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Americas Americas Presentation Transcript

  • Gardner’s Art Through the Ages, 12e Chapter 14 From Alaska to the Andes: Native Arts of the Americas Before 1300 Chapter 30 Before and After the Conquistadors: Native Arts of the Americas after 1300 1
  • The Americas 2
  • Time Period: 35000 BCE - modern Civilization Dates LocationOlmec 1200-400 BCE Mexico, Gulf of MexicoMoche 200 BCE – 600 CE Coastal PeruTeotihuacán 100 BCE – 750 CE Mexico City areaMayan 300-900+ CE Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, YucatanAnasazi 550-1400 CE American SWMississipian 900-1500 CE Eastern USAztec 1400-1521 CE Central Mexico, Mexico CityIncan 1438-1532 CE PeruNW Coast Native 1700s - present Pacific NWAmerican 3
  • Key Ideas• Ancient American civilizations developed huge city-states that prominently featured temple complexes rivaling any on earth.• Sculptures vary from the monumental used as centerpieces in great plazas to intimate works of jewelry for private adornment.• Local materials play a large role in the creation of works of art: wood for NW Coast Indians, adobe for SW Indians, stone in Mesoamerica, etc.• Old civilizations form foundations for new ones; that is, pyramids often encase small structures the way cultures build upon pre-existing sites. 4
  • Mesoamerica 5
  • OlmecFigure 14-1 Colossal head,Olmec, La Venta, Mexico,900–400 BCE. Basalt, 9’4”high. Museo-Parque LaVenta, Villahermosa. 6
  • Figure 14-2 Ceremonial ax in the form of a jaguar-human, Olmec, from La Venta, Mexico, 900–400BCE. Jadeite, 11 1/2” high. British Museum,London. 7
  • Figure 14-3 Seated figure withraised arms, from Colima,Mexico, ca. 200 BCE–250 CE.Clay with orange and red slip, 1’1” high. Los Angeles CountyMuseum of Art, Los Angeles. 8
  • TeotihuacánFigure 14-4 Aerial view of Teotihuacán (from the north), Valley of Mexico, Mexico. Pyramid of the Moon (foreground),Pyramid of the Sun (top left), and the Citadel (background), all connected by the Avenue of the Dead; main structures ca.50–200 CE; site ca. 100 BCE–750 CE. 9
  • Figure 14-5 Detail of Temple of Quetzalcóatl, the Citadel, Teotihuacán, Valley of Mexico, Mexico, third century CE. 10
  • The Classic Culture: Ball Courts and Temples• Examine the Maya urban and religious architectural complexes.• Understand the nature of the Ball Court architecture and its spread throughout the Americas. 11
  • MayanFigure 14-7 Stele D portraying the ruler 18-Rabbit,Maya, Great Plaza at Copán, Honduras, 736 CE. Stone,11’ 9” high. 12
  • Figure 14-8 Ballcourt (view looking north), Middle Plaza, Copán, Maya, Copán Valley, Honduras, 738 CE. 13
  • Figure 14-9 Temple I (Temple of the Giant Jaguar), Maya, Tikal, Petén, Guatemala, ca. 732 CE. 14
  • Sculpture of the Classic Period• Examine the sculpture – particularly the human form – in small scale, relief, and in a variety of media.• Understand the purpose and function of Classic period sculpture. 15
  • Figure 14-10 Ballplayer, Maya, from JainaIsland, Mexico, 700–900 CE. Painted clay, 61/4” high. National Museum of Anthropology,Mexico City. 16
  • Maya Mural and Vase Painting• Examine the style and materials of Maya wall painting at Bonampak.• Examine the narrative style of Maya vase painting. 17
  • Figure 14-11 Presentation of captives to Lord Chan Muwan, Maya, Room 2, Structure 1, Bonampak, Mexico, ca. 790 CE.Mural, approx. 17’ X 15’; watercolor copy by Antonio Tejeda. Peabody Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge. 18
  • Figure 14-12 Shield Jaguar and Lady Xoc, Maya,Lintel 24, Temple 23, Yaxchilán, Mexico, ca. 725CE. Limestone, 3’ 7” X 2’ 6 1/2”. British Museum,London. 19
  • Figure 14-13 Enthroned Maya lord and courtiers, cylinder vase (rollout view), Maya, from Motul de San José region,Guatemala, 672–830 CE. Ceramic with red, rose, orange, white, and black on cream slip, approx. 8” high. DumbartonOaks Research Library and Collections, Washington, D.C. 20
