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Tribal Level of Integration Horticulturalists
Tribal Level of Integration: Features <ul><li>Food producers: horticulture or pastoralism (herding) </li></ul><ul><li>Larg...
Food-Producing Societies <ul><li>First indications: Neolithic ca 10 kya  </li></ul><ul><li>In the Fertile Crescent (upper ...
Horticulture <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>Cultivation of crops  </li></ul><ul><li>Carried out with hand tools </l...
Basics of Slash-and-Burn Cultivation <ul><li>A site is cleared of brush and trees </li></ul><ul><li>Trees are felled, brus...
Slash-and-Burn Cultivation: Adaptive Significance <ul><li>Most slash-and-burn cultivation is practiced in the tropics </li...
Constants of Tropical Rainforest: Intense Heat <ul><li>Plant and animal matter decompose to form  humus  or  topsoil </li>...
Constants of Tropical Rainforest: Rainfall <ul><li>Rainfall acts on the soil in two ways </li></ul><ul><li>Erosion:  </li>...
Constants of Tropical Rainforest: Laterization <ul><li>Laterite: the oxides of minerals  </li></ul><ul><li>Such as iron ox...
A Long-Term Constant: Age of Soil <ul><li>This process has been going for centuries </li></ul><ul><li>Soil is mostly clay ...
Adaptation of Tropical Rainforests: Overview <ul><li>Protective canopy of leaves and epiphytic plants </li></ul><ul><li>Ra...
Protective Canopy <ul><li>Mature forests contain trees with thick foliage at their tops (left)  </li></ul><ul><li>The cano...
Rate of Growth <ul><li>Rate of growth is spectacular </li></ul><ul><li>Enables rapid use of nutrients before they disappea...
Species Juxtaposition <ul><li>Different tree species have different nutrient requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Some require m...
Clean Clearing of Tropical Rainforest <ul><li>Clean clearing (left) would: </li></ul><ul><li>Compact the soil due to heavy...
Slash-and-Burn Cultivation Technique <ul><li>Review of distinctive features </li></ul><ul><li>Cutting and burning vegetati...
Slash-and-Burn Cultivation Technique: Burning  <ul><li>Mundurucú practices (con’t) </li></ul><ul><li>Burning </li></ul><ul...
Slash and Burn Techniques <ul><li>Planting </li></ul><ul><li>Begins at first rains: no cultivation </li></ul><ul><li>Hole ...
Slash-and-Burn Cultivation: Weeding and Harvest <ul><li>Weeding </li></ul><ul><li>Done twice during growing season </li></...
Slash-and-Burn Cultivation as Imitation of Rainforest <ul><li>Crops are intermixed, each with different nutrient requireme...
Slash and Burn Cultivation as  Imperfect  Imitation of Rainforest <ul><li>Decomposition of stumps and branches </li></ul><...
Tribal Societies: Economic Systems <ul><li>The economic systems of tribal societies include: </li></ul><ul><li>Property, w...
Property: Communalism and Joint <ul><li>Communalism: ownership by community </li></ul><ul><li>Property is freely accessibl...
Joint property <ul><li>All share in rights and obligations  </li></ul><ul><li>Property held by members of a corporate line...
Lineages and Clans <ul><li>Most groups are organized into patrilineal or matrilineal groups </li></ul><ul><li>Patrilineal ...
Descent Groups (Corporate Groups) <ul><li>Are organized with the following characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Their members...
Descent Groups: Rights and Obligations <ul><li>The estate entails rights and obligations </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li>...
Descent Groups: Perpetuity <ul><li>The lineage or clan is  sociocentric </li></ul><ul><li>It outlasts the life span of ind...
Legal Persons <ul><li>Under commercial law, corporations are defined as legal persons, with all privileges and liabilities...
Distribution <ul><li>Once a product has been made, it has to be distributed somehow </li></ul><ul><li>In tribal societies,...
Imperatives of Exchange: Background  <ul><li>Marcel Mauss: Presented his theory in  The Gift </li></ul><ul><li>This work c...
Obligations of the Gift <ul><li>Obligation to give, receive, and repay. </li></ul><ul><li>First, the obligation to give se...
Types of Reciprocity: Generalized <ul><li>The obligations underlie the principles of reciprocity </li></ul><ul><li>Recipro...
Types of Reciprocity: Balanced <ul><li>Balanced reciprocity: Direct exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Value of gift is calculated...
