Gardner’s Art Through the Ages,                           12e                 Unit 20; Chapter 34                  From th...
Map of the World in 1945                           2
Map of the World in 2000                           3
World War II and Its Aftermath• Concerns w/ dynamics of power• Identity is main area for discussion/action – self  identit...
World War II and Its Aftermath• Post-Modernism – not a style, but a cultural  interest• PM grew from idea of populism (pop...
Modernism, Formalism, & GreenbergModernism = connected to strict formalism  (emphasis on visual elements rather than  subj...
Post-War Expressionism• Existentialism = absurdity of human existence &  impossibility of certainty• Brutality/roughness e...
•Brutal imagery of slaughter•Based on WWII villains?•Umbrella – N. Chamberlain?•Crucified human form•“remake violence of r...
Tortured vision of the worldFigure 34-2 JEAN DUBUFFET, Vie Inquiète (Uneasy Life), 1953. Oil on canvas, approx. 4’ 3” x 6’...
• Existential – alienated, solitary,     lost in world’s immensity   • Rough surfaces   • Emaciated, elongated form     sw...
Modernist FormalismAbstract Expressionism (NY School)• Gestural/action painting = expressiveness of  applied pigment [Poll...
Abstract ExpressionismRosenberg – artist’s attempt to get inside of the painting “what went onto the canvas was an event” ...
Figure 34-4 JACKSON POLLOCK, Number 1, 1950 (Lavender Mist), 1950. Oil, enamel, andaluminum paint on canvas, 7’ 3” x 9’ 10...
• Emphasis on creative     process   • Improvised, drawn from     subconscious   • Similar to Kandinsky   • Lack of well-d...
• Sweeping brush strokes   • Energetic application of     paint   • Fertility figure? Venus?   • Process important   • Als...
Chromatic Abstract Expressionist• Quieter• Eloquent use of color• Color expresses universal themes – “spirit of  myth” – t...
• Color’s capacity to communicate & express his feelingsFigure 34-7 BARNETT NEWMAN, Vir Heroicus Sublimis, 1950–1951. Oil ...
• Compositionally  simple• Color as  conveyor of  meaningFigure 34-8 MARKROTHKO, No. 14, 1961 Oilon canvas, 9’ 6” x 8’ 9”....
• Monumental  sculpture• Simple geometric  forms• Swirling patterns  on metal – surface  textureFigure 34-9 David Smith, C...
Post-Painterly AbstractionFormal elements of the style with tighter pictorial  control• Hard-edged• Color field• Need to f...
Figure 34-10 ELLSWORTH KELLY, Red Blue Green, 1963. Oil on canvas, 6’ 11 5/8” x 11’ 37/8”. Collection Museum of Contempora...
Figure 34-11 FRANK STELLA, Nunca Pasa Nada, 1964. Metallic powder in polymer emulsion oncanvas, 9’ 2” x 18’ 4 1/2”. Collec...
Figure 34-12 HELENFRANKENTHALER, BaySide, 1967. Acrylic oncanvas, 6’ 2” x 6’ 9”. PrivateCollection, New York.            23
Figure 34-13 MORRIS LOUIS, Saraband, 1959. Acrylic resin on canvas, 8’ 5 1/8” x 12’ 5”.Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New Y...
Minimalist Abstraction• Minimalism, a predominantly sculptural movement• emphasis on objecthood                           ...
Figure 34-14 TONY SMITH, Die, 1962. Steel, 6’ x 6’ x 6’. Museum of Modern Art, New York(gift of Jane Smith in honor of Agn...
Figure 34-15 DONALD JUDD, Untitled, 1969. Brass and coloredfluorescent plexiglass on steel brackets, ten units, 6 1/8” x 2...
Figure 34-16 MAYA YING LIN, Vietnam Veterans Memorial, Washington, D.C., 1981–1983.Black granite, each wing 246’ long.    ...
Alternatives to Modernist Formalism• Examine the expressive qualities of directions in  sculptural forms outside of Minima...
Expressive Sculpture• Understand the ideas, feelings, and forms of  sculpture in contrast to the Minimalist forms.        ...
