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Rules of Descent: How Kin are Reckoned.
Rules of Descent: How Kin are Reckoned.
Rules of Descent: How Kin are Reckoned.
Rules of Descent: How Kin are Reckoned.
Rules of Descent: How Kin are Reckoned.
Rules of Descent: How Kin are Reckoned.
Rules of Descent: How Kin are Reckoned.
Rules of Descent: How Kin are Reckoned.
Rules of Descent: How Kin are Reckoned.
Rules of Descent: How Kin are Reckoned.
Rules of Descent: How Kin are Reckoned.
Rules of Descent: How Kin are Reckoned.
Rules of Descent: How Kin are Reckoned.
Rules of Descent: How Kin are Reckoned.
Rules of Descent: How Kin are Reckoned.
Rules of Descent: How Kin are Reckoned.
Rules of Descent: How Kin are Reckoned.
Rules of Descent: How Kin are Reckoned.
Rules of Descent: How Kin are Reckoned.
Rules of Descent: How Kin are Reckoned.
Rules of Descent: How Kin are Reckoned.
Rules of Descent: How Kin are Reckoned.
Rules of Descent: How Kin are Reckoned.
Rules of Descent: How Kin are Reckoned.
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Rules of Descent: How Kin are Reckoned.

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Defining Kinship and its rationale. Rules of descent.

Defining Kinship and its rationale. Rules of descent.

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  • 1. Rules of Descent How Kin Are Reckoned (Recognized)
  • 2. What is Kinship?
    • Study of relations based on
    • Sex and Gender
    • Marriage
    • Family
    • Inheritance and succession
    • Extended family and larger groups
    • Rules of descent
    • Foundation of social anthropology
  • 3. Why Kinship?
    • World’s first organization.
    • Forms basis of:
    • Property rights
    • Division of labor
    • Economic units
    • Political organizations--even war
    • Law and customary law
    • Supernatural relations
  • 4. Constants of Kinship: Biological
    • Sex: The First Two Constants
    • Men impregnate the women
    • Women bear the children
    • This implies cooperation between two person
    • May imply cooperation between two groups
    • Long period of child dependence
    • Mother nurtures the child (as depicted by this statue of Yashoda and Krishna in India)
    • Enculturation involves both sexes
  • 5. Constants of Kinship: Death—Or You Can’t Take It With You
    • Death: Demands a replacement
    • Decisions on inheritance :
    • Property to eldest son?
    • Property divided among male or all children?
    • Decisions on succession :
    • Important political posts
    • Governance of family, larger kin group
  • 6. Constants of Kinship: Incest Tabu I
    • A cultural universal tabu:
    • Primary kin may not mate with each other
    • Father-daughter (as depicted here of Lot and his daughters in Genesis)
    • Mother-son
    • Brother-sister
  • 7. Constants of Kinship: Incest Tabu II
    • Exceptions: Brother sister marriage of royal lineage
    • Egyptian (depicted), Inca, Hawaiians
    • Implications: mates must be sought outside family or group
    • Tylor: Tribes have the option “to marry out or die out”
  • 8. Constants of Kinship: Male Dominance
    • Male Dominance
    • Males exercise authority over households and wider groups
    • Such as this group of Masai men to the upper left
    • Exceptions often illustrate the rule
    • Iroquois: women control land they cultivate (left), vote
    • But they do not sit on council or serve as chiefs
  • 9. Overview of Topics I
    • Begin with principles of descent
    • Descent governs all aspects of kinship
    • Gender relations
    • Sexual behavior (especially incest)
    • Gender statuses and roles
    • Marriage
    • Definitions (including sambandham)
    • Its functions
    • Marriage types
  • 10. Overview of Topics II
    • Family and household types
    • Nuclear and extended
    • Postmarital residential
    • Multiple marriage
    • Descent-based groups
    • Lineages and Clans
    • Corporate and other
    • Marriage alliances
  • 11. Principles of Descent: Nuts and Bolts
    • Figures on chart
    • Triangles: males
    • Circles: females
    • Squares: either sex
    • Lines
    • Vertical: generational link
    • Horizontal above figures: sibling link
    • Equal sign or horizontal line below figures: affinal (or marriage) link
  • 12. Principles of Descent: Two Major Types
    • Bilateral: one reckons kin through both sexes equally (top)
    • Unilineal: one reckons kin through the male line only or the female line only
    • Patrilineal: the male line only (lower left)
    • Matrilineal: the female line only (lower right)
  • 13. Kinship reckoning is Social
    • Exercise: Name all 4 grandparents
    • Name siblings of all 4 grandparents
    • Name all 8 great grandparents
    • Biological kin are socially selected
    • Bilateral descent: memory in Anglo-American society
    • Other societies: land rights, community seats
    • Unilineal: automatic exclusion of kin
  • 14. Descent Rules: Bilateral
    • Definition: Rule by which kin are reckoned through both male and female kin equally.
    • Term: bi - means two; lateral means side
    • Emphasis is on closeness or distance of kin laterally
    • Bilateral reckoning is inclusive
    • All on this chart are kin
    • Nonkin mechanism does the exclusion
  • 15. Descent Rules: Unilineal
    • Rule of affiliation with a
    • Group of kin with descent links to ancestor through
    • one sex only
    • Patrilineal : Line of kin comprises males only
    • Matrilineal: Line of kin comprises females only
    • Emphasis: line of kin, not those in one side or other
  • 16. Patrilineal Descent: Exercise
    • Use name with P, for Patrilineal
    • Name by number those persons
    • Who have name at birth
    • Who retain name at marriage
    • Who pass name on to children
    • Name by number those who lose name upon marriage
    • Name by number those who gain name through marriage
  • 17. Matrilineal Descent: Exercise
    • Use name with M, for Patrilineal
    • Name by number those persons
    • Who have name at birth
    • Who retain name at marriage
    • Who pass name on to children
    • Name by number those who lose name upon marriage
    • Name by number those who gain name through marriage
  • 18. Principles of Unilineal Descent
    • Kin not directly descended through one sex from ancestor are excluded
    • Those with females in line of patrilineal descent are excluded
    • Those with males in line of matrilineal descent are excluded
    • Who’s left?
    • Patrilineal kin
    • Matrilineal kin
  • 19. Double (Unilineal) Descent
    • Definition
    • Coexistence of patrilineal and matrilineal descent in same culture.
    • Patrilineal descent exists for some purposes
    • Matrilineal descent exists for other purposes.
    • Look at chart in book: Are some people excluded?
  • 20. Double (Unilineal) Descent:
    • Yakö of S. Nigeria
    • Mixed cultivation with cattle herding
    • Lived in Umor, a densely populated city
    • Property ownership
    • Male property: land, trees, houses, cattle
    • Female property: household items, coins
    • Property inheritance:
    • Patrilineal: all immovable property
    • Matrilineal: all moveable property
  • 21. A Riddle: Who Has the Cow, