What’s the difference bewteen lesson study and research lesson/ How does each part contribute to teachers’ learning/instructional improvement
View can you lift in 3 segments. First: How is this similar/different to planning that’s familiar to you Second: What are teachers doing during lesson. Why might they find it useful? Third: What might teachers find useful? For repeated viewers: Describe structure of colloquium)
Let them know we’ll refer back to their notes this afternoon
How many have had experience of innovation discarded prematurely? Talk in groups about what’s going on in blue box
How many had experience of promising approach discarded before tried deeply? Due to focus on visible, not underlying pathways--lots of reasons Math manipulatives example Middle box often thought just to be lesson plan Planning
Another type of statement decreased. This shows the decrease in statements focused on global evaluation of the teacher or teaching (e.g., “your lesson was great’) or on fixed ability-focus (e.g, “she’s a low student; she’s a high student”). Year 3 is zero in debrief, so doesn’t show. These two emphases might be thought of as the opposite of an inquiry & improvement stance.
. Over 2002-05, the three-year net increase in mathematics achievement for students who remained at Highlands School was more than triple that for students who remained elsewhere in the district as a whole (an increase of 91 scale score points compared to 26 points), a statistically significant difference (F=.309, df=845, p‹.001).
Part of the LS process is kyouzai kenkyuu, careful study of the teaching materials focused on both the mathematics and the pedagogy. We noticed that the textbooks US teachers used to support kyozai kenkyuu in lesson study may not be rich. So we focused on gathering materials to support lesson study; not developing them from scratch, but repurposing existing materials.
Julie-take out background
Teachers did this—took initiative
Julie: needs white background
Part of the LS process is kyouzai kenkyuu, careful study of the teaching materials focused on both the mathematics and the pedagogy. We noticed that the textbooks US teachers used to support kyozai kenkyuu in lesson study may not be rich. So we focused on gathering materials to support lesson study; not developing them from scratch, but repurposing existing materials.
Often in interaction with each other. Jackie’s counting; other’s interp of curric
Lesson study is simple idea, complex process
Who made this. Paradigm shift. Use this w/outside knowledgeable others.
Stockholm2012
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Introduction to Lesson Study Jönköping, Sweden March 7, 2012 Catherine Lewis Mills College, Oakland, CA www.lessonresearch.net Clewis@mills.edu 1
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Lesson Study 1. STUDY Consider long term goals for student learning and development Study curriculum and standards 2. PLAN 4. REFLECT Select or revise research Share data lesson What was learned about Do task students learning, lesson design, this content? Anticipate student responsesWhat are implications for this Plan data collection and lessonlesson and instruction more broadly? 3. DO RESEARCH LESSON Conduct research lesson Collect data 2
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What is a Research Lesson?1. Actual classroom lesson with students, watched by other teachers2. Planned for a long time, collaboratively3. Brings to life a goal or vision of education4. Recorded: video, audio, student work5. Discussed by faculty and sometimes outside commentators 3
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Example 1: School-wide Lesson StudyChoosing a Lesson Study ThemeThink about the students you serve. Your Ideals: What qualities would you like these students to have 5-10 years from now? 4
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Choosing a Lesson Study ThemeThink about the students you serve. The Actual: List their qualities now. 5
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Choosing a Lesson Study ThemeWhat is a gap between the ideal and theactual that you would really like to workon as an educator? 6
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Choosing a Lesson Study ThemeYour Ideals:The Actual:The Gap:The Research Theme: (long-term goal) State positively the ideal student qualities you choose to work on. For example:“For students to: -value friendship -develop their own perspectives and ways ofthinking - and enjoy science.” 7
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MAP OF RESEARCH CONCEPTION School’s Educational Ideal Profile of Students Actual Situation of Students Goals * Learn with friends * Most are cheerful, kind and gentleChildren who are: * Experience natural world richly * Friendships are shallow, and capacity to think* Considerate * Have own perspectives and ways about things from another person’s idea and perspective is inadequately developed* Think well and try hard of thinking * Have considerable difficulty holding their own* Healthy perspectives and ideas* Can lead ordered lives RESEARCH FOCUS * Some students lack interest in the natural world For students to value friendship at the same time that they develop around them their own perspectives and ways of thinking - Toward enjoyable science and life environment studies - Ideal Profile of Students of Research Groups Middle Grades Upper Grades Lower Children who: Children who: Grades * Get pleasure from solving problems Children who: * Eagerly use their 5 senses * Can find problems and make predictions * Participate happily in * Make predictions and test them * Can have their own ideas in observations and learning Learn through comparing their own experiments * Develop their own strategies ideas with friends’ ideas Value learning with friends in which they * Learn with friends * Cooperate with friends while carrying recognize each others perspectives out activities Research Hypotheses * If students are eager to learn and take initiative in their learning, they will be able to deepen their own perspectives and ways of thinking * Students will develop considerate hearts if they work together in ways that enable them to recognize one another’s ideals as they engage in observations, experiments, and activitiesMethods and Measures(1) Strategies for Curriculum (2) Strategies for Learning Materials (3) Strategies for Teaching and Evaluation (4) Strategies for Learning Activities