Types of Reciprocity: Negative <ul><li>Negative reciprocity: An exchange where </li></ul><ul><li>One party tries to get th...
Concepts of the Supernatural: Forces Versus Beings <ul><li>Supernatural Forces:  mana </li></ul><ul><li>No personality or ...
Supernatural Beings: A Typology <ul><li>Gods:  generically of nonhuman origin </li></ul><ul><li>Monotheism: single, often ...
Practitioners: Shamans, Witches <ul><li>Shamans:  persons with supernatural power acquired by individual initiative </li><...
Conclusion: Tribal Societies <ul><li>Defining features: absence of institutional chief or monarch </li></ul><ul><li>Two or...
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Tribal Level of Integraton

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Describe the characteristics of tribal societies.

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Transcript of "Tribal Level of Integraton"

  1. 1. Tribal Level of Integration Horticulturalists
  2. 2. Tribal Level of Integration: Features <ul><li>Food producers: horticulture or pastoralism (herding) </li></ul><ul><li>Larger populations </li></ul><ul><li>Two or more extended kin groups </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-cutting sodalities </li></ul><ul><li>Balanced reciprocity </li></ul><ul><li>Headmen without power or office </li></ul>
  3. 3. Food-Producing Societies <ul><li>First indications: Neolithic ca 10 kya </li></ul><ul><li>In the Fertile Crescent (upper left), Near East </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics: </li></ul><ul><li>Domestication of plants (emmer wheat, lower), animals, or both </li></ul><ul><li>Human control over food production </li></ul><ul><li>Quantities of food greater than foragers </li></ul><ul><li>Settled communities (except herders) </li></ul><ul><li>Increases in population </li></ul><ul><li>Complex social structures. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Horticulture <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>Cultivation of crops </li></ul><ul><li>Carried out with hand tools </li></ul><ul><li>Such as digging sticks or hoes </li></ul><ul><li>Neither plows or irrigation systems are used </li></ul><ul><li>Best known type of cultivation involves use of slash-and-burn or swidden cultivation </li></ul>
  5. 5. Basics of Slash-and-Burn Cultivation <ul><li>A site is cleared of brush and trees </li></ul><ul><li>Trees are felled, brush stacked </li></ul><ul><li>Once dried, the brush and trees are set afire (top photo). </li></ul><ul><li>Planting begins </li></ul><ul><li>Usually, crops are interplanted </li></ul><ul><li>Once soil is exhausted, site is abandoned (bottom photo) </li></ul><ul><li>Cultivators clear a new site </li></ul>
  6. 6. Slash-and-Burn Cultivation: Adaptive Significance <ul><li>Most slash-and-burn cultivation is practiced in the tropics </li></ul><ul><li>Tropical climate is extremely hard on soils </li></ul><ul><li>Intense heat </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy rainfall </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical reaction from heat and rain </li></ul><ul><li>Slash-and-burn is best adapted to this climate--which the following will show </li></ul>
  7. 7. Constants of Tropical Rainforest: Intense Heat <ul><li>Plant and animal matter decompose to form humus or topsoil </li></ul><ul><li>Humus formation virtually stops if soil reaches 77 degrees Fahrenheit </li></ul><ul><li>Decomposition of humus exceed formation </li></ul><ul><li>Humic materials break down to gases: ammonia, nitrogen, carbon dioxide </li></ul><ul><li>Gases escape into the atmosphere </li></ul>
  8. 8. Constants of Tropical Rainforest: Rainfall <ul><li>Rainfall acts on the soil in two ways </li></ul><ul><li>Erosion: </li></ul><ul><li>Rainfall carries away soil particles </li></ul><ul><li>Particles themselves scour surface </li></ul><ul><li>Abrasion carries off even more soil </li></ul><ul><li>Leaching </li></ul><ul><li>Warm water dissolves water-soluble nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrients seep into subsoil </li></ul>
  9. 9. Constants of Tropical Rainforest: Laterization <ul><li>Laterite: the oxides of minerals </li></ul><ul><li>Such as iron oxide at top layer (photo) </li></ul><ul><li>Combined heat and moisture creates oxides </li></ul><ul><li>Process is irreversible </li></ul><ul><li>Removes phosphorus, an essential nutrient </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot absorb other nutrients </li></ul>
