The Origins
of Language
Curriculum
Development
GROUP 1:
THE ORIGINS
OF
LANGUAGE
CURRICULUM
DEVELOPMENT
1/ INTRODUCTION -
HISTORICAL
BACKGROUND
2/ VOCABULARY
SELECTION
3/ GRAMMAR
...
SYLLABUS
DESIGN
- An aspect of
curriculum
development
- A specification of
content of course
instructions and lists
of wha...
Teaching methods in 19th – 20th
century
Grammar Translation Method (1800
- 1900)
Direct Method (1890 - 1930)
Structural...
Principles of Structural Method
(Palmer, 1922)
Initial preparation
Habit-forming
Accuracy
Gradation
Proportion
Concr...
Structural Method (Palmer, 1922)
The content and syllabus underlying.
Determining the vocabulary and grammatical
content...
Vocabulary selection :
 Why do you need vocabulary selection?
 How do you make vocabulary selection?
A. Why do you need vocabulary
selection ?
Native speakers 
-So MANY
-Limited time
What words should be taught in
a second language?
(Richards, 2001, pp. 5)
17,000
...
B. How to make selection vocabulary
Vocabulary Selection
 Choose randomly Unreliable result
Ex1: Teaching Cantonese (Li and Richards 1995)
 Words occurring...
Football players
generally begin
as amateurs
and the best
players
progress to
become
professional
players.
Normally they
s...
Football players
generally begin
as amateurs
and the best
players
progress to
become
professional
players.
Normally they
s...
 In a …… match, the player is ……… by the
……….. if his hand touches the ball in the
………. area .
17 words 80%
20%4 words
 ...
SPORTS SCIENCE
MAGAZIN
E
POETRY
AND
SO
ON….
WIDE RANGE OF DIFFERENT LANGUAGE
SAMPLES
FIND OUT COMMON
VOCABULARY
The
highest
Frequenc
y
Wide range of
different
language
samples
The most useful
vocabulary
The
needs
of
learner
s
Vocabula...
Other Criteria for Determining
Word Lists (Besides Frequency)
 Teachability
 Similarity
 Availability
 Coverage
 Defi...
1.Teachability
water
dog
To run
To eat
tomato
2. Similarity
Sô – pha sofa
tem
stamp
Băng
Cát sét
Casset
te
3. Availabitity Black board
teacher
homework
CLASSROO
M
students
chalk
chefwaiter menu customer cashier
bill
RESTAURAN
T
4. Coverage
 EMOTION : (happy , sad, angry, boring…)
 TASTE : ( sweet, bitter, salt, sour, …)
5. Defining Power
 A piece of furniture for one person to sit on,
with a back, a seat and four legs ……… .
 A long comfo...
5. Defining Power
 A piece of furniture for one person to sit on, with
a back, a seat and four legs  chair
 A long comf...
5. Defining Power
 A piece of furniture for one person to sit on,
with a back, a seat and four legs  a chair
 A long co...
Other Criteria for Determining
Word Lists (Besides Frequency)
 Teachability
 Similarity
 Availability
 Coverage
 Defi...
Vocabulary selection DEPENDS
ON :



The needs of target learners
ASKING PERMISSION ?
Please let me use …
Do you mind if I use…
Is it all right to use …
Do you mind me using…
Would you min...
Grammar Selection & Gradation
HOW WE CAN DETERMINE
What kinds of sentences
structures would be useful to
teach?
Teaching ...
Simplicity & Centrality
Frequency
Learnability
Suggested principles for developing
grammatical syllabus
Suggested principles for developing
grammatical syllabus
Simplicity & Centrality: basic simple and
central structure of l...
Suggested principles for developing
grammatical syllabus
Frequency: frequency of occurrence in
conversational language( n...
Suggested principles for developing
grammatical syllabus
Learnability: order in which grammatical
items are occupied in s...
IN CASE OF GRAMMAR
SELECTION GRADATION
The approaches to gradation
The approaches to gradation
Linguistic :structures similar to those in native language
should be taught first .
 I love y...
The approaches to gradation
Communicative need: despite difficulty, some
structures are needed early on in acquisition.
• ...
Gradation approaches
Sequencing of gradation
Linear gradation: introduce one at a time and
practiced intensively before m...
4. Assumptions
underlying early
approaches to
Syllabus Design
Assumption underlying early
approaches to Syllabus Design
 The basic units of language are
Vocabulary and Grammar.
 Lear...
1. The basic units of language are
Vocabulary and Grammar
 Teaching of English largely through its
vocabulary and grammar...
The focus
was on
“general”
English.
Core
vocabulary +
grammatical
syllabus
The basic for
almost all
language
course
2. Lea...
3. Learner’s needs are
identified exclusively in terms
of language needs
 Teaching English is to teach English
 Not to t...
4. The process of learning a
language is largely determined
by the textbook.
Selection Gradation
Control
the
content of
th...
5. The context of teaching is
English as a foreign language.
