Objectives






7-2

State one or more functions of each of
the 13 vitamins discussed.
Identify at least two food sour...
Facts







7-3

Organic (carbon-containing) compounds
that are essential in small amounts for
body processes
Do not ...
Vitamin Types (13)



Fat-soluble (4): A, D, E, K
Water-soluble (9):



7-4

Vitamin C
Vitamin B complex which
include...
Vitamin Deficiency


People prone to vitamin deficiency:








7-5

Alcoholics
Poor and incapacitated elderly
Cli...
•

Match the following terms with the correct
definition.
1. Avitaminosis

2. Hypervitaminosis

b. Without vitamins

3. Vi...
Avoiding Vitamin Loss








7-7

Buy fresh, unbruised
vegetables and fruits and use
them raw when possible.
Prepare ...
(continued)

Avoiding Vitamin Loss








7-8

Steam, or use as little
water as possible.
Cover pan and cook
for a sh...
Fat-Soluble Vitamins









7-9

Vitamins A, D, E, K
Not lost easily in
cooking
Lost when mineral oil is
ingested
E...
Vitamin A


Preformed




Provitamin A carotenoids




7-10

Retinol: the active form of vitamin A
Beta carotene, lut...
Functions of Vitamin A





7-11

Maintains healthy eyes and skin
Normal bone growth and reproduction
Healthy immune s...
Sources of Vitamin A


Preformed vitamin A (retinol)




Beta carotene


7-12

Fat-containing animal foods:
liver, but...
•

Excess


7-18
7-13

Birth defects, hair
loss, dry skin,
headaches, nausea,
dry mucous membranes, liver
damage, and bon...
Vitamin D





7-14

Prohormone: it is converted to a hormone
in the body
D2 (ergocalciferol) is formed in plants.
D3 (...
Functions of Vitamin D




7-15

Promotes calcium and phosphorus
absorption in the body
Values are given in micrograms o...
Sources of Vitamin D






7-16

Sunlight: changes
provitamin to vitamin D3
Food sources: milk, fish
liver oils, egg yo...
•

Excess


Deposits of calcium
and phosphorus in
soft tissues, kidney,
and heart damage,
and bone fragility

•

Deficit
...
Vitamin E


Tocopherols








7-18

Alpha (most biologically active)
Beta, delta, and gamma

Tocotrienols
Given as...
Functions of Vitamin E






7-19

Antioxidant
Prevention of hemolytic anemia among
premature infants
Enhances immune ...
Sources of Vitamin E






7-20

Vegetable oils: corn,
soybean, safflower, and
cottonseed, and
products made from
them,...
•

Excess






7-28
7-21

Relatively nontoxic,
fat-soluble vitamin
Excess stored in
adipose tissue
Avoid long-term
meg...
Vitamin K







7-22

Made up of several compounds essential
to blood clotting
Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone)
Vitamin K2...
Functions of Vitamin K




Formation of prothrombin for clotting of
blood
Candidates likely to receive vitamin K



...
Sources of Vitamin K







7-24

Green leafy vegetables such
as broccoli, cabbage, spinach,
and kale
Dairy products, ...
•

Excess


7-33
7-25

Anemia can result
from excessive
amounts of synthetic
vitamin K.

•

Deficit


Defective blood
co...
Water-Soluble Vitamins





7-26

Vitamin B complex
and C
Dissolve in water
Easily destroyed by
air, light, and
cooking
Vitamin B Complex: Thiamin/B 1




7-27

Essential for nerve and
muscle action, and
metabolism of
carbohydrates and
some...
(continued)

Vitamin B Complex: Thiamin/B 1




7-28

Deficiency symptoms include loss of
appetite, fatigue, nervous irr...




