Fructose Contributes To Metabolic Syndrome
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Fructose Contributes To Metabolic Syndrome

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Linda Lizotte\'s Presentation on Fructose Contributing To Metabolic Syndrome

Linda Lizotte\'s Presentation on Fructose Contributing To Metabolic Syndrome

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Fructose Contributes To Metabolic Syndrome Presentation Transcript

  • 1.  
  • 2. Fructose – friend or foe? Designs for Health www.designsforhealth.com 800-847-8302
  • 3. What if Fat Doesn’t Make You Fat?
    • The New York Times Magazine, July 7, 2002
    • Walter Willett, chairman of the department of nutrition at the Harvard School of Public Health
    • He is the spokesman of the longest-running, most comprehensive diet and health studies ever performed
    • 300,000 individuals
    • $100 million dollars
  • 4. The New York Times Magazine- article by Gary Taubes
    • Willett says: “Those data clearly contradict the low-fat-is-good-health message and the idea that all fat is bad for you; the exclusive focus on adverse effects of fat may have contributed to the obesity epidemic.”
    • We are in the midst of an obesity epidemic that started around the early 1980’s which is coincident with the rise of the low-fat dogma.
    • Type 2 Diabetes also rose significantly
  • 5. The New York Times Magazine- article by Gary Taubes
    • “ The public health authorities told us unwittingly, but with the best of intentions, to eat precisely those foods that would make us fat, and we did. We ate more fat-free carbohydrates, which in turn made us hungrier and then heavier.”
    • The alternative hypothesis : “a low-fat diet is not by definition a healthy diet. Such a diet cannot help being high in carbohydrates, and that can lead to obesity, and perhaps even heart disease.”
  • 6. The New York Times Magazine- article by Gary Taubes
    • According to Katherine Flegal, an epidemiologist at the National Center for Health Statistics, the percentage of obese Americans stayed relatively constant through the 1960’s and 1970’s at 13% to 14%.
    • Shot up by 8% in the 1980’s
    • By the end of that decade, nearly 1 in 4 Americans was obese
    • Overweight children tripled in number
    • For the first time, physicians began diagnosing Type 2 Diabetes in adolescents
  • 7. The New York Times Magazine- article by Gary Taubes
    • Fast food consumption continued to grow steadily through the 70’s and 80’s but it did not take a sudden leap, as obesity did.
    • William Dietz, Centers for Disease Control division of nutrition and physical activity, says exercise activity remained unchanged in the 1990’s while obesity rates continued to climb.
    1-800-847-8302
  • 8. Food industry replaced fat with sugar
    • Fat was most often replaced with high fructose corn syrup
    • Animal data suggest that simple sugars, in particular fructose, have adverse effects on insulin action.
    • Studies in rats have demonstrated that high intake of sucrose (18-70% of energy) or fructose (15-60% of energy) produce a decline in insulin sensitivity in the liver and later in peripheral tissues.
    1-800-847-8302
  • 9. Fructose consumption
    • Obesity and type 2 diabetes are occurring at epidemic rates in the United States and many parts of the world.
    • The "obesity epidemic" appears to have emerged largely from changes in our diet and reduced physical activity.
    • An important but not well-appreciated dietary change has been the substantial increase in the amount of dietary fructose consumption from high intake of sucrose and high fructose corn syrup, a common sweetener used in the food industry.
  • 10. Fructose raises triglycerides despite no need for insulin
    • A high flux of fructose to the liver, the main organ capable of metabolizing this simple carbohydrate, perturbs glucose metabolism and glucose uptake pathways, and leads to a significantly enhanced rate of lipogenesis and triglyceride (TG) synthesis, driven by the high flux of glycerol and acyl portions of TG molecules from fructose catabolism.
    1-800-847-8302
  • 11. Is Fructose OK?
    • Fructose appears to be avidly taken up and metabolized by the liver which produces a metabolic state characterized by increased glucose uptake by the liver, which also leads to changes in the expression of the gluconeogenic enzymes that produce insulin resistance.
    1-800-847-8302
  • 12. More negative research on fructose
    • A third study compared wt gain from an artificial swtnr with the consumption of sucrose (which contains 50% fructose).