 Students study English as a formal subject
but they have no...
References
 Richards, J. C. (2002). The Origins of
Language Curriculum Development. In
Richards, J.D. (2002) Curriculum
d...
Discussio
n
Questions
 List 5 words that you believe to be
absolutely necessary for an ELL to learn.
Why have you chosen ...
The origins of language curriculum development
The origins of language curriculum development
The origins of language curriculum development
The origins of language curriculum development
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The origins of language curriculum development

  1. 1. The Origins of Language Curriculum Development
  2. 2. GROUP 1:
  3. 3. THE ORIGINS OF LANGUAGE CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT 1/ INTRODUCTION - HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 2/ VOCABULARY SELECTION 3/ GRAMMAR SELECTION AND GRADATION 4/ ASSUMPTIONS CONTENTS :
  4. 4. SYLLABUS DESIGN - An aspect of curriculum development - A specification of content of course instructions and lists of what to be taught and tested - Began much earlier than curriculum development CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT - A set of processes: Determine the needs of the learners Develop the aims and objectives to address those needs Determine an appropriate syllabus design  Carry out an evaluation of the program - Began in 1960s
  5. 5. Teaching methods in 19th – 20th century Grammar Translation Method (1800 - 1900) Direct Method (1890 - 1930) Structural Method (1930 - 1960) Reading Method (1920 - 1950) Audio-lingual Method (1950 - 1970) Situational Method (1950 - 1970) Communicative Approach (1970 - present)
  6. 6. Principles of Structural Method (Palmer, 1922) Initial preparation Habit-forming Accuracy Gradation Proportion Concreteness Interest Order of progression Multiple line of approach
  7. 7. Structural Method (Palmer, 1922) The content and syllabus underlying. Determining the vocabulary and grammatical content of a language course—selection and gradation. Is it possible to teach the whole of the language? Two aspects of Selection Vocabulary selection Grammar selection
  8. 8. Vocabulary selection :  Why do you need vocabulary selection?  How do you make vocabulary selection?
  9. 9. A. Why do you need vocabulary selection ?
  10. 10. Native speakers  -So MANY -Limited time What words should be taught in a second language? (Richards, 2001, pp. 5) 17,000 words
  11. 11. B. How to make selection vocabulary
  12. 12. Vocabulary Selection  Choose randomly Unreliable result Ex1: Teaching Cantonese (Li and Richards 1995)  Words occurring in one book 1,141 words 63.4%  Words occurring in two books 313 words 17.4%  Words occurring in three books 155 words 8.6%  Words occurring in four books 114 words 6.3%  Words occurring in five books 77 words 4.3%
  13. 13. Football players generally begin as amateurs and the best players progress to become professional players. Normally they start at the first youth team (any local team) and from there. David became the World's number 1 female squash player in January 2006 at the age of 23 to become the first Malaysian and the first Asian woman to be ranked World number 1 in Count the same words in 2 texts
  14. 14. Football players generally begin as amateurs and the best players progress to become professional players. Normally they start at the first youth team (any local team) and from there. David became the World's number 1 female squash player in January 2006 at the age of 23 to become the first Malaysian and the first Asian woman to be ranked World number 1 in Choose words in the highest frequenc y
  15. 15.  In a …… match, the player is ……… by the ……….. if his hand touches the ball in the ………. area . 17 words 80% 20%4 words  In a soccer match, the player is penalized by the referee if his hand touches the ball in the penalty area . Vocabulary Selection MEANING 21 words
  16. 16. SPORTS SCIENCE MAGAZIN E POETRY AND SO ON…. WIDE RANGE OF DIFFERENT LANGUAGE SAMPLES FIND OUT COMMON VOCABULARY
  17. 17. The highest Frequenc y Wide range of different language samples The most useful vocabulary The needs of learner s Vocabulary Selection
  18. 18. Other Criteria for Determining Word Lists (Besides Frequency)  Teachability  Similarity  Availability  Coverage  Defining Power (Richards, 2001, pp. 8) IN AN INTRODUCTORY LANGUAGE COURSE
  19. 19. 1.Teachability water dog To run To eat tomato
  20. 20. 2. Similarity Sô – pha sofa tem stamp Băng Cát sét Casset te
  21. 21. 3. Availabitity Black board teacher homework CLASSROO M students chalk chefwaiter menu customer cashier bill RESTAURAN T
  22. 22. 4. Coverage  EMOTION : (happy , sad, angry, boring…)  TASTE : ( sweet, bitter, salt, sour, …)
  23. 23. 5. Defining Power  A piece of furniture for one person to sit on, with a back, a seat and four legs ……… .  A long comfortable seat with a back and arms, for two or more people to sit on …………  A long seat for two or more people, usually made of wood  ………..
