Chem iv exercise 2011 unit1

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Chem iv exercise 2011 unit1

  1. 1. Name …………………………………………………………………………………Date……………………..Class……………No……Exercise 1: Organic Chemistry and Hydrocarbons 1. What is organic chemistry? __________________________________________________ 2. Organic compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen are called_____________________ . 3. Is the following sentence true or false? Alkanes contain only single covalent bonds. ____________ 4. What is the simplest alkane? ______________________ 5. Circle the letter of each statement that is true about carbon’s ability to form bonds. a. Carbon atoms have four valence electrons. b. Carbon atoms always form three covalent bonds. c. Carbon atoms can form stable bonds with each other.Straight-Chain Alkanes 6. What are straight-chain alkanes? ______________________________________________ 7. The names of all alkanes end with the suffix ______________________ .Match the name of the straight-chain alkane with the number of carbon atoms it contains. _______ 8. nonane a. 3 _______ 9. propane b. 4 _______ 10. heptane c. 7 _______ 11. butane d. 9Hydrocarbon Compounds 12. Circle the letter of each condensed structural formula for pentane. a. C5H12 b. CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3 c. CH3(CH2)3CH3 d. C — C — C — C — C 13. The ______________________ system names organic compounds according to their structure. 1
  2. 2. Branched-Chain Alkane 14. Is the following sentence true or false? Hydrogen atoms are the only atoms that can bond to the carbon atoms in a hydrocarbon. ______________________ 15. A(n) ______________________ is an atom or group of atoms that replaces hydrogen in a hydrocarbon. 16. Alkyl groups are named by removing the-ane ending of the parent hydrocarbon and adding ______________________ to indicate that one______________________ has been removed. 17. What is a branched-chain alkane? ____________________________________________ 18. Circle the letter of the correct IUPAC name for the molecule below. a. 2,2,4-triethylpentane b. 3-methylpentane c. 2,2,4-trimethylpentane 19. Draw a condensed structural formula for 2-methylhexane. Properties of Alkanes 20. Is an alkane polar or nonpolar? ______________________ 2
  3. 3. Name …………………………………………………………………………………Date……………………..Class……………No……Exercise 2: Hydrocarbon CompoundsAlkene 1. What is an alkene? ________________________________________________________________ 2. Organic compounds that contain fewer than the maximum number of hydrogens in their structures are called ______________________ compounds. 3. Which family of hydrocarbons are always saturated compounds?______________________ 4. Circle the letter of the correct name for the alkene shown below. a. 2,3-dimethyl-3-pentene c. 2,3-dimethyl-2-pentene b. 2-methyl-3-methyl-2-pentene d. 3-ethyl-2-methyl-2-butene 5. Is the following sentence true or false? Rotation can occur around a carbon–carbon double bond. __________ Alkynes 6. Hydrocarbons that contain one or more ______________________ covalent bonds between carbons are called alkynes. 7. ______________________ is the simplest alkyne, and is also known by the common name ______________________ . 8 Complete the table below with the names of the indicated alkanes, alkenes,and alkynes. For the alkenes and alkynes, assume that the multiple bond occurs between the first two carbons. Number of carbons Alkane Alkene Alkyne C6 C7 C8 3
  4. 4. Exercise 3: IsomerismStructural Isomers 1. What are structural isomers? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 2. Is the following sentence true or false? Structural isomers have the same physical properties. ___________ 3. How many structural isomers are there for C4H10? ______________________ Draw a condensed structural formula for the isomers 4. Name the structural isomers of C4H10. ___________________________________ Geometric Isomers 5. Molecules that differ only in the spatial configuration of their substituted groups are called ______________________ isomers. 6. What two things need to be present for the type of isomerism described in Question 5 to occur? a. _________________________________________________________ b. _________________________________________________________ 7. What are the names of the molecules represented by the ball-and-stick models below? __________________________ __________________________ 4
  5. 5. Name …………………………………………………………………………………Date……………………..Class……………No……Exercise 4: Hydrocarbon CompoundsDraw the expanded and condensed structural formulas for the following compounds: Compounds Expanded structural formulas Condensed structural formulas 2-methylpentane 3-methylpentane 3-methyl-4,4- diethylheptane 6-methyl-3-octane chloromethane cyclopentane 3-hexene 2-ethyl-4-methyl-1- pentene 5
  6. 6. Compounds Expanded structural formulas Condensed structural formulas trans-2-butene cis-2-butene trans-1,2- dichloroethenecis-1,2-dichloroethene trans-2-pentene 4-ethyl-trans-2- heptene 1-propyne 3-heptyne4,4-dimethyl-1-hexyne6-ethyl-3,5-dimethyl-1- octyne 6
