• Like
The origins of language curriculum development
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

The origins of language curriculum development

  • 1,721 views
Published

 

Published in Education , Technology
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
1,721
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
88
Comments
0
Likes
1

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. The Origins of Language Curriculum Development
  • 2. GROUP 1:
  • 3. THE ORIGINS OF LANGUAGE CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT 1/ INTRODUCTION - HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 2/ VOCABULARY SELECTION 3/ GRAMMAR SELECTION AND GRADATION 4/ ASSUMPTIONS CONTENTS :
  • 4. SYLLABUS DESIGN - An aspect of curriculum development - A specification of content of course instructions and lists of what to be taught and tested - Began much earlier than curriculum development CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT - A set of processes: Determine the needs of the learners Develop the aims and objectives to address those needs Determine an appropriate syllabus design  Carry out an evaluation of the program - Began in 1960s
  • 5. Teaching methods in 19th – 20th century Grammar Translation Method (1800 - 1900) Direct Method (1890 - 1930) Structural Method (1930 - 1960) Reading Method (1920 - 1950) Audio-lingual Method (1950 - 1970) Situational Method (1950 - 1970) Communicative Approach (1970 - present)
  • 6. Principles of Structural Method (Palmer, 1922) Initial preparation Habit-forming Accuracy Gradation Proportion Concreteness Interest Order of progression Multiple line of approach
  • 7. Structural Method (Palmer, 1922) The content and syllabus underlying. Determining the vocabulary and grammatical content of a language course—selection and gradation. Is it possible to teach the whole of the language? Two aspects of Selection Vocabulary selection Grammar selection
  • 8. Vocabulary selection :  Why do you need vocabulary selection?  How do you make vocabulary selection?
  • 9. A. Why do you need vocabulary selection ?
  • 10. Native speakers  -So MANY -Limited time What words should be taught in a second language? (Richards, 2001, pp. 5) 17,000 words
  • 11. B. How to make selection vocabulary
  • 12. Vocabulary Selection  Choose randomly Unreliable result Ex1: Teaching Cantonese (Li and Richards 1995)  Words occurring in one book 1,141 words 63.4%  Words occurring in two books 313 words 17.4%  Words occurring in three books 155 words 8.6%  Words occurring in four books 114 words 6.3%  Words occurring in five books 77 words 4.3%
  • 13. Football players generally begin as amateurs and the best players progress to become professional players. Normally they start at the first youth team (any local team) and from there. David became the World's number 1 female squash player in January 2006 at the age of 23 to become the first Malaysian and the first Asian woman to be ranked World number 1 in Count the same words in 2 texts
  • 14. Football players generally begin as amateurs and the best players progress to become professional players. Normally they start at the first youth team (any local team) and from there. David became the World's number 1 female squash player in January 2006 at the age of 23 to become the first Malaysian and the first Asian woman to be ranked World number 1 in Choose words in the highest frequenc y
  • 15.  In a …… match, the player is ……… by the ……….. if his hand touches the ball in the ………. area . 17 words 80% 20%4 words  In a soccer match, the player is penalized by the referee if his hand touches the ball in the penalty area . Vocabulary Selection MEANING 21 words
  • 16. SPORTS SCIENCE MAGAZIN E POETRY AND SO ON…. WIDE RANGE OF DIFFERENT LANGUAGE SAMPLES FIND OUT COMMON VOCABULARY
  • 17. The highest Frequenc y Wide range of different language samples The most useful vocabulary The needs of learner s Vocabulary Selection
  • 18. Other Criteria for Determining Word Lists (Besides Frequency)  Teachability  Similarity  Availability  Coverage  Defining Power (Richards, 2001, pp. 8) IN AN INTRODUCTORY LANGUAGE COURSE
  • 19. 1.Teachability water dog To run To eat tomato
  • 20. 2. Similarity Sô – pha sofa tem stamp Băng Cát sét Casset te
  • 21. 3. Availabitity Black board teacher homework CLASSROO M students chalk chefwaiter menu customer cashier bill RESTAURAN T
  • 22. 4. Coverage  EMOTION : (happy , sad, angry, boring…)  TASTE : ( sweet, bitter, salt, sour, …)
  • 23. 5. Defining Power  A piece of furniture for one person to sit on, with a back, a seat and four legs ……… .  A long comfortable seat with a back and arms, for two or more people to sit on …………  A long seat for two or more people, usually made of wood  ………..
  • 24. 5. Defining Power  A piece of furniture for one person to sit on, with a back, a seat and four legs  chair  A long comfortable seat with a back and arms, for two or more people to sit on  sofa  A long seat for two or more people, usually made of wood  bench
  • 25. 5. Defining Power  A piece of furniture for one person to sit on, with a back, a seat and four legs  a chair  A long comfortable seat with a back and arms, for two or more people to sit on  sofa  A long seat for two or more people, usually made of wood  bench