  24. 24. 5. Defining Power  A piece of furniture for one person to sit on, with a back, a seat and four legs  chair  A long comfortable seat with a back and arms, for two or more people to sit on  sofa  A long seat for two or more people, usually made of wood  bench
  25. 25. 5. Defining Power  A piece of furniture for one person to sit on, with a back, a seat and four legs  a chair  A long comfortable seat with a back and arms, for two or more people to sit on  sofa  A long seat for two or more people, usually made of wood  bench
  26. 26. Other Criteria for Determining Word Lists (Besides Frequency)  Teachability  Similarity  Availability  Coverage  Defining Power (Richards, 2001, pp. 8) IN AN INTRODUCTORY LANGUAGE COURSE
  27. 27. Vocabulary selection DEPENDS ON :    The needs of target learners
  28. 28. ASKING PERMISSION ? Please let me use … Do you mind if I use… Is it all right to use … Do you mind me using… Would you mind me using… Would you permit me to use… Would you be so kind as to allow me to use … Would it be possible for me to use… Would you be so kind as to allow me to use..
  29. 29. Grammar Selection & Gradation HOW WE CAN DETERMINE What kinds of sentences structures would be useful to teach? Teaching method Items of purposes and Materials Available time of teaching
  30. 30. Simplicity & Centrality Frequency Learnability Suggested principles for developing grammatical syllabus
  31. 31. Suggested principles for developing grammatical syllabus Simplicity & Centrality: basic simple and central structure of language. S + V—She runs. S + V + Complement—He is a teacher. S + V + Adverb—The boy plays outside S + V + Object + Adverb—I put the book in the bag.
  32. 32. Suggested principles for developing grammatical syllabus Frequency: frequency of occurrence in conversational language( not of grammatical items in texts) (McCarthy & Carter, 1995) Subject and verb ellipsis—Let’s go Tails—And you? Reporting verbs—I was telling…
  33. 33. Suggested principles for developing grammatical syllabus Learnability: order in which grammatical items are occupied in second language. Ex5: Interview of ESL (Dulay & Burt, 1973 & 1974) 1. Nouns 2. Verbs 3. Adjectives 4. Verb be 5. Possessive pronouns 6. Personal pronouns 7. Adverse of time 8. Requests 9. Simple present 10.Futures 11.Wh-Qs 12.Present continuous 13.Directions 14.Possessive adjective 15.Comparatives 16.Offers 17.Simple future 18.Simple past 19.Infinitives/gerunds 20.First conditional
  34. 34. IN CASE OF GRAMMAR SELECTION GRADATION
  35. 35. The approaches to gradation
  36. 36. The approaches to gradation Linguistic :structures similar to those in native language should be taught first .  I love you  I am a doctor  I want to buy a dress Intrinsic difficulty: simple structures taught before complex one.  He taught me a lesson  The lesson (which) he taught me is very valuable  I love that girl  The girl who I love is the most beautiful one in my class
  37. 37. The approaches to gradation Communicative need: despite difficulty, some structures are needed early on in acquisition. • I went on holiday in Da Lat last summer. • Thank you! I had breakfast. • He failed the exam. Frequency: occurrence in the target language but if something easy to demonstrate and practice in a classroom context. • What are you doing? • I am writing. • He is reading. • They are talking to each other.
  38. 38. Gradation approaches Sequencing of gradation Linear gradation: introduce one at a time and practiced intensively before moving on Cyclical /Spiral gradation: Repetition, old to new, items reintroduce throughout course
  39. 39. 4. Assumptions underlying early approaches to Syllabus Design
  40. 40. Assumption underlying early approaches to Syllabus Design  The basic units of language are Vocabulary and Grammar.  Learners everywhere have the same needs.  Language learners’ needs are unique.  Process of learning a language is largely determined by the textbook.  The context of teaching is English as a foreign language
  41. 41. 1. The basic units of language are Vocabulary and Grammar  Teaching of English largely through its vocabulary and grammar.  These were seen as the main building blocks of language development.
  42. 42. The focus was on “general” English. Core vocabulary + grammatical syllabus The basic for almost all language course 2. Learners have the same needs
  43. 43. 3. Learner’s needs are identified exclusively in terms of language needs  Teaching English is to teach English  Not to teach to solve their problem thru English
  44. 44. 4. The process of learning a language is largely determined by the textbook. Selection Gradation Control the content of the textbook
  45. 45. 5. The context of teaching is English as a foreign language.  Students study English as a formal subject but they have no immediate need to use it outside of the classroom  Classroom and textbook provided the primary input to the language learning process.  Goal of syllabus developer was to simplify and rationalize the input as far as possible thru process of selection and gradation.
  46. 46. References  Richards, J. C. (2002). The Origins of Language Curriculum Development. In Richards, J.D. (2002) Curriculum development in language teaching . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (pp. 1-22).  Google Images (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.google.com/imghp?hl
  47. 47. Discussio n Questions  List 5 words that you believe to be absolutely necessary for an ELL to learn. Why have you chosen these five words?  If you could chose 5 more words what would they be? Why did you leave these words off your first list?
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