7-29

Vitamin B Complex:
Riboflavin/B 2

Necessary for the
metabolism of
carbohydrates, protein, and
fats; tissue ma...
(continued)



7-30

Vitamin B Complex:
Riboflavin/B 2

Deficiency can cause cheilosis (sores on
the lips and cracks at t...
Vitamin B Complex: Niacin










7-31

Generic name for nicotinic acid
and nicotinamide
A coenzyme in energy
metab...
(continued)

Vitamin B Complex: Niacin




7-32

Excessive amounts of niacin can cause
flushing due to vascular dilation...
(continued)

Vitamin B Complex: Niacin




7-33

Deficiency symptoms include weakness,
anorexia, indigestion, anxiety, a...
Vitamin B Complex: B 6





7-34

Pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine
Essential for protein metabolism and
absorpti...
(continued)

Vitamin B Complex: B 6





7-35

Measured in milligrams
Sources include poultry, fish,
liver, kidney, pot...
(continued)

Vitamin B Complex: B 6




7-36

Deficiency in infants can cause various
neurological symptoms and abdomina...
Vitamin B Complex: Folate






7-37

Folate, folacin, and folic acid
are chemically similar
compounds, and names are
u...
(continued)

Vitamin B Complex: Folate







7-38

Measured in micrograms
Average adult requires 400
µg/day
600 µg/da...
(continued)

Vitamin B Complex: Folate




7-39

Deficiency linked to neural tube defects in
fetus, such as spina bifida...
Vitamin B Complex: B 12







7-40

Cobalamin: contains mineral cobalt
Involved in folate metabolism,
maintenance of ...
(continued)

Vitamin B Complex: B 12




7-41

Increased need during pregnancy and
lactation
Deficiency is rare and may ...
Vitamin B Complex:
Pantothenic Acid








7-42

Involved in metabolism of carbohydrates,
fats, and proteins
Essentia...
Vitamin B Complex: Biotin






7-43

Coenzyme in synthesis of fatty acids and
amino acids
Sources include liver, egg y...
(continued)

Vitamin B Complex: Biotin



7-44

Toxicity from excess unknown
Deficiency symptoms include nausea,
anorexi...
Vitamin C: Ascorbic Acid







7-45

Has antioxidant properties and protects
food from oxidation
Role in formation of...
(continued)

Vitamin C: Ascorbic Acid




7-46

Sources include citrus fruits, melon,
strawberries, tomatoes, potatoes, ...
Vitamin Supplementation








7-47

Balanced diet provides
nutritional needs of healthy
people.
No amount of vitamin...
Conclusion








7-48

Organic compounds that regulate body
functions and promote growth
Each vitamin has a specifi...
Functional Food


Functional food or
medicinal food is any
healthy or fictional food
claimed to have a
health-promoting o...
Phytochemicals


Phytochemicals are
chemical compounds
such as beta-carotene
that occur naturally in
plants. The term is
...
Vitamins
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  • The general category of functional foods includes processed food or foods fortified with health-promoting additives, like "vitamin-enriched" products.
    Fermented foods with live cultures are considered as functional foods with probiotic benefits.
  • While there is abundant scientific and government support for recommending diets rich in fruits and vegetables, there is only limited evidence that health benefits are due to specific phytochemicals.
  • Vitamins