Figure 34-17 LOUISE NEVELSON, Tropical Garden II, 1957–1959. Wood painted black, 5’ 111/2” x 10’ 11 3/4” x 1’. Musée Natio...
Figure 34-18 LOUISE BOURGEOIS, Cumul I, 1969. Marble, 1’ 10 3/8” x 4’ 2” x 4’. MuséeNational d’Art Moderne, Centre Georges...
Figure 34-19 EVA HESSE, Hang-Up,1965–1966. Acrylic on cloth over woodand steel, 6’ x 7’ x 6’ 6”. Art Institute ofChicago, ...
Figure 34-20 GEORGE BRECHT, Event Scores.   34
Performance Art and Happenings• Examine the innovative forms of Performance Art  and Happenings which combined two- and th...
Figure 34-21 KAZUO SHIRAGA, Making a Work with His Own Body, 1955. Mud.   36
Figure 34-22 CAROLEE SCHNEEMAN,Meat Joy, 1964. Photograph of performance atJudson Church, New York.                       ...
Figure 34-23 JOSEPH BEUYS, How to ExplainPictures to a Dead Hare, 1965. Photograph ofPerformance art. Schmela Gallery, Düs...
Figure 34-24 JEAN TINGUELY, Homageto New York, 1960, just prior to its self-destruction in the garden of the Museum ofMode...
Conceptual Art• Examine the development of Conceptual Art and  the elimination of the object and the idea itself as a work...
Figure 34-25 JOSEPH KOSUTH, One and Three Chairs, 1965. Wooden folding chair,photographic copy of a chair, and photographi...
Figure 34-26 BRUCENAUMAN, The TrueArtist Helps the World byRevealing Mystic Truths(Window or Wall Sign),1967. Neon with gl...
Art for the Public• Understand the growing interest in the  communicative power of art in reaction to art that  had aliena...
Pop Art• Understand the popular trends of traditional  artistic devices and consumerism in Pop Art.                       ...
Figure 34-27 RICHARDHAMILTON, Just WhatIs It That Makes Today’sHomes So Different, SoAppealing?, 1956. Collage,10 1/4” x 9...
Figure 34-28 JASPER JOHNS, Flag, 1954–1955, dated on reverse 1954. Encaustic, oil, and collageon fabric mounted on plywood...
Figure 34-29 ROBERTRAUSCHENBERG, Canyon, 1959.Oil, pencil, paper, fabric, metal,cardboard box, printed paper,printed repro...
Figure 34-30 ROYLICHTENSTEIN,Hopeless, 1963. Oil oncanvas, 3’ 8” x 3’ 8”.Kunstmuseum, Basel       48
Figure 34-31 ANDY WARHOL, GreenCoca-Cola Bottles, 1962. Oil on canvas, 6’ 101/2” x 4’ 9”. Collection of Whitney Museumof A...
Figure 34-32 ANDY WARHOL, Marilyn Diptych, 1962. Oil, acrylic, and silk-screen enamel oncanvas. Tate Gallery, London.     ...
Figure 34-33 CLAES OLDENBURG, photo of one-person show at the Green Gallery, New York,1962.                               ...
Superrealism• Examine Superrealism, its fidelity to optical fact  and attention to minute detail and commonplace  objects....
Figure 34-34 AUDREY FLACK, Marilyn, 1977. Oil over acrylic on canvas, 8’ x 8’. Collection ofthe University of Arizona Muse...
Figure 34-35 CHUCK CLOSE, BigSelf-Portrait, 1967–1968. Acrylic oncanvas, 8’ 11” x 6’ 11” x 2”. CollectionWalker Art Center...
Figure 34-36 DUANE HANSON,Supermarket Shopper, 1970. Polyesterresin and fiberglass polychromed in oil,with clothing, steel...
Discussion Questions How are the two main processes of Abstract  Expressionism different? Name and processes and one  art...
