This vast scene, full of warmth and lyricism, is a good example of the interest in the Orient instigated by Napoleon's battle campaigns. The subject-matter is actually little more than political propaganda, but its execution and the strong emotional appeal achieved by the simple treatment of the victims' fevered rapture, renders this canvas the first great success of Romanticism in painting.
Mourning and sacrifice are the themes of The Entombment of Atala, the moving picture that David's pupil Girodet showed at the Paris Salon in 1808. The scene is set in America, the Native American brave Chactas mourns, clasping the legs of his lover, the half-Spanish converted Christian Atala, who expires before him, comforted by a friar. He is not virtuous: he has violated her vow to remain a virgin or die, and as she meets her punishment his lithe sexuality and dangerous power can still be felt. With its wild New World setting, intensely realized emotions and almost supernatural lighting, the picture moves outside classical rules to contrast 'civilization' and 'barbarism' in highly ambivalent terms. Girodet took his richly suggestive narrative from a popular story published seven years earlier by Chateaubriand, who had gone to America in 1791 to escape the Revolution.
Ingres attempted in 1827 a historical synopsis in his great composition, the Apotheosis of Homer. This canvas was originally a ceiling decoration in the Salle Clarac in the Louvre. The most famous artists in history are depicted here: Dante and Molière and painters such as Poussin, but Homer reigns above them all. This assembly of great artists and writers of all ages gathered to honor the ancient Greek poet before a classical temple might look the epitome of hierarchical academicism. The painting was intended as the sum of all aesthetic rules. However, it could hardly live up to the expectations. Today it seems stiff and unnatural. The painting's formal composition and pale, sugary colors appear at the opposite extreme to Delacroix's Sardanapalus, shown in the same Salon. Delacroix's picture seems far away from academic orthodoxy, while Ingres's Homer looks like its ultimate endorsement.
The effects in Ingres' paintings largely depend on drawing and linearity, but he also used colour to supremely calculated effect. The cold turquoise of the silk curtain with its decoration of red flowers intensified the warm flesh tone of the Grande Odalisque. This nude was painted in 1814 for Napoleon's sister, Queen Caroline Murat. Unlike the realism of Goya's Maja, Ingres' nude is hardly intimate, the eroticism here emerging slowly from the reserve and the questioning, assessing glance of the naked woman. This is a tradition that goes back to Giorgione and Titian, but Ingres has painted a living woman and not an allegory of Venus. Nevertheless, the realistic intimacy is lessened by setting the scene in the distant world of the Orient. For many in the West, the idea of the harem with its available or exploited women trapped in their own closed world was as much proof of the fallen or primitive state of the East as was its supposed savagery. But it was also infinitely titillating. Ingres's picture is more than this, however. A sense of loss was inevitably embodied in French perceptions of the East after their defeat in Egypt, and it was perhaps because it sublimated unattainable desires that the theme of the Oriental nude, bather or harem girl gained such a haunting appeal. Ingres is remarkable for combining a frank allure with a chilling perfection of flesh. He had picked up his discreet hints of the harem — a turban here, a fan there — from Oriental artefacts and miniatures in the collections of Gros and Denon. They serve to locate his nude, who otherwise could really belong anywhere, in a sensuous Orient of the imagination. Theme or idea of herum girl
Although a native of Venice, Piranesi went to Rome at 20 and spent most of his life in that ancient city that was to inspire most of his nearly one thousand etchings. He studied architecture, engineering, and stage design, and his best known series, Carceri (Prisons), consisted of 14 plates depicting stage prisons that he himself described as &quot;capricious inventions&quot;. The spatial and architectural ambiguities, as well as the dramatic use of light and form, are characteristic of this series. Prison num 14 Chlostrophobia More about a feeling then portraying
Fuseli portrayed a young woman on the back of this painting. If it is true that both images are his beloved Anna Landolt, whose parents refused to allow her to marry him, then the Nightmare can be interpreted as an allegory of disappointment. In that case the grisly ape is the man who is ultimately allowed to &quot;possess&quot; the revered lady with his jealous glance. But it is at the price of her life, and Fuseli shows her sunk down and breathing her last.