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Student plans (from lesson 1) for lifting the weight. These plans were included in the packet for the research lesson. Student writing is in regular typeface; teacher’s comments are in capitals. We will lift the 100kg sandbag with the pole and get half of the bag on the cart. Then we will get the s) Necessary things: other half on the cart by using the er e a pole ( about 2 meters) pole again, push it on, and carry it et ) ro p m k a handcart out. 10 thic u t bo cm op low mb (a (3 er e r nd cli t h r, a er, de ov e ad it a l row Th We will add it ! rt ts ca the weight hi after we lower It the rope F T? Kick it while hanging IT LI on WILL the weight CAN YOU REALLY GET A 70KG WEIGHT ON THERE? I WONDER IF IT WILL A sturdy pole (1.5 meters long) REALLY GET ONTO THE A balance beam 5cm in diameter CART? roll roll! rol l ro ll! ugh push ! t hro ph ole um th ep Putting the cart diagonally, one personput e pushes hard and her gets the 100kg sandbag onto the cart CART Pull out just one section of the I WONDER IF IT WILL gymnastics horse WORK WELL? 9
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So, How Can We Lift it (Step 1) First, Let’s Try Out Our IdeasTry drawing the way to lift it that your Group Could you lift the 30kg Sandbag?talked about. Check Check Name NameNecessary Tools: (Step 2) Well, Now it’s Time to Really Try it! Could you lift the 100kg Sandbag? Check Check Name Name • If you were able to lift it, put a check in the box next to your name. • If you were not able to lift it, think of a different way to lift it and put a red mark in the box. Things you noticed or thought about today’s experiment: 10
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Planning Segment:What are the similarities anddifferences between thisplanning and planning familiar toyou?
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Lesson Segment:What was the role of the non-teaching teachers during the researchlesson?What do you think they learned?
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Colloquium Segment:What was the structure and cultureof this meeting?What do you think teachers learned?
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How does lesson study improve instruction?VisibleFeatures ofLesson Study•Planning•Curriculum Study ? Instructional Improvement•Research Lesson•Data Collection•Discussion•Revision•Etc. 14
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Figure 1 A Common (Mis)Conception of Lesson Study Visible Features of Key PathwayLesson Study •Lesson Plans Instructional• Plan Improve• Teach Improvement• Observe• Discuss• Etc. 15
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How Does Lesson Study Improve Instruction? PathwaysVisibleFeatures of Teachers’ KnowledgeLesson Study Instructional•Planning Teachers’ Beliefs Improvement•Curriculum Study Teachers’•Research Lesson Community for•Data Collection Instructional•Discussion Improvement•Revision•Etc. Teaching- Learning Resources 16
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Data Collected During Lesson StudyAcademic Learning• How did images of heated air change?• Did students shift from counting all to making tens?• Did dramatic role-play spark higher quality and quantity of writing?• In their journals, what did students write as their learnings?Motivation• Percent of children who raised hands• Body language, “aha” comments, shining eyesSocial Behavior• How many times do students refer to and build on classmates’ comments?• How often do the five quietist students speak up?• Are students friendly and respectful?Student Attitudes Toward Lesson• How did today’s lesson compare with usual science lessons? 17
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I learned that the only way to get better at observation and data collection is to practice, practice, practice. Darn!A California teacher 18
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P ercent S tatements Focused on S tudent Thinking605040 Planning30 Debrief2010 0 1 2 Year 1 Year 3 Schoolwide Lesson Study School 19
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P ercent S tatements on Evaluation/ Ability98765 Planning4 Debrief3210 1 2 Year 1 Year 3 20
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California Standards Test in Mathematics: Mean Scale Scores, Grades 2-53-year net increase for school more than triple that for district (F=.309, 845df 21p<.001)
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Example 2: Regional Mathematics Lesson Study NetworkSilicon Valley Mathematics Initiative www.svmi.org In this mathematics network, all teachers participate in a range of activities to learn mathematics, but not all teachers participate in lesson study
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We feel there is a great value in a public lesson. It is an opportunity to put our work out for public scrutiny.Lesson Study Communities, Massachusetts 23
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www.svmimac.org Lesson Study has grown and prospered since 2000
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Example from SVMI Spread of Knowledge for Teaching “Re-engagement” as a way to make studentthinking visible, available to revisit and refine Teachers spread the idea of “re-engagement” across •At least 7 districts •Elementary and secondary classrooms •Subject areas •Foundation and school personnel
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Which is a 4 X 5 rectangle? Whatwas each student thinking? (Duringlesson by Akihiko Takahashi, 2002)
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Board from Research Lesson, Middle School, Jan. 2007
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University Lab SchoolUniversity UniversityLab School Lab School University Lab School
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Nation-wide Synergy in Japan• School-wide lesson study focuses on the needs of local students, bringing in reluctant teachers.• At least one teacher from every school takes part in district-based mathematics lesson study.