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Unit 21 pics a

  1. 1. Gardner’s Art Through the Ages, 12e Unit 20; Chapter 34 From the Modern to the Post-Modern and Beyond: Art of the Later 20th Century 1
  2. 2. Map of the World in 1945 2
  3. 3. Map of the World in 2000 3
  4. 4. World War II and Its Aftermath• Concerns w/ dynamics of power• Identity is main area for discussion/action – self identity and group/national identity• Explorations into politics of identity to increase how self-identity affects lives• Movement of art center from Paris to US – economic/political stability• Modernism ends in 1970s 4
  5. 5. World War II and Its Aftermath• Post-Modernism – not a style, but a cultural interest• PM grew from idea of populism (popular interest) “Something for everyone”• Wide range of styles, elements, subjects, formats• Exploring the relationship between art & mass culture• Usually grounded in specific, historical conditions (political issues, etc) 5
  6. 6. Modernism, Formalism, & GreenbergModernism = connected to strict formalism (emphasis on visual elements rather than subject); popular due to GreenbergGreenberg = art critic 1940s – 1970s• Rejected illusionism• All about exploring properties of the medium• Purity in art (quote on p. 1034)• Alienation of public from art 6
  7. 7. Post-War Expressionism• Existentialism = absurdity of human existence & impossibility of certainty• Brutality/roughness expressing artist’s state of mind 7
  8. 8. •Brutal imagery of slaughter•Based on WWII villains?•Umbrella – N. Chamberlain?•Crucified human form•“remake violence of reality”Figure 34-1 FRANCIS BACON, Painting, 1946.Oil and pastel on linen, 6’ 5 7/8” x 4’ 4”. Museumof Modern Art, New York (purchase). 8
  9. 9. Tortured vision of the worldFigure 34-2 JEAN DUBUFFET, Vie Inquiète (Uneasy Life), 1953. Oil on canvas, approx. 4’ 3” x 6’4”. Tate Gallery, London. 9
  10. 10. • Existential – alienated, solitary, lost in world’s immensity • Rough surfaces • Emaciated, elongated form swallowed up by worldFigure 34-3 ALBERTO GIACOMETTI, ManPointing, 1947. Bronze no. 5 of 6, 5’ 10” x 3’ 1’ 55/8”. Nathan Emory Coffin Collection of the DesMoines Art Center, Des Moines. 10
  11. 11. Modernist FormalismAbstract Expressionism (NY School)• Gestural/action painting = expressiveness of applied pigment [Pollack, de Kooning]• Chromatic = color’s emotional resonance [Rothko]• Are to grasp content intuitively, without thinking• Expresses artist’s state of mind• Strikes emotional chords in viewers• Interest in unconscious forces• Spontaneity, energy 11
  12. 12. Abstract ExpressionismRosenberg – artist’s attempt to get inside of the painting “what went onto the canvas was an event” 12
  13. 13. Figure 34-4 JACKSON POLLOCK, Number 1, 1950 (Lavender Mist), 1950. Oil, enamel, andaluminum paint on canvas, 7’ 3” x 9’ 10”. National Gallery of Art, Washington 13
  14. 14. • Emphasis on creative process • Improvised, drawn from subconscious • Similar to Kandinsky • Lack of well-defined compositional focusFigure 34-5 Photo of Jackson Pollockpainting. 14
  15. 15. • Sweeping brush strokes • Energetic application of paint • Fertility figure? Venus? • Process important • Also did non- representational works – swaths & splashes of pigment • Rawness/intensityFigure 34-6 WILLEM DEKOONING, Woman I, 1950–1952. Oilon canvas, 6’ 3 7/8” x 4’ 10”. Museum ofModern Art, New York (purchase). 15
  16. 16. Chromatic Abstract Expressionist• Quieter• Eloquent use of color• Color expresses universal themes – “spirit of myth” – tragedy, ecstasy, doom (basic human emotions)• “simple expression of complex thought”• Kinship with primitive/archaic art• Relied on formal elements 16