  • Figure 14-14 The Caracol (foreground) and the Castillo (background), Maya, Chichén Itzá, Yucatán, Mexico, ca. 800–900CE. 21
  • © 2005 Saskia Cultural Documentation, Ltd.Figure 14-14 The CastilloOverall view 22
  • © 2005 Saskia Cultural Documentation, Ltd.Figure 14-14 DetailClose-up view of dome construction 23
  • Toltec and Maya-Toltec Art• Examine the decline of the Classic Maya civilization and the rise of the Toltecs.• Understand the changes in art and architecture in the Post Classic period. 24
  • Figure 14-15 Colossal atlantids, Pyramid B, Toltec, Tula, Hidalgo, Mexico, ca. 900–1180 CE. Stone, 16’ high. 25
  • The Aztec Capital of Tenochtitlan• Examine the building of the city of Tenochtitlan and the Mesoamerican concept of superimposition. 26
  • Figure 30-1 Mictlantecuhtli and Quetzalcóatl, illuminated page from the Borgia Codex, from Puebla/Tlaxcala (?), Mexico,ca. 1400–1500. Mineral and vegetable pigments on deerskin, approx. 10 5/8” X 10 3/8”. Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana,Rome. 27
  • Aztec Sculpture• Examine the Aztec mythological themes, their political message, and the resulting sculptural forms.• Describe some of the formal characteristics of Mesoamerican sculpture seen in the work of the Aztecs. 28
  • Figure 30-3 Coyolxauhqui (She of the Golden Bells), Aztec, from the Great Temple of Tenochtitlán, Mexico City, ca.1469. Stone, diameter approx. 10’ 10”. Museo del Templo Mayor, Mexico City. 29
  • Figure 30-4 Coatlicue (She ofthe Serpent Skirt), Aztec, fromTenochtitlán, Mexico City, ca.1487–1520. Andesite, 11’ 6”high. Museo Nacional deAntropología, Mexico City. 30
  • Andean Region of South America 31
  • 14.4 South American Early Cultures• Identify the various pre-Inka cultures in South America, their chronology and characteristic art and architecture forms.• Examine the particular linear quality of Nazca pottery and earth drawings.• Examine the art materials and methods used such as in weaving, pottery and metal work. 32
  • Figure 14-16 Pendant in the form of a bat-faced man, Tairona, from northeastern Colombia, after 1000. Gold, 5 1/4”high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (Jan Mitchell and Sons Collection). 33
  • Figure 14-17 Reconstructed drawing of sacred center showing temple and associated sunken courtyards, Chavín deHuántar, Peru, first millennium BCE. 34
  • Figure 14-18 Raimondi Stele, Chavín, from main temple, Chavín de Huántar,Peru, first millennium BCE. Incised green diorite, 6’ high. Instituto Nacional deCultura, Lima, Peru. 35
  • The Paracas and Nazca Cultures• Examine the purpose and style of weaving of the Paracas cultures.• Examine the particular linear quality of Nazca pottery and earth drawings. 36
  • Figure 14-19 Embroidered funerary mantle, Paracas, from southern coast of Peru, first century CE. Plain weave camelidfiber with stem-stitch embroidery embroidered with camelid wool, 4’ 7 7/8” X 7’ 10 7/8”. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston(William A. Paine Fund). 37
  • Figure 14-20 Bridge-spouted vessel with flyingfigures, Nasca, from NascaRiver valley, Peru, ca. 50–200 CE. Painted ceramic,approx. 5 1/2” high. ArtInstitute of Chicago, Chicago(Kate S. BuckinghamEndowment). 38
  • Figure 14-21 Hummingbird, Nasca Plain, Nasca, Peru, ca. 500 CE. Dark layer of pebbles scraped aside to reveal lighterclay and calcite beneath; 27’ wide, 200’ wingspan, and 459’ length. 39
  • MocheFigure 14-22 Vessel in the shape of a portrait head,Moche, from north coast Peru, fifth to sixth century CE.Painted clay, 12 1/2” high. Museu Arqueológico RafaelLarco Herrera, Lima. 40
  • Figure 14-23 Earornament, from a tombat Sipán, Moche, Peru,ca. 300 CE. Gold andturquoise, approx. 44/5”. BruningArcheological Museum,Lambayeque. 41
  • Figure 14-24 Gateway of the Sun, Tiwanaku, Bolivia, ca. 375–700 CE. Stone, 9’ 10” high. 42
  • Figure 14-25 Lima Tapestry(tunic), Wari, from Peru, ca.500–800 CE. 3’ 3 3/8” x 2’ 113/8”. National Museum ofArcheology, Anthropology,and History of Peru, Lima. 43