  10. 10. A Long-Term Constant: Age of Soil <ul><li>This process has been going for centuries </li></ul><ul><li>Soil is mostly clay and sand </li></ul><ul><li>Plant and animal life is limited in protein </li></ul><ul><li>Most plants reproduce by vegetative means </li></ul><ul><li>Seeds involve large amounts of protein </li></ul><ul><li>Animals are small </li></ul><ul><li>Gregarious (herding) animals are rare </li></ul>
  11. 11. Adaptation of Tropical Rainforests: Overview <ul><li>Protective canopy of leaves and epiphytic plants </li></ul><ul><li>Rate of growth </li></ul><ul><li>Juxtaposition of different types of trees </li></ul>
  12. 12. Protective Canopy <ul><li>Mature forests contain trees with thick foliage at their tops (left) </li></ul><ul><li>The canopy comprises: </li></ul><ul><li>Thick network of leafy branches, and </li></ul><ul><li>Epiphytic plants that derive nutrients from rain and air </li></ul><ul><li>Protective functions of the canopy: </li></ul><ul><li>Provide protective shade from sun, allowing humus to accumulate </li></ul><ul><li>Lessen action and amount of rainfall </li></ul>
  13. 13. Rate of Growth <ul><li>Rate of growth is spectacular </li></ul><ul><li>Enables rapid use of nutrients before they disappear through erosion or leaching </li></ul><ul><li>Litter fall of animal remains and dead vegetation </li></ul><ul><li>Is four times of woodland in New York state </li></ul><ul><li>Rainfall also captures nutrients from air </li></ul><ul><li>75% of potassium in soil, 40% of magnesium, and 25% of phosphorus come from rainwater </li></ul>
  14. 14. Species Juxtaposition <ul><li>Different tree species have different nutrient requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Some require more phosphorus than others </li></ul><ul><li>Other require more potassium </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrient left by one tree is taken by others </li></ul><ul><li>Dispersal of same species is protection against pests and diseases </li></ul>
  15. 15. Clean Clearing of Tropical Rainforest <ul><li>Clean clearing (left) would: </li></ul><ul><li>Compact the soil due to heavy rainfall </li></ul><ul><li>Erosion via runoff would increase </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize or eliminate formation of humus </li></ul><ul><li>Leach the soil </li></ul><ul><li>Convert the soil into laterite </li></ul><ul><li>Overall: reduce its fertility </li></ul>
  16. 16. Slash-and-Burn Cultivation Technique <ul><li>Review of distinctive features </li></ul><ul><li>Cutting and burning vegetation prior to planting </li></ul><ul><li>Shifting to new site after 2 or 3 crops </li></ul><ul><li>Mundurucú practices </li></ul><ul><li>Site selection: sloping, well-drained area </li></ul><ul><li>Clearing </li></ul><ul><li>Removal of shrubs and small trees </li></ul><ul><li>Felling of trees by keystone method </li></ul>
  17. 17. Slash-and-Burn Cultivation Technique: Burning <ul><li>Mundurucú practices (con’t) </li></ul><ul><li>Burning </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetation allowed to dry: 2 months </li></ul><ul><li>Fire set on day of slight breeze to fan flames </li></ul>
  18. 18. Slash and Burn Techniques <ul><li>Planting </li></ul><ul><li>Begins at first rains: no cultivation </li></ul><ul><li>Hole made with digging stick </li></ul><ul><li>Cuttings or seeds inserted and covered </li></ul><ul><li>Manioc (a tuber) and sweet potatoes are planted in the center </li></ul><ul><li>Other crops planted at edges </li></ul>
  19. 19. Slash-and-Burn Cultivation: Weeding and Harvest <ul><li>Weeding </li></ul><ul><li>Done twice during growing season </li></ul><ul><li>Harvest </li></ul><ul><li>Planting is staggered; so is harvesting </li></ul><ul><li>Harvesting done as need arises </li></ul><ul><li>Entire crop is not removed at one time </li></ul><ul><li>Manioc replanted immediately after harvest to ensure permanent supply </li></ul>
  20. 20. Slash-and-Burn Cultivation as Imitation of Rainforest <ul><li>Crops are intermixed, each with different nutrient requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces competition for same nutrient </li></ul><ul><li>Dispersal of same plants retard disease, pests </li></ul><ul><li>Staggering planting and harvest minimizes soil exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Burning slash returns nutrients to soil </li></ul>
  21. 21. Slash and Burn Cultivation as Imperfect Imitation of Rainforest <ul><li>Decomposition of stumps and branches </li></ul><ul><li>Attract pests away from crops </li></ul><ul><li>Supply added nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Weeding of mixed value </li></ul><ul><li>Minimizes competition for nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces shade and protection from erosion </li></ul><ul><li>Imitation not the real thing </li></ul><ul><li>Yield declines by 3rd year—time to move </li></ul>