  17. 17. • Color’s capacity to communicate & express his feelingsFigure 34-7 BARNETT NEWMAN, Vir Heroicus Sublimis, 1950–1951. Oil on canvas, 7’ 11 3/8”x 17’ 9 1/4”. Museum of Modern Art, New York (gift of Mr. and Mrs. Ben Heller). 17
  18. 18. • Compositionally simple• Color as conveyor of meaningFigure 34-8 MARKROTHKO, No. 14, 1961 Oilon canvas, 9’ 6” x 8’ 9”. SanFrancisco Museum ofModern Art, Helen CrockerRussell Fund Purchase. 18
  19. 19. • Monumental sculpture• Simple geometric forms• Swirling patterns on metal – surface textureFigure 34-9 David Smith, CubiXIX, 1964. Stainless steel. 19
  20. 20. Post-Painterly AbstractionFormal elements of the style with tighter pictorial control• Hard-edged• Color field• Need to finish this section!!! 20
  21. 21. Figure 34-10 ELLSWORTH KELLY, Red Blue Green, 1963. Oil on canvas, 6’ 11 5/8” x 11’ 37/8”. Collection Museum of Contemporary Art, San Diego (gift of Dr. and Mrs. Jack M. Farris). 21
  22. 22. Figure 34-11 FRANK STELLA, Nunca Pasa Nada, 1964. Metallic powder in polymer emulsion oncanvas, 9’ 2” x 18’ 4 1/2”. Collection of Lannan Foundation. 22
  23. 23. Figure 34-12 HELENFRANKENTHALER, BaySide, 1967. Acrylic oncanvas, 6’ 2” x 6’ 9”. PrivateCollection, New York. 23
  24. 24. Figure 34-13 MORRIS LOUIS, Saraband, 1959. Acrylic resin on canvas, 8’ 5 1/8” x 12’ 5”.Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York. 24
  25. 25. Minimalist Abstraction• Minimalism, a predominantly sculptural movement• emphasis on objecthood 25
  26. 26. Figure 34-14 TONY SMITH, Die, 1962. Steel, 6’ x 6’ x 6’. Museum of Modern Art, New York(gift of Jane Smith in honor of Agnes Gund). 26
  27. 27. Figure 34-15 DONALD JUDD, Untitled, 1969. Brass and coloredfluorescent plexiglass on steel brackets, ten units, 6 1/8” x 2’ x 2’ 3”each, with 60 intervals. Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden,Smithsonian Institution, Washington 27
  28. 28. Figure 34-16 MAYA YING LIN, Vietnam Veterans Memorial, Washington, D.C., 1981–1983.Black granite, each wing 246’ long. 28
  29. 29. Alternatives to Modernist Formalism• Examine the expressive qualities of directions in sculptural forms outside of Minimalism.• Examine the development of Performance Art and Happenings, combining two- and three- dimensional art forms along with other arts.• Examine the development of Conceptual Art and the elimination of the object. 29
  30. 30. Expressive Sculpture• Understand the ideas, feelings, and forms of sculpture in contrast to the Minimalist forms. 30
  31. 31. Figure 34-17 LOUISE NEVELSON, Tropical Garden II, 1957–1959. Wood painted black, 5’ 111/2” x 10’ 11 3/4” x 1’. Musée National d’Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris. 31
  32. 32. Figure 34-18 LOUISE BOURGEOIS, Cumul I, 1969. Marble, 1’ 10 3/8” x 4’ 2” x 4’. MuséeNational d’Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris. 32
  33. 33. Figure 34-19 EVA HESSE, Hang-Up,1965–1966. Acrylic on cloth over woodand steel, 6’ x 7’ x 6’ 6”. Art Institute ofChicago, Chicago 33
  34. 34. Figure 34-20 GEORGE BRECHT, Event Scores. 34
  35. 35. Performance Art and Happenings• Examine the innovative forms of Performance Art and Happenings which combined two- and three- dimensional art along with other arts. 35
  36. 36. Figure 34-21 KAZUO SHIRAGA, Making a Work with His Own Body, 1955. Mud. 36
  37. 37. Figure 34-22 CAROLEE SCHNEEMAN,Meat Joy, 1964. Photograph of performance atJudson Church, New York. 37
  38. 38. Figure 34-23 JOSEPH BEUYS, How to ExplainPictures to a Dead Hare, 1965. Photograph ofPerformance art. Schmela Gallery, Düsseldorf. 38