Trained as an engraver, Blake evolved into a shamanic figure - mystic, philosopher, priest - compelled to set his visions before the world. They took the form of epic, quasi-biblical dramas of spiritual redemption. He increasingly eschewed conventional media and published them in 'Prophetic Books' written and illuminated himself by processes of color printing. In his Prophetic Books, the character of Los exemplifies the artist's roles as seer, mystic and interpreter. Was a poet and artist ETCHING cocept of all powerful being
This is Plate 43 from the series Los Caprichos. Sinister creatures of the night torment the artist - presumably Goya himself - who lies slumped over his table, unable to work. Yet the real clue to Goya's print lies in its subtitle: 'Imagination abandoned by reason produces impossible monsters; united with her, she is the mother of the arts.' The etching of the sleeping artist, threatened by fantastical faces, was originally intended to open the Caprichos series. Goya later decided to replace it with a self-portrait, the picture of a self-assured man dressed in a top and wearing a critical expression. The title of the plate can be read on the stone.
Goya clearly had in mind for this royal group the composition of Velázquez's Meninas, which he had copied in an engraving many years before. Like Velázquez, he has placed himself at an easel in the background, to one side of the canvas. But his is a more formal royal portrait than Velázquez's: the figures are grouped almost crowded together in front of the wall and there is no attempt to create an illusion of space. The eyes of Goya are directed towards the spectator as if he were looking at the whole scene in a mirror. The somewhat awkward arrangement of the figures suggests, however, that he composed the group in his studio from sketches made from life. Goya is known to have made four journeys to Aranjuez in 1800 to paint ten portraits of the royal family. Since there are 12 figures in the group it is likely that the woman seen in profile and the woman whose head is turned away — the only two whose identity is uncertain were not present at the time. Goya's magnificent royal assembly is dominated not by Charles IV but by the central figure of the Queen, María Luisa, whose ugly features are accentuated by her ornate costume and rich jewels. For some unknown reason this was the last occasion that Goya is known to have painted any member of this royal family, except for the future Ferdinand VII, who stands in the foreground on the left. The unusual figure composition on the wall behind the group has been identified as Lot and his Daughters, but no such painting has been identified. Portrays them acc. If your not nice youre not attractive romantic characteristic
Painted at the same time as The Second of May, Goya here represents another of the 'most notable and heroic actions...of our glorious insurrection against the tyrant of Europe' by a dramatic execution scene. The insurrection of the people of Madrid against the Napoleonic army was savagely punished by arrests and executions continuing throughout the night of 2 May and the following morning. There is a legend that Goya witnessed the executions on the hill of Príncipe Pío, on the outskirts of Madrid, from the window of his house and that, enraged by what he had seen, he went to visit the spot immediately afterwards and made sketches of the corpses by the light of a lantern. Whether Goya saw for himself or knew them by hearsay only, the military executions of civilians is a theme that evidently impressed him deeply. He represented it in several etchings of Los Desastres de la Guerra and in some small paintings as well as in this monumental picture. Here the drama is enacted against a barren hill beneath a night sky. The light of an enormous lantern on the ground between the victims and their executioners picks out the white shirt of the terrified kneeling figure with outstretched arms. The postures, gestures and expressions of the madrilenos and the closed impersonal line of the backs of the soldiers facing them with levelled muskets, emphasize the horror of the scene. The dramatic qualities of this composition, with its pity for the execution of the anonymous victims and its celebration of their heroism, inspired Manet's several versions of the Execution of Maximilian. Guy in white is like christ, innocent sacrificed for the good of the people hands are held out the crucifixion Most famous painting, historical painting
This painting (Saturno devorando a un hijo) was originally in the ground floor room of the Quinta del Sordo. Saturn Devouring One of his Children is perhaps the cruellest of the Black Paintings.The nightmare quality is combined with myth to make an epochal statement: this is the madness of truth. Whether this is a reflection of Goya's own mental state, or an allegory on the situation in a country that was consuming its own children in bloody wars and revolutions, or a statement on the human condition generally, may remain open. It could also be a reflection of the situation of the enlightened man who has lost his God and is able to experience only mercilessness on cosmic scale. The 14 'Black Paintings' paintings (now in the Museo del Prado), so called because of the dark tones and predominance of black, originally decorated the Quinta del Sordo (House of the Deaf Man). They were painted in oils on the walls of two rooms, on the ground floor and first floor, and transferred to canvas in 1873. Goya acquired the house in September 1819, but probably did not begin the paintings before the following year, after his recovery from serious illness. When Goya recovered, his deafness remained, and this changed his character in a way that is reflected in his work. The constant fear of a relapse made him impatient, and this is also evident in his technique. As his monstrous imagining found expression, he darkened the walls in two rooms with terrible scenes of witches and visions of evil spirits. A fantastic horde of cynically grimacing hags and ghosts fill these rooms. The paintings must have been finished by 17 September 1823, when he donated the property to his 17-year-old grandson, shortly before he went into hiding. Though it is possible to reconstruct the arrangement of the paintings in the two rooms, many of their subjects defy description and the meaning of these sombre, horrific inventions is as difficult to decipher as their appearance is sinister and forbidding. 'The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters', Goya's title to what was possibly his first design for the frontispiece of Los Caprichos, would have been even more fitting as a title to this array of nightmare visions, created by the artist in his mid-seventies. Eating his children, his black period, taken from the walls within his home
In expressing the predicament of the shipwrecked everywhere in the world, Géricault had laid the foundations of an aesthetic revolution. The Raft of the Medusa marks the first appearance in painting of 'the ugly' and thereby proclaims its scrupulous respect for the truth, however repulsive the truth might be. This concern for truth is integral to the Romantic temperament. For his Salon picture in 1819, Géricault chose a dramatic episode — the wreck of the frigate Meduse, which had set off with a French fleet on an expedition to Senegal, and had been lost in July 1816. The French admiralty was accused of having put an incompetent officer in charge of the expedition; he was the Comte de Chaumareix, a former emigre who had not commanded a vessel for twenty-five years. The picture was an enormous success, more on account of the scandal than because of an interest in the arts; but Géricault only received a gold medal, and his picture was not bought by the government. One wonders who it was suggested commissioning this painter of horror subjects to do a Sacred Heart. Géricault was mortified, and decided to exhibit his picture in England, where a pamphlet had been published on the wreck of the Meduse. He entrusted the vast canvas to an eccentric character named Bullock (as Lethière had done with his Brutus Condemning his Sons), and it was exhibited in London from 12 June to 31 December 1820, and in Dublin from 5 February to 31 March 1821. Géricault received a third of the takings, and the operation brought him in quite a large sum (probably 20,000 francs). The painting was priced at 6,000 francs at the posthumous sale of the artist's possessions. It was bought by Dedreux-Dorcy, a friend of Géricault, for an additional five francs, and he sold it to the State for the same amount. The most horrifying part of the shipwreck had been the drama of 149 wretches abandoned on a raft with only some casks of wine to live on, and the ensuing drunkenness and abominations. When the frigate Argus found the raft, after many days, she was only able to rescue fifteen survivors, of whom five died after being brought ashore. After some hesitation, Géricault chose this last episode — the sighting of the Argus by the survivors on the raft. With regard to the latter, he set himself to the task of carrying out an inquest as thoroughly as any examining magistrate. He rented a studio opposite the Beaujon hospital, so that he could make anatomical studies of the dying. The picture was painted by Géricault in an extraordinary state of tension; 'the mere sound of a smile prevented him from painting'. History piece
In the Death of Sardanapalus, inspired by the work of another Romantic, the poet Byron, Delacroix painted an apotheosis of cruelty. The composition, all reds and golds, portrays the holocaust of the legendary Assyrian king, destroying his possessions before committing suicide. The insurgents are attacking his castle; all is lost; stretched out on a sumptuous bed at the summit of an immense pyre, Sardanapalus orders eunuchs and palace officers to cut the throats of his women, his pages, and even his favourite dogs and horses; none of the objects that have served his pleasure are to survive him. His women are placed on a level with his horses and dogs. The diagonal rhythms, the fluidity of line, the brilliance of the colours and its profound sensuality make The Death of Sardanapalus a masterpiece of 19th-century art.
The woman writhing at the foot of the royal bed as a dagger is raised to her throat wears an expression of suffering too voluptuous for contemporary taste.
The Liberty Leading the People is a sort of epic narrative of the woman who quits her hearth to espouse a great cause. There is a carpet of bodies beneath her feet as she leads the ravening crowd. Her naked breasts have come to embody the social virtues of Republicanism, a point officially acknowledged by the generous diffusion of the image in the form of French stamps. It is also the first modern political composition. It marks the moment at which Romanticism abandoned its classical sources of inspiration to take up an emphatic role in contemporary life. Delacroix enrolled as a garde national, and in this role he portrayed himself, wearing a top hat, to the left of Liberty. The young drummer brandishing his pistols to the right of Liberty was, perhaps, the inspiration for the character Gavroche, in Victor Hugo's Les Miserables, written thirty years later. Delacroix's influences - Goya, Gros, and, above all, Géricault - are clearly apparent.
Contemporary criticism focused on the eroticism of the bare breasts, the dirty skin and the suggestion of hair at the armpits. These were taken to indicate that the goddess of liberty was a woman of the people, a fishwife, a Venus of the streets and not a countess from the Faubourg Saint-Germain. Thirty years later, Victor Hugo immortalised the urchin as Gavroche, in Les Miserables.
Delacroix enrolled as a 'garde national,' and in this role he portrayed himself, wearing a top hat, to the left of Liberty .
Triumphal arch in paris, ppl on the bottom rep in classical dress, philosopher is in a helmet
Interest in the foreign and exotic, interesting animals from far away places, circle of life its eating a rabbit
The Cross in the Mountains (The Tetschen Altar) brought Friedrich to the attention of a wider public. Probably at no other point in his life did Friedrich enjoy more profound appreciation and greater admiration than in the years around 1810. Two landscapes in particular were responsible for thrusting Friedrich into the limelight. In 1810 they were exhibited as pendants at the Academy exhibition in Berlin, where they were purchased by the Prussian king Frederick William III. These two paintings were The Monk by the Sea and the Abbey in the Oakwood. The Abbey in the Oakwood is an expression of grief at the loss of a great past. The artist has chosen to depict an architectural ruin; it may testify to the sublimity of the past, but it is a monument in a graveyard. The Napoleonic invasion of Germany and the consequent War of Liberation had added a patriotic dimension to Friedrich's subjects of north German ecclesiastical buildings in ruins or, in imagination, raised again. While the essential message of the Abbey in the Oak-wood of 1810 is the passing of the earthly life, its fog-bound ruin and blasted, leafless trees inevitably evoked the contemporary state of Germany. The painting was exhibited with its companion picture, the Monk by the Sea. This suggests the hope of resurrection in its bright sky, in contrast to the dark clouds that loom above the figure on his Baltic shore. NOTES: not common to see a landscape with ruins and dead trees, lanced window with gothic characteristic
John Constable's father was a wealthy Suffolk miller. Constable's truthfulness to nature and devotion to his native scene have passed into legend. Less widely known, however, is his biographer's report that it was seeing Claude's Hagar and the Angel (now in the National Galleery, London) and watercolours by Girtin which first provided him with 'pictures that he could rely on as guides to the study of nature'. Ruisdael, Rubens, Wilson and Annibale Carracci were among other 'reliable guides' whose work he copied as a young man. He also learned from contemporary painters, never forgetting the advice given him by Benjamin West, the President of the Royal Academy: 'Always remember, sir, that