewed as threats to white racial purity<br />Chinese and other people not white could not testify against whites<br />1882- 1902 Congress passed the Chinese Exclusionary Act, which prohibited the entry of Chinese labors<br />
  6. 6. Chinese laundryman<br />Chinese washhouses were a common sight as early as the 1850s<br />By 1890, there were 6,400 Chinese laundry workers in California.<br />The “Chinese laundryman” was an American phenomenon. <br />In China, laundry work was a “woman’s occupation,” and men did not “step into it for fear of losing their social standing.”<br />Laundry work was one of the few opportunities that were open to Chinese. <br />
  7. 7. Chinese women<br />Very limited migration; some were able to send for their wives<br />“hostage theory” :women were kept home in order to ensure that their absent husbands would not become prodigal sons in America<br />Most came alone, transported to America as prostitutes<br />They would sign contracts to pay for the cost of transportation and became sexual indentured servants<br />Many became opium addicts seeking refuge after the abuse and degradation <br />Prostitutes were beaten to death by their customers or owners, and others committed suicide by taking an overdose of drugs or drowning themselves in the San Francisco Bay<br />
  8. 8. Chinese secret society<br />1852 the first secret society, the Kwang-tek-tong, was founded in California.<br />Offered friendship and support to Chinese migrants in an unfamiliar land<br />Also, provided protection<br />They came to control the opium trade as well as gambling and prostitution in the Chinese communities.<br />Chinese Six Companies helped settle inter-district conflicts and provided educational and health services to the community<br />Gradually, the Chinese were creating their own communities in America<br />
  9. 9. San Francisco earthquake<br />April 18th, 1906 an earthquake shook San Francisco<br />Fires followed right after<br />The fires destroyed all the municipal records and opened the way for a new Chinese immigration<br />Now Chinese men could claim they were born here and bring over their wives<br />“Paper sons”<br />Forged certificates and bring back sons<br />If every claim claim to natural-born citizenship were valid, every Chinese woman living in San Francisco before 1906 would have had to have given birth to eight hundred children<br />
  10. 10. Further Aftershock<br />Chinese came to America by the thousands<br />Newcomers were placed in barracks like cages in the zoo<br />The purchase of a birth certificate, many of the “paper sons” discovered had to pass an exam and prove their American identity<br />They would have to study about their “paper family”<br />10% were sent back to China<br />By 1943, about 50,000 Chinese had entered America<br />
  11. 11. Emigration to hawaii<br />Japan worried they’d be the next victim of Western powers attempt to colonize<br />Japanese believed that “money grows on trees” in America<br />Plantation laborers in Kingdom of Hawaii could earn six times more<br />Wanted better learning experiences<br />
  12. 12. Picture brides<br />Wanted to avoid prostitution, gambling, and drunkenness problems, so promoted female emigration <br />“The picture bride system was based on the established custom of arranged marriage” (234)<br />If woman wanted to go to America, marriage requests would pour in, and the woman and man would exchange pictures before their first actual exchange.<br />Japanese women were joining workforce, totaling 60% of of Japanese industrial laborers in Hawaii by 1900.<br />Wanted men with families who would stay on plantations<br />
  13. 13. Laborer discrimination<br />Japanese laborers demanded higher wages, which upset the Hawaii Sugar Planters’ Association and Bureau of Immigration<br />This led to the request of a shipment of Korean laborers to “drive the Japs out” because they didn’t think the two would join together in strikes<br />Korean supply was cut in 1905, where they then turned to the Philippines<br />Filipinos began to slowly take over as the Japanese started returning home<br />The planters began giving tasks by race: whites were given skilled and supervisory positions, Asian immigrants were unskilled field laborers<br />The Japanese were seen as unskilled because they were not white, meaning they were ineligible to become naturalized citizens<br />