    1. 1. Objectives    7-2 State one or more functions of each of the 13 vitamins discussed. Identify at least two food sources of each of the vitamins discussed. Identify some symptoms of, or diseases caused by, deficiencies of the vitamins discussed.
    2. 2. Facts     7-3 Organic (carbon-containing) compounds that are essential in small amounts for body processes Do not provide energy Enable the body to use the energy provided by fats, carbohydrates, and proteins Megadoses can be toxic.
    3. 3. Vitamin Types (13)   Fat-soluble (4): A, D, E, K Water-soluble (9):   7-4 Vitamin C Vitamin B complex which includes: thiamin (B1), riboflavin (B2), niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12 (cobalamin), pantothenic acid, biotin
    4. 4. Vitamin Deficiency  People prone to vitamin deficiency:       7-5 Alcoholics Poor and incapacitated elderly Clients with serious diseases that affect appetite Mentally retarded Children receiving inadequate care Individuals with malabsorption disease
    5. 5. • Match the following terms with the correct definition. 1. Avitaminosis 2. Hypervitaminosis b. Without vitamins 3. Vitamin supplement 7-8 7-6 a. Concentrated form of vitamins c. Condition caused by ingestion of excess vitamins
    6. 6. Avoiding Vitamin Loss     7-7 Buy fresh, unbruised vegetables and fruits and use them raw when possible. Prepare fresh vegetables and fruits just before serving. Heat canned vegetables quickly and in their own liquid. Follow package directions when cooking frozen vegetables or fruit. (continues)
    7. 7. (continued) Avoiding Vitamin Loss     7-8 Steam, or use as little water as possible. Cover pan and cook for a short period of time. Save cooking liquid for soups, stews, and gravy. Store fruits and vegetables in a cool, dark place.
    8. 8. Fat-Soluble Vitamins      7-9 Vitamins A, D, E, K Not lost easily in cooking Lost when mineral oil is ingested Excess amounts are stored in the liver. Deficiencies are slow to appear.
    9. 9. Vitamin A  Preformed   Provitamin A carotenoids   7-10 Retinol: the active form of vitamin A Beta carotene, lutein, lycopene, and zeaxanthin Inactive form of vitamin A found in plants; converted to retinol
    10. 10. Functions of Vitamin A     7-11 Maintains healthy eyes and skin Normal bone growth and reproduction Healthy immune system Antioxidants that protect cells from free radicals
    11. 11. Sources of Vitamin A  Preformed vitamin A (retinol)   Beta carotene  7-12 Fat-containing animal foods: liver, butter, cream, whole milk, cheese, egg yolk Carrots, sweet potatoes, spinach, broccoli, pumpkin, squash, mango, and cantaloupe
    12. 12. • Excess  7-18 7-13 Birth defects, hair loss, dry skin, headaches, nausea, dry mucous membranes, liver damage, and bone and joint pain • Deficit  Night blindness, dry, rough skin, increased susceptibility to infections, and blindness or xerophthalmia
    13. 13. Vitamin D    7-14 Prohormone: it is converted to a hormone in the body D2 (ergocalciferol) is formed in plants. D3 (cholecalciferol) is formed in humans from cholesterol in the skin.
    14. 14. Functions of Vitamin D   7-15 Promotes calcium and phosphorus absorption in the body Values are given in micrograms or in international units.
    15. 15. Sources of Vitamin D    7-16 Sunlight: changes provitamin to vitamin D3 Food sources: milk, fish liver oils, egg yolk, butter, and fortified margarine Most milk in the U.S. has 10 µg of vitamin D concentrate added per quart.
    16. 16. • Excess  Deposits of calcium and phosphorus in soft tissues, kidney, and heart damage, and bone fragility • Deficit    7-23 7-17 Poor bone and tooth formation, rickets which causes malformed bones and pain in infants Osteomalacia (softening of bones) Osteoporosis (brittle, porous bones)
    17. 17. Vitamin E  Tocopherols      7-18 Alpha (most biologically active) Beta, delta, and gamma Tocotrienols Given as α-TE (alpha-tocopherol equivalents) 1 mg of α-TE = 1 international unit
    18. 18. Functions of Vitamin E     7-19 Antioxidant Prevention of hemolytic anemia among premature infants Enhances immune system Retards spoilage of commercial foods