light and shadow never stand still...in your skies... always aim at brightness...even in the darkest effects...your darks should look like the darks of silver, not of lead or of slate.' Constable's youthful exclamation, 'There is room enough for a natural painture [i.e. style of painting]', must be understood not as the outpouring of a 'natural painter' but as the proclamation of an aspiring student struggling for proficiency in the language of art, which shaped his deepest feelings before he could give expression to them. The Hay-Wain, exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1821 and at the British Institution in 1822 under the title Landscape: Noon, was one of the big 'six-footers' on which Constable worked in the winters in London from sketches and studies made in the country in summer. The harvest wagon of the modern title was copied from a drawing made by John Dunthorne, Constable's childhood friend and assistant, and sent at Constable's request from Suffolk. The view is of farmer Willy Lott's cottage on a mill stream of the River Stour near Flatford Mill, of which Constable's father had the tenancy. A full-scale sketch for the picture is in the Victoria and Albert Museum. In this final version Constable omitted a figure on horseback at the edge of the stream, substituting a barrel which he later painted out (but which is beginning to show through). In thus 'selecting and combining' from 'some of the forms and evanescent effects of nature' Constable sought an 'unaffected truth of expression' without the loss of poetry. He laboured 'almost fainting by the way' to preserve the sparkle of sketches in these large paintings worked over for many months in the studio. The Hay-Wain, that best-loved icon of the English countryside, was admired by Constable's closest friends but did not meet with success at the London exhibitions. He sold it in 1823 with two other pictures to an Anglo-French dealer who exhibited them in the 1824 Salon in Paris. There at last Constable's achievement was understood. A cast of the gold medal awarded to Constable by King Charles X of France is incorporated in the picture's frame. NOTES: famous landscape artist, from england
Does political messages with landscape, Turner is abolitionist comment on slavery
Known as the father of the Hudson River School of landscape painters, Thomas Cole holds a prominent place in the history of American painting, both for the quality of his own work and for the influence he exerted over a generation of painters. At once a realist and a romantic, Cole infused America's natural scenery with a sense of sublime grandeur. He was fascinated by the oxbow formation of the Connecticut River below Mount Holyoke, Massachusetts, and produced this magnificent panorama of the valley just after a thunderstorm. He depicted himself at work in the foreground. Real location, oxbow,
The artist was fascinated by the oxbow formation of the Connecticut River below Mount Holyoke, Massachusetts, and produced this magnificent panorama of the valley just after a thunderstorm. He depicted himself at work in the foreground.
German artist who painted in America, west word expansionist, dramatic nature scenes were made, propaganda, Sierra Nevada Mounts.
Went out west, painted some of the East, wide vista landscapes
NEO GOTHIC, big ben is neo gothic,
Onion dome, horseshoe shaped arches, LOCATED IN ENGLAND
Paris Opera House, big dome, monumental columns rounded, Renaissance style
Library, romanesque style, the ribs tell you its not romanesque cause its made of iron, columns are cast iron tells you its not romanesque
Made of glass and steal, shape of a basilica, glass campanile, housed modern stuff, indigenousness tribe lived there as in exhibit
Still life, lights and shadows
Anatomy lesson photo,
Nadar FRENCH, experimented greatly with Ariel photography
First documentation of war, the civil war, displayed photo in galleries to show others how horrible the war was, more mild photos
18 b pics student