  14. 14. Laborer Discrimination cont’d.<br />No opportunities to get ahead in your employment position because “you can’t go very high up and get big money unless your skin is white. You can work here your whole life and yet a haole[white] who doesn’t know a thing about the work can be ahead of you in no time”<br />Called out by “bango” followed by a number, never by name<br />Different nationalities were housed in separate camps, such as Japanese camps, Chinese and Filipino camps, Puerto Rican camps, “Young Hee Camp,” “Ah Fong Camp,” “Spanish A Camp,” “Spanish B Camp,” and the “Alabama Camp” <br />
  15. 15. Plantation cooperation<br />Planters eventually started changing the barracks for workers into cottages for families<br />Gave pleasant surroundings to make the workers healthier and more efficient in work<br />Laborers started sharing lunches with each other<br />Workers combined all their languages to form a plantation dialect, called “pidgin English”<br />
  16. 16. Once a Jap, Always a Jap<br />Immigrants believed that if they succeeded, especially in agriculture, they would be accepted into American society<br />The first generation of immigrants were called the Issei; second generation were called the Nisei, Japanese-Americans by birth<br />It was hoped that the Nisei would secure dignity and equality by being born in America<br />Their citizenship and education did not immunize any of them from racial discrimination<br />They were still called “Japs” and told to return “home”<br />Graduated with honors and completed college didn’t help find jobs in the mainstream economy, being denied employment<br />
  17. 17. Japanese-americans in Pearl Harbor<br />On the Sunday morning of December 7, 1941, 353 Japanese fighting planes dropped bombs on the ships anchored in the U.S. naval base of Pearl Harbor, Hawaii<br />21 shops were sunk or damaged, 164 planes were destroyed, 1,178 soldiers and sailors were injured, and 2,388 were killed<br />The next day before Congress, President Roosevelt announced, “Yesterday…a date which will live in infamy-the United States was suddenly and deliberately attacked by navel and air forces of the Empire of Japan…I ask that Congress declare that since the unprovoked and dastardly attack…a state of war has existed.”<br />This attack forever changed the way the Japanese Americans were looked at and treated<br />
  18. 18. “Japanese-Americans: ‘a tremendous hole’ in the consitution”<br />On December 19, Navy Secretary Frank Knox recommended the internment of all Japanese aliens to on outer island<br />However, General Delos Emmons as military governor of Hawaii announced, “There is no intention or desire on the part of the federal authorities to operate mass concentration camps…we must remember that this is America and we must do things the American way.” To General Emmons the “American Way” meant that he was required to honor and enforce the United States Constitution <br />President Roosevelt after acting on the advice of the Joint Chiefs of Staff approved a recommendation for the evacuation of 20,000 “dangerous” Japanese from Hawaii to the mainland<br />Two weeks later General Emmons reduced the number to 1,550<br />General Emmons fought that the Japanese were “absolutely essential” for rebuilding Pearl Harbor since they represented over 90 percent of the workers<br />In the end, General Emmons ordered the internment of 1,444 Japanese in Hawaii<br />
  19. 19. Japanese-Americans Living In the Mainland<br />Head of the Western Defense Command, General John L. DeWitt, wanted to exclude Japanese aliens as well as U.S. born Americans of Japanese descent from certain areas<br />DeWitt argued his justification by stating, “We are at war and this area-eight states-has been designated as a theater of operations.” <br />He stated that he had no confidence in the Japanese living on the West Coast saying, “A Jap is a Jap is a Jap.”<br />While some political figures fought the idea to completely remove the Japanese eventually under General DeWitt’s command the military posted an order saying, “Pursuant to the provisions of Civilian Exclusion Order No. 27, this Headquarters, dated April 30, 1942, all persons of Japanese ancestry, both alien and non-alien, will be evacuated from the above area by 12 o’clock noon, P.W.T., Thursday May 7, 1942<br />