    19. 19. Sources of Vitamin E    7-20 Vegetable oils: corn, soybean, safflower, and cottonseed, and products made from them, such as margarine Wheat germ, nuts, and green leafy vegetables The U.S. diet is thought to contain sufficient vitamin E.
    20. 20. • Excess    7-28 7-21 Relatively nontoxic, fat-soluble vitamin Excess stored in adipose tissue Avoid long-term megadoses. • Deficit  Serious neurological defects can occur from malabsorption.
    21. 21. Vitamin K      7-22 Made up of several compounds essential to blood clotting Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) Vitamin K2 (menaquinone) Synthetic vitamin K (menadione) Vitamin K is destroyed by light and alkalis.
    22. 22. Functions of Vitamin K   Formation of prothrombin for clotting of blood Candidates likely to receive vitamin K     7-23 Newborns immediately after birth Clients who suffer from faulty fat absorption After extensive antibiotic therapy Antidote for an overdose of anticoagulant or treatment of hemorrhage
    23. 23. Sources of Vitamin K     7-24 Green leafy vegetables such as broccoli, cabbage, spinach, and kale Dairy products, cow’s milk, eggs, meats, fruits, and cereals Bacteria in small intestine synthesizes some vitamin K, but must be supplemented by dietary sources. Measured in micrograms
    24. 24. • Excess  7-33 7-25 Anemia can result from excessive amounts of synthetic vitamin K. • Deficit  Defective blood coagulation, which increases clotting time and makes client prone to hemorrhage.
    25. 25. Water-Soluble Vitamins    7-26 Vitamin B complex and C Dissolve in water Easily destroyed by air, light, and cooking
    26. 26. Vitamin B Complex: Thiamin/B 1   7-27 Essential for nerve and muscle action, and metabolism of carbohydrates and some amino acids Sources include unrefined and enriched cereals, yeast, wheat germ, lean pork, organ meats, and legumes (continues)
    27. 27. (continued) Vitamin B Complex: Thiamin/B 1   7-28 Deficiency symptoms include loss of appetite, fatigue, nervous irritability, and constipation Beriberi is a disease caused by extreme deficiency of vitamin B1
    28. 28.   7-29 Vitamin B Complex: Riboflavin/B 2 Necessary for the metabolism of carbohydrates, protein, and fats; tissue maintenance (especially the skin around the mouth); and healthy eyes Sources: milk, meats, poultry, fish, enriched breads, cereals, broccoli, spinach, and asparagus (continues)
    29. 29. (continued)  7-30 Vitamin B Complex: Riboflavin/B 2 Deficiency can cause cheilosis (sores on the lips and cracks at the corners of the mouth); glossitis (inflammation of the tongue); dermatitis; and eye strain in the form of itching, burning, and eye fatigue
    30. 30. Vitamin B Complex: Niacin      7-31 Generic name for nicotinic acid and nicotinamide A coenzyme in energy metabolism Sources include meats, poultry, fish, peanuts, and legumes Milk and eggs are sources of tryptophan (precursor of niacin) Measured in niacin equivalents (NE) (continues)
    31. 31. (continued) Vitamin B Complex: Niacin   7-32 Excessive amounts of niacin can cause flushing due to vascular dilation, gastrointestinal problems, itching, and liver damage. May be used as a cholesterol-lowering agent under close supervision of a physician because of adverse side effects, which include liver damage and peptic ulcers (continues)
    32. 32. (continued) Vitamin B Complex: Niacin   7-33 Deficiency symptoms include weakness, anorexia, indigestion, anxiety, and irritability. Pellagra is an extreme deficiency causing sores on the skin, diarrhea, anxiety, confusion, irritability, poor memory, dizziness, and untimely death.
    33. 33. Vitamin B Complex: B 6    7-34 Pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine Essential for protein metabolism and absorption, and aids in the release of glucose from glycogen Serves as a catalyst in conversion of tryptophan to niacin; helps synthesize neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine (continues)
    34. 34. (continued) Vitamin B Complex: B 6    7-35 Measured in milligrams Sources include poultry, fish, liver, kidney, potatoes, bananas, spinach, and unrefined whole grains (oats and wheat) Deficiency symptoms include irritability, depression, and dermatitis (continues)