  • 26. Other Criteria for Determining Word Lists (Besides Frequency)  Teachability  Similarity  Availability  Coverage  Defining Power (Richards, 2001, pp. 8) IN AN INTRODUCTORY LANGUAGE COURSE
  • 27. Vocabulary selection DEPENDS ON :    The needs of target learners
  • 28. ASKING PERMISSION ? Please let me use … Do you mind if I use… Is it all right to use … Do you mind me using… Would you mind me using… Would you permit me to use… Would you be so kind as to allow me to use … Would it be possible for me to use… Would you be so kind as to allow me to use..
  • 29. Grammar Selection & Gradation HOW WE CAN DETERMINE What kinds of sentences structures would be useful to teach? Teaching method Items of purposes and Materials Available time of teaching
  • 30. Simplicity & Centrality Frequency Learnability Suggested principles for developing grammatical syllabus
  • 31. Suggested principles for developing grammatical syllabus Simplicity & Centrality: basic simple and central structure of language. S + V—She runs. S + V + Complement—He is a teacher. S + V + Adverb—The boy plays outside S + V + Object + Adverb—I put the book in the bag.
  • 32. Suggested principles for developing grammatical syllabus Frequency: frequency of occurrence in conversational language( not of grammatical items in texts) (McCarthy & Carter, 1995) Subject and verb ellipsis—Let’s go Tails—And you? Reporting verbs—I was telling…
  • 33. Suggested principles for developing grammatical syllabus Learnability: order in which grammatical items are occupied in second language. Ex5: Interview of ESL (Dulay & Burt, 1973 & 1974) 1. Nouns 2. Verbs 3. Adjectives 4. Verb be 5. Possessive pronouns 6. Personal pronouns 7. Adverse of time 8. Requests 9. Simple present 10.Futures 11.Wh-Qs 12.Present continuous 13.Directions 14.Possessive adjective 15.Comparatives 16.Offers 17.Simple future 18.Simple past 19.Infinitives/gerunds 20.First conditional
  • 34. IN CASE OF GRAMMAR SELECTION GRADATION
  • 35. The approaches to gradation
  • 36. The approaches to gradation Linguistic :structures similar to those in native language should be taught first .  I love you  I am a doctor  I want to buy a dress Intrinsic difficulty: simple structures taught before complex one.  He taught me a lesson  The lesson (which) he taught me is very valuable  I love that girl  The girl who I love is the most beautiful one in my class
  • 37. The approaches to gradation Communicative need: despite difficulty, some structures are needed early on in acquisition. • I went on holiday in Da Lat last summer. • Thank you! I had breakfast. • He failed the exam. Frequency: occurrence in the target language but if something easy to demonstrate and practice in a classroom context. • What are you doing? • I am writing. • He is reading. • They are talking to each other.
  • 38. Gradation approaches Sequencing of gradation Linear gradation: introduce one at a time and practiced intensively before moving on Cyclical /Spiral gradation: Repetition, old to new, items reintroduce throughout course
  • 39. 4. Assumptions underlying early approaches to Syllabus Design
  • 40. Assumption underlying early approaches to Syllabus Design  The basic units of language are Vocabulary and Grammar.  Learners everywhere have the same needs.  Language learners’ needs are unique.  Process of learning a language is largely determined by the textbook.  The context of teaching is English as a foreign language
  • 41. 1. The basic units of language are Vocabulary and Grammar  Teaching of English largely through its vocabulary and grammar.  These were seen as the main building blocks of language development.
  • 42. The focus was on “general” English. Core vocabulary + grammatical syllabus The basic for almost all language course 2. Learners have the same needs
  • 43. 3. Learner’s needs are identified exclusively in terms of language needs  Teaching English is to teach English  Not to teach to solve their problem thru English
  • 44. 4. The process of learning a language is largely determined by the textbook. Selection Gradation Control the content of the textbook
  • 45. 5. The context of teaching is English as a foreign language.  Students study English as a formal subject but they have no immediate need to use it outside of the classroom  Classroom and textbook provided the primary input to the language learning process.  Goal of syllabus developer was to simplify and rationalize the input as far as possible thru process of selection and gradation.
  • 46. References  Richards, J. C. (2002). The Origins of Language Curriculum Development. In Richards, J.D. (2002) Curriculum development in language teaching . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (pp. 1-22).  Google Images (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.google.com/imghp?hl
  • 47. Discussio n Questions  List 5 words that you believe to be absolutely necessary for an ELL to learn. Why have you chosen these five words?  If you could chose 5 more words what would they be? Why did you leave these words off your first list?