Gardner’s Art Through the Ages, 12e Chapter 28 The Enlightenment and its Legacy: Art of the Late 18th through the Mid-19th Century Romanticism 1
Key Ideas• Enlightenment brought about rejection of roayl and aristocratic authority. Rococo style was replaced by the neoclassical which perceived more democratic• NeoClassicism inspired by the unearthering of ruins at Pompeii and books of art theorist johann winckelmann• Even if works of art depict current events of contemporary portraits there are frequent classical allusions• The late 18 cent. Was age of ind rev new tech such as cast iron were introduced into arch. And for the first time became more eco to carve from bronze than marble 2
Characteristics of Architecture1. Clever revision of classical princp. Into a modern framework2. Outwardly rojman but effciently laid out for modern life3. Classical arch difffused through palladio symmetry, balance, comp. and order4. Greek and roman columns5. Pediments over entrances and windows6. Domes7. Symmetrical8. Themed 3
Characteristics of Painting1.Stories frm antiquity2.Modern ppl clothed in classical garb 4
Romanticism•David attracted many students, very stonglycommitted to classicism•Students gained very thorough classical found. Butwere encouraged to explore artistic identities•Ingres, et al, laid found for Romanticism•Explored realms of the exotic, erotic, and fiction,fantastical, landscape•Ingres- flat linear forms a la greek vase painting•Delacroix, gericault- great break from neoC, criticizedbarbarism•Rosseau is basis; freedom is central to romantics•Path to freedom is through imag. And feeling –opposite of enlightenment idea 7
Figure 28-34 ANTOINE-JEAN GROS, Napoleon at the Pesthouse at Jaffa, 1804. Oilon canvas, approx. 17’ 5” x 23’ 7”. Louvre, Paris. 8
Figure 28-35 ANNE-LOUIS GIRODET-TRIOSON, The Burial of Atala, 1808. Oilon canvas, approx. 6’ 11” x 8’ 9”. Louvre, Paris. 9
Figure 28-36 JEAN-AUGUSTE-DOMINIQUE INGRES, Apotheosis of Homer, 1827.Oil on canvas, approx. 12’ 8” x 16’ 10 3/4”. Louvre, Paris. 10
Figure 28-37 JEAN-AUGUSTE-DOMINIQUE INGRES, Grande Odalisque, 1814. Oilon canvas, approx. 2’ 11” x 5’ 4”. Louvre, Paris. 12
Figure 28-38 GIOVANNI BATTISTA PIRANESI, Carceri 14, ca. 1750. Etching,second state, approx. 1’ 4” x 1’ 9”. Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. 13
Figure 28-39 HENRY FUSELI, The Nightmare, 1781. Oil on canvas, 3’ 4” x 4’ 2”. TheDetroit Institute of the Arts 14
Figure 28-40 WILLIAM BLAKE,Ancient of Days, frontispiece ofEurope: A Prophecy, 1794. Metalrelief etching, hand colored,approx. 9 1/2” x 6 3/4”. TheWhitworth Art Gallery, TheUniversity of Manchester. 15
Drama, Action, and Color in Spanish Romanticism• drama, action and color in the art of fran. Goya 16
Figure 28-41 FRANCISCO GOYA,The Sleep of Reason ProducesMonsters, from Los Caprichos, ca.1798. Etching and aquatint, 8 1/2” x 6”.Metropolitan Museum of Art, NewYork (gift of M. Knoedler & Co., 1918). 17
Figure 28-42 FRANCISCO GOYA, The Family of Charles IV, 1800. Oil on canvas,approx. 9’ 2” x 11’. Museo del Prado, Madrid. 18
Figure 28-43 FRANCISCO GOYA, The Third of May 1808, 1814. Oil on canvas,approx. 8’ 8” x 11’ 3”. Museo del Prado, Madrid. 19
Figure 28-43 FRANCISCOGOYA, The Third of May 1808,1814. Detail 20
Figure 28-44 FRANCISCO GOYA, SaturnDevouring One of His Children, 1819–1823.Detail of a detached fresco on canvas, full sizeapprox. 4’ 9” x 2’ 8”. Museo del Prado,Madrid. 21
The French Debate: Color vs. Line• the French debate over theoreies realted to color (exprsession) vs lines as appro. To artist expression 22
Figure 28-45 THÉODORE GÉRICAULT, Raft of the Medusa, 1818–1819. Oil oncanvas, approx. 16’ x 23’. Louvre, Paris. 23
Figure 28-46 THÉODOREGÉRICAULT, InsaneWoman (Envy), 1822–1823.Oil on canvas, approx. 2’ 4”x 1’ 9”. Musée des Beaux-Arts, Lyon. 24
Figure 28-47 EUGÈNE DELACROIX, Death of Sardanapalus, 1826. Oil on canvas,approx. 12’ 1” x 16’ 3”. Louvre, Paris. 25
Figure 28-47 EUGÈNEDELACROIX, Death ofSardanapalus, 1826 Detail 26
Figure 28-47 EUGÈNE DELACROIX, Death of Sardanapalus, 1826 Detail 27