    • After 10 wks, the sucrose group showed an increase in energy intake, body weight, fat mass and blood pressure
    1-800-847-8302
  • 13. Fructose, insulin resistance, and metabolic dyslipidemia Heather Basciano, Lisa Federico and Khosrow Adeli* Published: 21 February 2005 Nutrition & Metabolism 2005, 2 :5 doi:10.1186/1743-7075-2-5
    • These metabolic disturbances appear to underlie the induction of insulin resistance commonly observed with high fructose feeding in both humans and animal models.
    • Fructose-induced insulin resistant states are commonly characterized by a profound metabolic dyslipidemia, which appears to result from hepatic and intestinal overproduction of atherogenic lipoprotein particles.
    1-800-847-8302
  • 14. Fructose, insulin resistance, and metabolic dyslipidemia Heather Basciano, Lisa Federico and Khosrow Adeli* Published: 21 February 2005 Nutrition & Metabolism 2005, 2 :5 doi:10.1186/1743-7075-2-5
    • Thus, emerging evidence from recent epidemiological and biochemical studies clearly suggests that the high dietary intake of fructose has rapidly become an important causative factor in the development of the metabolic syndrome.
    • There is an urgent need for increased public awareness of the risks associated with high fructose consumption and greater efforts should be made to curb the supplementation of packaged foods with high fructose additives .
    1-800-847-8302
  • 15. Fructose, insulin resistance, and metabolic dyslipidemia Heather Basciano, Lisa Federico and Khosrow Adeli* Published: 21 February 2005 Nutrition & Metabolism 2005, 2 :5 doi:10.1186/1743-7075-2-5
    • This paper looks at increased fructose intake, and the molecular mechanisms leading to fructose-induced lipogenesis (making more lipids such as LDL and triglycerides), insulin resistance and metabolic dyslipidemia.
    • Nutrition & Metabolism 2005, 2 :5 http://www.nutritionandmetabolism.com/content/2/1/5
    1-800-847-8302
  • 16. Fructose – How bad is it?
    • Numbers of animal studies show:
    • High fructose diets induce hypertension in animals
    • Fructose promotes atherosclerosis more than other carbohydrates
    • Fructose raises triglycerides
    • Fructose raises LDL and VLDL chol
    • Fructose glycosylates Hgb 7 x faster than glucose
    1-800-847-8302
  • 17. Is fructose obesitygenic?
    • Researchers at Indiana’s Purdue University tested 14 overweight individuals following a 40 minute workout.
    • One group followed normal diet, the other a low calorie diet
    • After 6 days on each diet, they were given a meal containing 50 g glucose or fructose
    1-800-847-8302
  • 18. Is fructose obesitygenic?
    • The researchers tested fat burning 3 hours after exercise:
    • Low cal diet:
    • They burned 28 g of fat after fructose, 29 g fat after glucose
    • Normal calorie diet:
    • Burned only 18 g fat after fructose! Compared to 29 g fat after glucose
    1-800-847-8302
  • 19. More studies support fructose is obesitygenic
    • 3 studies show negative effects of fructose on weight gain
    • One study, drinking 1150g soda sweetened with HFCS (high fructose corn syrup) for 3 wks resulted in significant increases in body weight compared w. the same amount of soda w. aspartame
    • Another study, 14 diabetic middle-aged men, after consumption of 50-60 g fructose for 24 weeks showed an increase in body wt
    1-800-847-8302
  • 20. Another reason why Designs for Health says no to fructose containing products .
    • Consumption of sugar sweetened soft drinks and fructose is strongly associated with an increased risk of gout in men, finds a study published by the British Medical Journal.
    • Gout is a joint disease which causes extreme pain and swelling. It is most common in men aged 40 and older. It is caused by excess uric acid in the blood (hyperuricaemia) which leads to uric acid crystals collecting around the joints.
    • In the United States, levels of gout have doubled over the last few decades, which coincided with a substantial increase in the consumption of soft drinks and fructose (a simple sugar and the only carbohydrate known to increase uric acid levels).
    1-800-847-8302
  • 21. Xylitol is best for weight loss
    • Obese people are hungry often due to increased gastric emptying time
    • Research on xylitol shows that xylitol slows down gastric emptying time
    • Xylitol consumers lost more weight
    • For patients with extreme appetite try Program H (ask DFH for our diets/menus- H stands for hyperinsulinemia) with xylitol/carnitine/lemonade drinks in between meals
    1-800-847-8302