    35. 35. (continued) Vitamin B Complex: B 6   7-36 Deficiency in infants can cause various neurological symptoms and abdominal problems Toxicity is rare; may cause temporary neurological problems
    36. 36. Vitamin B Complex: Folate    7-37 Folate, folacin, and folic acid are chemically similar compounds, and names are used interchangeably. Needed for DNA synthesis, protein metabolism, and formation of hemoglobin Sources include cereals fortified with folate, green leafy vegetables, legumes, sunflower seeds, fruits such as oranges and strawberries (continues)
    37. 37. (continued) Vitamin B Complex: Folate     7-38 Measured in micrograms Average adult requires 400 µg/day 600 µg/day required 1 month before conception through first 6 weeks of pregnancy Excess can mask vitamin B12 deficiency and inactivates phenytoin, an anticonvulsant drug used by epileptics (continues)
    38. 38. (continued) Vitamin B Complex: Folate   7-39 Deficiency linked to neural tube defects in fetus, such as spina bifida (spinal cord or spinal fluid bulge through the back) and anencephaly (absence of the brain). Other signs include inflammation of mouth and tongue, poor growth, depression and mental confusion, problems with nerve functions, and megaloblastic anemia.
    39. 39. Vitamin B Complex: B 12     7-40 Cobalamin: contains mineral cobalt Involved in folate metabolism, maintenance of the myelin sheath, and healthy red blood cells To be absorbed, must bind with intrinsic factor in stomach. Sources include animal foods, especially organ meats, lean meat, seafood, eggs, and dairy products (continues)
    40. 40. (continued) Vitamin B Complex: B 12   7-41 Increased need during pregnancy and lactation Deficiency is rare and may be due to congenital problems of absorption or years of a vegetarian diet with no animal foods.
    41. 41. Vitamin B Complex: Pantothenic Acid     7-42 Involved in metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins Essential for synthesis of neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and steroid hormones Sources include meats, poultry, fish, eggs, whole-grain cereals, and legumes Thought to be synthesized by the body (continues)
    42. 42. Vitamin B Complex: Biotin    7-43 Coenzyme in synthesis of fatty acids and amino acids Sources include liver, egg yolk, soy flour, cereals, and yeast Synthesized in intestine by microorganisms (continues)
    43. 43. (continued) Vitamin B Complex: Biotin   7-44 Toxicity from excess unknown Deficiency symptoms include nausea, anorexia, depression, pallor, dermatitis, and increase in serum cholesterol
    44. 44. Vitamin C: Ascorbic Acid     7-45 Has antioxidant properties and protects food from oxidation Role in formation of collagen and absorption of nonheme iron Prevents scurvy May be involved with formation or functioning of norepinephrine, some amino acids, folate, leukocytes, the immune system, and allergic reactions (continues)
    45. 45. (continued) Vitamin C: Ascorbic Acid   7-46 Sources include citrus fruits, melon, strawberries, tomatoes, potatoes, red and green peppers, cabbage, and broccoli Stress and cigarette smoking increase need
    46. 46. Vitamin Supplementation     7-47 Balanced diet provides nutritional needs of healthy people. No amount of vitamins will build muscles. Vitamins do not provide energy; they help to release the energy provided by nutrients. Heart disease, cancer, and the common cold cannot be cured by vitamin supplements
    47. 47. Conclusion      7-48 Organic compounds that regulate body functions and promote growth Each vitamin has a specific function. Well-balanced diet provides sufficient vitamins to fulfill body requirements. Fat-soluble vitamins: A, D, E, K Water-soluble vitamins: B complex, C
    48. 48. Functional Food  Functional food or medicinal food is any healthy or fictional food claimed to have a health-promoting or disease-preventing property beyond the basic function of supplying nutrients. 7-49
    49. 49. Phytochemicals  Phytochemicals are chemical compounds such as beta-carotene that occur naturally in plants. The term is generally used to refer to those chemicals that may affect health, but are not yet established as essential nutrients. 7-50
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