  20. 20. Japanese concentration camps<br />Most Japanese felt that they were not able to fight the evacuation so they did not bother<br />The few that did fight the evacuation by refusing to evacuate were arrested, and convicted. A few of the cases got to the U.S. Supreme Court, which upheld their conviction<br />The Japanese being evicted were instructed that they could only bring what they were able to hold, forcing most of them to sell many of their belongings<br />They were than brought to the control centers to sign in, where each family was given a name<br />From there they were than taken to assembly centers<br />Their stays at the assembly centers were not long however<br />They were soon shipped onto 171 trains, 500 per person, to one of 10 concentration camps: Topaz in Utah, Poston and Gila River in Arizona, Amache in Colorado, Jerome and Rohwer in Arkansas, Minidoka in Idaho, Manzanar and Tule Lake in California, and Heart Mountain in Wyoming<br />
  21. 21. Daily Life in the camps<br />The Japanese in these Concentration Camps found themselves in a military-life routine daily<br />At 7 am the internees were awaken, they would have breakfast in the cafeteria, and children would than go to school<br />At school the children would begin the day by saluting the flag and singing “My country, ‘tis of thee, sweet land of liberty.”<br />These Japanese Americans were forced to give up their values of self reliance and work for government wages<br />
  22. 22. Japanese-americans fighting in wwII<br />In September 1942, the Selective Service classified all young Japanese as IV-V, enemy aliens<br />A month later, however, the director of the Office of War Information urged President Roosevelt to authorize the enlistment of the American-born Japanese<br />In December the army developed a plan for forming an all-Japanese-American combat team<br />
  23. 23. Still Fighting the war<br />On February 1, 1943, completely ignoring the evacuation order he had signed a year earlier President Roosevelt wrote to Secretary of War Stimson stating, “No loyal citizen of the United States should be denied the democratic right to exercise the responsibilities of his citizenship, regardless of his ancestry…Americanism is not, and never was, a matter of race or ancestry. Every loyal American citizen should be given the opportunity to serve this country…in the ranks of our armed forces.”<br />Five days later the government required all internees to answer loyalty questionnaires<br />
  24. 24. Questionnaires<br />Question 27 asked draft-age males if they were “willing to serve in the armed forces of the United States on combat duty, wherever ordered?” Question 28 asked, “Will you swear unqualified allegiance to the United States of America and faithfully defend the United States from any or all attack by foreign or domestic forces, and forswear any form of allegiance or obedience to the Japanese emperor, or any other foreign government, power or organization?”<br />The internees were forced to answer these loyalty questionnaires<br />4,600 of the 21,000 males eligible to register for the draft, answered with a “no,” or a no response<br />
  25. 25. End of WWII<br />33,000 Japanese Americans enlisted in the United States Armed Forces<br />They believed that participating in the war would be the best way to express their loyalty <br />The Japanese served extremely useful in the war they translated documents, including battle plans, lists of Imperial Navy ships, and Japanese secret codes<br />On July 15, 1946, on the lawn of the White House, President Harry Truman welcomed home the Nisei soldiers of the 442nd saying, “You fought for the free nations of the world…you fought and not only the enemy, you fought the prejudice-and you won.”<br />While the Japanese Americans did as much as they could to fight the prejudice, they still suffered from it, even after fighting for their country<br />
  26. 26. Chinese Population Boom<br />1965: Congress lifts restriction on Asian immigration, led to pop. boom<br />1960: 237,000<br />1980: 812,200<br />
  27. 27. How Did they get here?<br />Many came for education<br />Upon graduation became citizens<br />Brought family over<br />
  28. 28. chinatown<br />Most immigrants did not speak English<br />Low end labor<br />Women were seamstresses in NYC and men worked in food<br />Led to Chinese district or “Chinatown”<br />Same thing in San Francisco<br />
  29. 29. Vietnam<br />13,000 came in 1975<br />Forced to leave due to war<br />2nd wave came in 1979 (150,000)<br />
  30. 30. Great Migrations<br />Orderly Departure Program (1982)<br />Allowed 20K Vietnamese in each year to reunite families separated by war<br />1,388,000 by 2000<br />Orange County, San Jose, and LA<br />
  31. 31. fin<br />