Figure 28-48 EUGÈNE DELACROIX, Liberty Leading the People, 1830. Oil oncanvas, approx. 8’ 6” x 10’ 8”. Louvre, Paris. 28
Figure 28-48 EUGÈNEDELACROIX, Liberty Leadingthe People, 1830. Detail 29
Figure 28-48 EUGÈNEDELACROIX, LibertyLeading the People, 1830Detail. 30
Figure 28-51 ANTOINE-LOUIS BARYE, Jaguar Devouring a Hare, 1850–1851.Bronze, approx. 1’ 4” x 3’ 1”. Louvre, Paris. 33
Romantic Landscape Painting• interest in the landscape as a independent and respected genre in Germany, England, and the US 34
Figure 28-52 CASPAR DAVID FRIEDRICH, Abbey in the Oak Forest, 1810. Oil oncanvas, 3 7 1/2" X 5 7 1/4". Stiftung Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Staatliche Museen,Berlin. 35
Figure 28-53 JOHN CONSTABLE, The Haywain, 1821. Oil on canvas, 4’ 3” x 6’ 2”.National Gallery, London. 36
Figure 28-54 JOSEPH MALLORD WILLIAM TURNER, The Slave Ship (SlaversThrowing Overboard the Dead and Dying, Typhoon Coming On), 1840. Oil on canvas, 2’11 11/16” x 4’ 5/16”. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. 37
Figure 28-55 THOMAS COLE, The Oxbow (View from Mount Holyoke,Northampton, Massachusetts, after a Thunderstorm), 1836. Oil on canvas, 4’ 3 1/2” x 6’ 4”. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. 38
Figure 28-55 THOMAS COLE, TheOxbow (View from Mount Holyoke,Northampton, Massachusetts, after aThunderstorm), 1836. 39
Figure 28-56 ALBERT BIERSTADT, Among the Sierra Nevada Mountains, California,1868. Oil on canvas, 6’ x 10’. National Museum of American Art, Smithsonian Institution,Washington. 40
Figure 28-57 FREDERIC EDWIN CHURCH, Twilight In the Wilderness, 1860s. Oil oncanvas, 3’ 4” x 5’ 4”. Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland, Ohio (Mr. and Mrs. William H.Marlatt Fund, 1965.233). 41
Romantic Revivalist Styles in Architecture 1) variety of revivalist styles in architecture 2) the origins of the designs 3) their impact 42
Figure 28-58 CHARLES BARRY and A. W. N. PUGIN, Houses of Parliament, London,England, designed 1835. 43
Figure 28-59 JOHN NASH, Royal Pavilion, Brighton, England, 1815–1818. 44
Figure 28-60 J. L. CHARLES GARNIER, the Opéra, Paris, France, 1861–1874. 45
Figure 28-61 HENRI LABROUSTE, reading room of the Bibliothèque Sainte-Geneviève, Paris, France, 1843–1850. 46
Figure 28-62 JOSEPH PAXTON, Crystal Palace, London, England, 1850–1851. Photofrom Victoria and Albert Museum, London. 47
Photography• the origins of photog and its impact in visual art• Initial use of new medium known as photog• The artist and the works of early photog 48
Figure 28-63 EUGÈNE DURIEUand EUGÈNE DELACROIX,Draped Model (back view), ca. 1854.Albumen print, 7 5/ 16” x 5 1/8”. J.Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles. 49
Figure 28-64 LOUIS-JACQUES-MANDÉ DAGUERRE, Still Life in Studio, 1837.Daguerreotype. Collection Société Française de Photographie, Paris. 50
Figure 28-65 JOSIAH JOHNSON HAWES and ALBERT SANDS SOUTHWORTH,Early Operation under Ether, Massachusetts General Hospital, ca. 1847. Daguerreotype.Massachusetts General Hospital Archives and Special Collections, Boston. 51
Figure 28-66 NADAR, EugèneDelacroix, ca. 1855. Modernprint from original negative inthe Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris. 52
Figure 28-67 JULIAMARGARET CAMERON,Ophelia, Study no. 2, 1867.Albumen print, 1 11" x 102/3". George EastmanHouse, Rochester, NewYork. Gift of EastmanKodak Company. 53
Figure 28-68 TIMOTHY O’SULLIVAN, A Harvest of Death, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania,July 1863. Negative by Timothy O’Sullivan. Original print by ALEXANDERGARDNER, 6 3/8" x 8 3/4". The New York Public Library, New York. 54
Discussion Questions Identify the formal artistic differences between Neoclassicism and Romanticism. Why did Neoclassicism appeal to political leaders in the 19th century? Describe the debate over 19th century aesthetic theory, as characterized by the Poussinistes vs. the Rubenistes. What was the impact of photography in terms of the public’s image of reality? 55