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Nation-wide Synergy in Japan“Boundary-crossing” individuals carry knowledge back and forth from individual schools and regions to national venues–they share what is working and not working. Often these individuals are: • University-based mathematicians or mathematics educators who serve as advisors to lesson study groups • Regional teacher-leaders • K-12 teachers with a particular interest in math
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Nation-wide Synergy in Japan• Universities (with lab schools) hold large public research lessons that show innovations (U.S.-developed innovations spread more in Japan!)• Interested teachers attend the public research lessons and bring back ideas, materials, perspectives that inform their local lesson study work
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Randomized Trial of Lesson Study in U.S. with Japanese Mathematical Resources Length helps students attend to magnitude of fractions (how much) rather than just count pieces (how many) 1 meter
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Significant Results of Randomized Trial Teachers’ Knowledge of Fractions 33-item teacher assessment, from Univ. of Michigan LMT (21 items); Univ. of Louisville; New Zealand, etc. Students’ Knowledge of Fractions 17-41 item (grade 2-5)student assessment (NAEP, California standards, curriculum materials, research studies) Teachers’ Beliefs and Dispositions • effectiveness of collegial learning • expectations for student achievement
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Learning From and In Practice Students Teachers CurriculumBased on NRC, 2001 & Cohen & Ball, 2000 39
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Teachers’ Activities to Improve InstructionChoose curriculum,write curriculum,align curriculum,write local standardsPlan lessonsindividuallyPlan lessons collaboratively Watch and discuss each other’s classroom lessons U.S. JAPAN copyright Catherine C. Lewis 2005 40
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Professional Development TRADITIONAL RESEARCH LESSONS• Begins with answer • Begins with question• Driven by expert • Driven by participants• Communication • Communication among trainer -> teachers teachers• Relationships hierarchical • Relationship reciprocal• Research informs practice • Practice is researchBy Lynn Liptak, Paterson School #2, New Jersey. 41
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Progress in Lesson Study: US• Embraced and sustained by many teachers• Adaptation to U.S. culture: e.g., norm- setting, strong content resources• Strong proof of impact on students’ and teachers’ learning, teachers’ beliefs, and teachers’ professional community
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Challenges to Lesson Study: US• Think Surface Features = Lesson Study (Missing Features in Blue Box)• Addiction to New Ideas, Little Value on Refinement• Conception of Knowledge as Research Findings, Rather than Changes in People, Structures• Power Structure: Centrally Held Knowledge, Causal Warrant• Resistance to Learning Across Cultures
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Much Research is Needed!•How to teach specific topics (e.g., fractions)•How to build disciplinary skills and habits (e.g,using primary sources in history, posingquestions like “will it always be true?” inmathematics)•How to build school-wide lesson study•How to build and sustain lesson studynetworks•What is the best way to spread the knowledgegained by teachers during lesson study? 44
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Quotes from ParticipantsThe lesson study has taught me: We must never assume that all students understand. It was observed several times that even our "good" students did not have full understanding….Lesson study is staff development in its purest form. Rich discussion occurs. Team members are allowed to be creative, curious, self- motivated participants. The team building was incredible.” Elementary Teacher[Teacher #562]
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