  39. 39. Figure 34-24 JEAN TINGUELY, Homageto New York, 1960, just prior to its self-destruction in the garden of the Museum ofModern Art, New York. 39
  40. 40. Conceptual Art• Examine the development of Conceptual Art and the elimination of the object and the idea itself as a work of art. 40
  41. 41. Figure 34-25 JOSEPH KOSUTH, One and Three Chairs, 1965. Wooden folding chair,photographic copy of a chair, and photographic enlargement of a dictionary definition of a chair;chair, 2’ 8 3/8” x 1’ 2 7/8” x 1’ 8 7/8”; photo panel, 3’ x 2’ 1/8”; text panel, 2’ 2’ 1/8”. Museum ofModern Art, New York 41
  42. 42. Figure 34-26 BRUCENAUMAN, The TrueArtist Helps the World byRevealing Mystic Truths(Window or Wall Sign),1967. Neon with glasstubing suspension frame,4’ 11” x 4’ 7” x 2”. Privatecollection. 42
  43. 43. Art for the Public• Understand the growing interest in the communicative power of art in reaction to art that had alienated the public.• Understand Pop Art’s interest in traditional artistic devices and consumerism.• Examine Superrealism and its fidelity to optical fact.• Understand the development of site specific art forms known as Environmental Art or earth works. 43
  44. 44. Pop Art• Understand the popular trends of traditional artistic devices and consumerism in Pop Art. 44
  45. 45. Figure 34-27 RICHARDHAMILTON, Just WhatIs It That Makes Today’sHomes So Different, SoAppealing?, 1956. Collage,10 1/4” x 9 3/4”.Kunsthalle Tübingen,Tübingen, Germany. 45
  46. 46. Figure 34-28 JASPER JOHNS, Flag, 1954–1955, dated on reverse 1954. Encaustic, oil, and collageon fabric mounted on plywood, 3’ 6 1/4” x 5’ 5/8”. Museum of Modern Art, New York 46
  47. 47. Figure 34-29 ROBERTRAUSCHENBERG, Canyon, 1959.Oil, pencil, paper, fabric, metal,cardboard box, printed paper,printed reproductions, photograph,wood, paint tube, and mirror oncanvas, with oil on bald eagle, string,and pillow, 6’ 9 3/4” x 5’ 10” x 2’.Sonnabend Collection. 47
  48. 48. Figure 34-30 ROYLICHTENSTEIN,Hopeless, 1963. Oil oncanvas, 3’ 8” x 3’ 8”.Kunstmuseum, Basel 48
  49. 49. Figure 34-31 ANDY WARHOL, GreenCoca-Cola Bottles, 1962. Oil on canvas, 6’ 101/2” x 4’ 9”. Collection of Whitney Museumof American Art, New York 49
  50. 50. Figure 34-32 ANDY WARHOL, Marilyn Diptych, 1962. Oil, acrylic, and silk-screen enamel oncanvas. Tate Gallery, London. 50
  51. 51. Figure 34-33 CLAES OLDENBURG, photo of one-person show at the Green Gallery, New York,1962. 51
  52. 52. Superrealism• Examine Superrealism, its fidelity to optical fact and attention to minute detail and commonplace objects. 52
  53. 53. Figure 34-34 AUDREY FLACK, Marilyn, 1977. Oil over acrylic on canvas, 8’ x 8’. Collection ofthe University of Arizona Museum, Tucson 53
  54. 54. Figure 34-35 CHUCK CLOSE, BigSelf-Portrait, 1967–1968. Acrylic oncanvas, 8’ 11” x 6’ 11” x 2”. CollectionWalker Art Center, Minneapolis 54
  55. 55. Figure 34-36 DUANE HANSON,Supermarket Shopper, 1970. Polyesterresin and fiberglass polychromed in oil,with clothing, steel cart, and groceries,life-size. Nachfolgeinstitut, Neue Galerie,Sammlung Ludwig, Aachen. 55
  56. 56. Discussion Questions How are the two main processes of Abstract Expressionism different? Name and processes and one artist for each. What do Minimalist sculptors mean by the concept of objecthood? What is meant by Conceptual Art and the elimination of the object? Why do you think Modernist art and architecture alienated the public? Do you agree that Postmodern art and architecture are more in tune to the public’s interests? In what ways has new technology already changed our perception of what art is? 56

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