  22. 22. Tribal Societies: Economic Systems <ul><li>The economic systems of tribal societies include: </li></ul><ul><li>Property, which includes corporate kin groups </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange relations, involving reciprocity </li></ul><ul><li>Political organizations, again usually kin based </li></ul><ul><li>The economic and political system of a tribe are usually integrated into one system. </li></ul><ul><li>Carl Polanyi called a tribal economy an “instituted process”—the economy is embedded in the society in which it occurs </li></ul>
  23. 23. Property: Communalism and Joint <ul><li>Communalism: ownership by community </li></ul><ul><li>Property is freely accessible to all </li></ul><ul><li>Or it involves a sharing arrangement--meat among !Kung or Inuit </li></ul><ul><li>Mesoamerica: communal ownership, private use rights (usufruct) </li></ul>
  24. 24. Joint property <ul><li>All share in rights and obligations </li></ul><ul><li>Property held by members of a corporate lineage or clan </li></ul><ul><li>Example: cattle ownership among some East Africans </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis: Corporate Lineages and Clans—Some background is necessary </li></ul>
  25. 25. Lineages and Clans <ul><li>Most groups are organized into patrilineal or matrilineal groups </li></ul><ul><li>Patrilineal groups: A continuous line of males related by blood </li></ul><ul><li>Matrilineal groups: A continuous line of females related by blood </li></ul><ul><li>Lineages: A group of kin related by patrilineal or matrilineal ties who can trace their ancestry </li></ul><ul><li>Clan: A group of kin who assume their ties patrilineally or matrilineally to an ancestor, but to whom they cannot trace their descent. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Descent Groups (Corporate Groups) <ul><li>Are organized with the following characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Their members control an estate : land, cattle, fishing areas, hunting territory </li></ul><ul><li>The estate may be owned by group or </li></ul><ul><li>It may be owned by the families that make up the lineage or clan </li></ul>
  27. 27. Descent Groups: Rights and Obligations <ul><li>The estate entails rights and obligations </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Rights to cattle for bridewealth </li></ul><ul><li>Obligation to provide cattle for bridewealth </li></ul><ul><li>Obligation to defend herds (or add to them) </li></ul><ul><li>Fulani: </li></ul><ul><li>If one group loses its herd due to disease </li></ul><ul><li>Others contribute to replenishment of that herd </li></ul>
  28. 28. Descent Groups: Perpetuity <ul><li>The lineage or clan is sociocentric </li></ul><ul><li>It outlasts the life span of individuals </li></ul><ul><li>They are not unlike modern corporations </li></ul><ul><li>These corporations also outlive their directors, managers, and employees </li></ul>
  29. 29. Legal Persons <ul><li>Under commercial law, corporations are defined as legal persons, with all privileges and liabilities thereto. </li></ul><ul><li>These are similar to descent groups </li></ul><ul><li>Kwakiutl: Say that a noble one clan has been murdered by commoner of another </li></ul><ul><li>Rules of revenge demands te death of the noble of commoner’s clan—not just anybody, least all the commoner who committed the murder </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility for the murder is thereby collective </li></ul><ul><li>In New Guinea, a murder likewise requires retaliation—that is enforced by the spirits </li></ul>
  30. 30. Distribution <ul><li>Once a product has been made, it has to be distributed somehow </li></ul><ul><li>In tribal societies, the primary means of doing so is by reciprocity </li></ul><ul><li>This is gift exchange, which involves repayment of a gift later in time </li></ul><ul><li>Marcel Mauss provided a framework for understanding the exchange. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Imperatives of Exchange: Background <ul><li>Marcel Mauss: Presented his theory in The Gift </li></ul><ul><li>This work compared gift giving in several cultures. </li></ul><ul><li>In his preface, he writes, “When two groups of men meet, they may </li></ul><ul><li>(1) move away (and never see each other again) or </li></ul><ul><li>(2) in case of mistrust they may resort to arms (fight) or </li></ul><ul><li>(3) else they may come to terms” </li></ul><ul><li>Coming to terms, he called “total prestations” or </li></ul><ul><li>Incurring an obligation that </li></ul><ul><li>has the force of law </li></ul><ul><li>in the absence of (codified ) law </li></ul>
