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Outline: ⅠBackgroud of Christianity Ⅱ A. Relations B . The Introduction of Christianity: Puritanis C. Influence Ⅲ Conclusion
ⅠBackgroud of Christianity• Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus as presented in canonical gospels and other New Testament writings.• The three largest groups in the world of Christianity are the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox churches, and the various denominations of Protestantism.• The Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox split from one another in the East–West Schism of 1054 AD, and Protestantism came into existence during the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century, splitting from the Roman Catholic Church.
Ⅱ A. Relation Christianity Branch Number of Adherents Catholic 968,000,000 Roman Catholic Protestant Orthdox 395,867,000 Other Christians 275,583,000 Orthodox 217,948,000Protestant Anglicans Major Traditional Branches of Christianity Puritanism (mid-1995; source: Encyclopedia Britannica)
B. Puritanism 清教主义 the late 16th and 17th centuriesTime: Purpose: to“purify” the Church of England Beliefs: • Covenant of Works( 行为之约 ) is God‘s promise to Adam. • Covenant of Grace( 恩典之约 ) is God’s promise to send the Holy Spirit. • God predetermines who is to be chosen (Gods elect 上帝的选民 ) and who is predestined to be damned to hell. Requrements: work hard, spend little and invest for more business. Working hard and living a moral life were their ethics. they also advocated self-discipline and introspection.
Christian 基督徒Definition: A person who adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion. Based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as recorded in the Canonical gospels and the letters of the New Testament.Faith groups:• Four to seven meta-groups, (Roman Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, Protestantism…)• Three wings, (conservative, mainline and liberal)• Fifteen religious families, (Adventist, Baptist, Lutheran, Reform…)• Dozens of denominations, (from the Amish to The Way)• Many systems of belief, (Arminianism, British Israelism, Calvinism…)Personalities: God, Yeshua/Jesus, Mary, Saints, Satan/demons
Catholic 天主教徒Definition:The term "catholic", derived from the Greek wordκαθολικός (katholikos), which means "universal" or"general", was first used to describe the Church in the early2nd century.
Catholic 天主教 Roman Catholic doctrine: maintains that the Church is infallible when it definitively teaches a doctrine of faith or morals. Catholic worship is centred on the Eucharist, in which the Church teaches that the sacramental bread and wine are transubstantiated into the body and blood of Christ. The Church holds the Blessed Virgin Mary in special regard. Catholic beliefs concerning Mary include her Immaculate Conception and bodily Assumption at the end of her earthly life.
Orthodox 东正教• History ： The Eastern Orthodox Churches trace their roots back to the Apostles and Jesus Christ. Apostolic succession established the seats of Patriarchy (for example see the Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem). Orthodoxy reached its golden age during the high point of the Byzantine Empire, taken over by the Bulgarian Orthodox Church and the Serbian Orthodox Church before it continued to flourish in Russia after the Fall of Constantinople. Numerous autocephalous churches have been established in Eastern Europe and Slavic areas Orthodox Church ： the second largest Christian denomination in the world, with an estimated 300 million adherents mainly in the countries of Belarus, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Georgia, Greece, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Romania, Russia, Serbia, and Ukraine, all of which are majority Eastern Orthodox. The Orthodox Church is composed of several self- governing ecclesial bodies, each geographically and nationally distinct but theologically unified.
Protestantism 新教主义 Definition: the term Protestant has been used in many different senses, often as a general term merely to signify Christians who belong to neither the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodoxy, or Oriental Orthodoxy Churches. Founders: the first major reformers and theologians( 神学家 ) 14th centuryJohn Wycliffe, English reformer, the "Morning Star of the Reformation". 15th century Jan Hus, Catholic Priest and Professor, father of an early Protestant church 16th century Martin Luther, church reformer, Father of Protestantism ， theological works guided those now known as Lutherans.
Protestantism 新教主义Movements ：Fundamental principles ：Scripture Alone ： The belief in the Bible as the supremesource of authority for the church.Justification by Faith Alone: The subjective principle of theReformation is justification by faith alone, or, rather, by freegrace through faith.Universal Priesthood of Believers: The universal priesthoodof believers implies the right and duty of the Christian laitynot only to read the Bible in the vernacular, but also to takepart in the government and all the public affairs of theChurch.
C. Influence• persecution ( 迫害 )of the Puritans, that brought about Puritan migration to Europe (Holland) and America( the Plymouth Colony in what is now southeastern Massachusetts).Mayflower （五月花号）：America:1.Traditon: New England also established another American tradition—astrain of often intolerant moralism.2.American Values: American values such as individualism, hard work, andthe sense of equality.3.American Education: The foundation of a series of institutes, such asHarvard( 哈佛学院 )founded in 1636, College of William and Mary( 威廉玛丽学院 ) in 1693, and Yale( 耶鲁大学 ) in 1701.
Ⅲ Conclusion• The Christianity is the most important religion in the Western world. The development of the several branches and its beliefs caused a lot of influences in history which have a great impact on American began since the voyage of Mayflower.• To have a better understanding of the relations between different branches and its beliefs help us to learn western culture better.