  7. 7. Name …………………………………………………………………………………Date……………………..Class……………No……Exercise 5: Hydrocarbon RingsCyclic Hydrocarbons 1. What is a cyclic hydrocarbon? ______________________________________________________________________________ 2. The most abundant cyclic hydrocarbons contain ______________________ or ______________________ carbons. 3. What are the names of the cyclic hydrocarbons represented below? _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ 4. Is the following sentence true or false? Cyclic hydrocarbons that contain only single carbon–carbon bonds are called cycloalkanes. ______________________ 5. Circle the letter of each compound that is an aliphatic compound. a. cycloheptane b. butane c. acetylene d. 2-methylpropaneAromatic Hydrocarbons 6. Is the following sentence true or false? Any substance that has carbon–carbon bonding like that of benzene is called an aromatic compound. ______________________ 7. What does it mean to say that benzene exhibits resonance? ______________________________________________________________________________ 7
  8. 8. 8. Molecules that exhibit resonance are more ______________________ than similar molecules. 9. When ______________________ is a substituent on an alkane, it is called a phenyl group. 10. What is the chemical formula for a phenyl group? ______________________ 11. Circle the letter of the name of the compound shown below. a. ethylhexene b. dimethylbenzene c. ethylbenzene 12. Derivatives of benzene that have ______________________ substituents are called disubstituted benzenes. 13. Why do disubstituted benzenes always have three structural isomers? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________Match the terms for naming a disubstituted benzene with the substituent positionsthey represent. _______ 14. meta a. 1,2 _______ 15. ortho b. 1,3 _______ 16. para c. 1,4 8
  9. 9. Name …………………………………………………………………………………Date……………………..Class……………No……Exercise 6: Reactions of HydrocarbonsWrite a balanced chemical equation for the reactions given below 1. propane + bromine ___________________________________________________________________________ 2. benzene + chlorine ___________________________________________________________________________ 3. ethane + (2 mol) iodine ___________________________________________________________________________ 4. butane + fluorine ___________________________________________________________________________ 5. 2-butene + hydrogen ___________________________________________________________________________ 6. 2-pentene + hydrogen chloride ___________________________________________________________________________ 7. 2-methyl-2-pentene + hydrogen chloride ___________________________________________________________________________ 8. 1-hexene + fluorine ___________________________________________________________________________ 9. 2-methyl-2-hexene + water ___________________________________________________________________________ 10. 2-butyne + chlorine ___________________________________________________________________________ 9
  10. 10. 11. 4,4-dimethyl-2-pentyne + bromine ___________________________________________________________________________12. 4,5-dimethyl-2-hexyne + (2 mol) water ___________________________________________________________________________ 10
  11. 11. Name …………………………………………………………………………………Date……………………..Class……………No…… Exercise 7: Derivatives of Hydrocarbon 1. Classify the following alcohols and give the IUPAC names: OH CH 3 OH H2 H2 C C H 3C CHHO C CH 3 C CH 3 HO CH H3C C CH 3 H2 H2 C CH 3 H2 CH 3 D A B C _____________ _____________ ____________ _____________ 2. Draw the figure for hydrogen bonding between two ethanol molecules. 3. a) Write the structure for dimethyl ether and diethyl ether. b) Is hydrogen bonding between ether molecules possible? _____________ 11
  12. 12. 4. Fill in the blanks Type Structural formula IUPAC name Common name Alcohol CH3CH2OH Ethyl alcohol CH3CH2CH2OH Propyl alcohol 2-propanol cyclohexanol - Ether CH3OCH3 - - Methyl ethyl ether CH3CH2OCH2CH3 - Aldehyde Methanal Formaldehyde Acetaldehyde Propanal Ketone 2-pentanone Methyl propylketone DiethylketoneCarboxylic acid HCO2H Formic acid CH3CO2H Ethanoic acid Butanoic acid Butyric acid Ester CH3CH2CH2COOCH3 Methyl butyrate Ethyl butyrate 12
  13. 13. Type Structural formula IUPAC name Common nameAmine CH3NH2 Aminomethane Aminoethane Ethylamine CH3CH2NHCH2CH3 EthylaminoethaneAmide HCONH2 Methanamide CH3CH2CONH2 Propionamide CH3CH2CONHCH3 N-methylpropanamide CH3CH2CON(CH3)2 N,N- dimethylpropanamide 13
  14. 14. 5. Complete and balance the following reactions. Name the ester produced. a) butanoic acid + ethanol ______________________________________________________________________________ b) propanoic acid + methanol ______________________________________________________________________________ c) butanoic acid + 1-butanol ______________________________________________________________________________ d) benzoic acid + methanol ______________________________________________________________________________ e) benzoic acid + 3-methyl-1-butanol ______________________________________________________________________________ 14
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