  32. 32. Obligations of the Gift <ul><li>Obligation to give, receive, and repay. </li></ul><ul><li>First, the obligation to give serves: </li></ul><ul><li>to extend social ties to another person or groups </li></ul><ul><li>Obligation to receive entails </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance of the relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Refusal is to reject the offered relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Such a refusal often lead to war </li></ul><ul><li>Obligation to repay complete the relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to repay renders one a beggar to the person or group who made the gift </li></ul>
  33. 33. Types of Reciprocity: Generalized <ul><li>The obligations underlie the principles of reciprocity </li></ul><ul><li>Reciprocity: Direct exchange of goods and services </li></ul><ul><li>Generalized reciprocity: altruistic transactions in which </li></ul><ul><li>gifts are freely given without calculating value or repayment due </li></ul><ul><li>Example: meat distribution among !Kung (upper left) </li></ul><ul><li>Example: family pooling of resources, even birthday presents (lower left) </li></ul><ul><li>This usually occurs among close kin </li></ul>
  34. 34. Types of Reciprocity: Balanced <ul><li>Balanced reciprocity: Direct exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Value of gift is calculated </li></ul><ul><li>Time of repayment is specified </li></ul><ul><li>Selling surplus food (upper left) </li></ul><ul><li>Kula ring, Trobriand Islands </li></ul><ul><li>One trader gives partner a white armband (see map, lower left) </li></ul><ul><li>He thereby expects a red necklace of equal value in return </li></ul><ul><li>Promissory gifts are made until the return gift is made </li></ul><ul><li>Balanced reciprocity usually occurs among distant kin </li></ul>
  35. 35. Types of Reciprocity: Negative <ul><li>Negative reciprocity: An exchange where </li></ul><ul><li>One party tries to get the better of the exchange </li></ul><ul><li>from the other party. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: hard bargaining or deception </li></ul><ul><li>Example: horse raids (upper left) </li></ul><ul><li>Example: selling prepared food to a captive market (lower left) </li></ul><ul><li>Usually occurs among unrelated persons </li></ul><ul><li>Variation: silent trade </li></ul>
  36. 36. Concepts of the Supernatural: Forces Versus Beings <ul><li>Supernatural Forces: mana </li></ul><ul><li>No personality or other such attributes </li></ul><ul><li>Forces somewhat akin to electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Tabus: caution against touching object too dangerous for commoners </li></ul><ul><li>Supernatural Beings </li></ul><ul><li>Supernatural persons or forces with attributes of personality or personage </li></ul><ul><li>Human image of gods or spirits apply here </li></ul>
  37. 37. Supernatural Beings: A Typology <ul><li>Gods: generically of nonhuman origin </li></ul><ul><li>Monotheism: single, often all-powerful god </li></ul><ul><li>Polytheism: numerous, specialized gods </li></ul><ul><li>Demons: negative beings </li></ul><ul><li>Spirits or Ghosts: of human origin </li></ul><ul><li>Ancestral spirits: departed souls of the dead to whom living pay homage </li></ul><ul><li>Ghosts: Spirits who often bring harm to living, often as revenge for some neglect </li></ul>
  38. 38. Practitioners: Shamans, Witches <ul><li>Shamans: persons with supernatural power acquired by individual initiative </li></ul><ul><li>Many are diagnosticians or healers </li></ul><ul><li>Quasalid: Kwakiutl shaman </li></ul><ul><li>Diviners : those who forecast the future </li></ul><ul><li>Sorcerers: Practitioners who bring ham </li></ul><ul><li>Through supernatural power/often with ritual </li></ul><ul><li>Witchcraft : Innate psychic power capable of harm </li></ul><ul><li>Case study: Azande poison oracle </li></ul>
  39. 39. Conclusion: Tribal Societies <ul><li>Defining features: absence of institutional chief or monarch </li></ul><ul><li>Two or more segments, such as lineages </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-cutting institutions, such as age grades, cross-cousin marriage </li></ul><ul><li>Or even larger lineages or clans </li></ul><ul><li>Some are horticulturalists, such as Yanomamo, Kayapo, and Kawelka </li></ul><ul><li>Others are pastoralists, such as the Masai </li></ul>
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