  • The Wonder of Machu Picchu• Examine the architecture of the Inka, their distinctive ashlar masonry, and their unique city of Machu Picchu. 44
  • IncanFigure 30-5 Machu Picchu (view from adjacent peak), Inka, Peru, 15th century. 45
  • Figure 30-6 Wall of the Golden Enclosure (surmounted by the church of Santo Domingo), Inka, Cuzco, Peru, 15thcentury. 46
  • North America 47
  • Native North American Art• Examine the artistic objects and themes of the Adena and Mississippian cultures. 48
  • Figure 14-26 Burial mask, Ipiutak,from Point Hope, Alaska, ca. 100 CE.Ivory, greatest width 9 1/2”.American Museum of NaturalHistory, New York. 49
  • Figure 14-27 Pipe, Adena, from a mound in Ohio, ca. 500–1 BCE.Stone, 8” high. Ohio Historical Society, Columbus. 50
  • MississippianFigure 14-28 Serpent Mound, Mississippian, Ohio, ca. 1070 CE. 1200’ long, 20’ wide, 5’ high. 51
  • Figure 14-29 Incised shellgorget, Mississippian, fromSumner County, Tennessee,ca. 1250–1300 CE. 4” wide.Museum of the AmericanIndian, New York. 52
  • Figure 14-30 Bowl withtwo cranes and geometricforms, Mimbres, fromNew Mexico, ca. 1250CE. Ceramic, black-on-white, diameter approx.1’ 1/2”. Art Institute ofChicago, Chicago (HughL. and Mary T. AdamsFund). 53
  • AnasaziFigure 14-31 Cliff Palace, Anasazi, Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado, ca. 1150–1300 CE. 54
  • © 2005 Saskia Cultural Documentation, Ltd.Figure 14-31 Alternate ViewCloser view of palace complex 55
  • Figure 30-7 Detail of a kiva painting from Kuaua Pueblo (Coronado State Monument), Anasazi, New Mexico, late 15thto early 16th century. MIAC/LOA Museum of New Mexico, Santa Fe. 56
  • Puebloan Pottery• Examine the unusual processes, forms, and painted designs of the pottery of the Puebloan cultures and their revival. 57
  • Figure 30-9 MARÍA MONTOYA MARTÍNEZ, jar, San Ildefonso Pueblo, New Mexico, ca. 1939. Blackware, 11 1/8” x1’ 1”. National Museum of Women in the Arts, Washington, D.C. (gift of Wallace and Wilhelmina Hollachy). 58
  • Native North American Arts• Examine the art forms of the Northwest and Alaskan native cultures, and of the tribal cultures of the Great Plains. 59
  • Figure 30-10 Eagle transformation mask,closed and open views, Kwakiutl, Alert Bay, late19th century. Wood, feathers, and string, approx.1’ 10” x 11”. American Museum of NaturalHistory, New York. 60
  • Figure 30-11 War helmet, Tlingit, collected 1888–1893. Wood, 1’ high. American Museum of Natural History, New York. 61
  • Figure 30-12 BILL REID (Haida), assisted by DOUG KRANMER (Kwakiutl), reconstruction of a 19th century Haidavillage with totem poles, Queen Charlotte Island, 1962. Museum of Anthropology, University of British Columbia,Vancouver. 62
  • Figure 30-13 Chilkat blanket with stylized animal motifs, Tlingit, early 20th century. Mountain goat’s wool and cedarbark, 6’ x 2’ 11”. Southwest Museum, Los Angeles. 63
  • Figure 30-14 Mask, Yupik Eskimo, Alaska, early 20thcentury. Wood and feathers, approx. 3’ 9” high.Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. 64
  • Figure 30-15 KARL BODMER, HidatsaWarrior Pehriska-Ruhpa (Two Ravens), 1833.Watercolor, 1’ 3 7/8” x 11 1/2”. Joslyn ArtMuseum, Omaha (gift of the Enron ArtFoundation). 65
  • Discussion Questions What stylistic qualities do you see as a common thread in Mesoamerican art? How is the architecture of the Mesoamerican pyramid-plaza complexes similar? What was the function of fine textiles and pottery in the Andean cultures? What do you speculate are the purposes of the South American Nasca drawings and the Serpent Mounds of North America? Could they share a common and general ideology? Many people collect Native American art today. To what factors do you attribute this popularity? Why did the Spanish destroy so much of the native arts of the Americas? Can you describe the building techniques of the Inka? What does the Kachina doll represent and how was it used by the traditional Hopi and Navajo cultures? Why did the Puebloan pottery become popular in the 20th century? 66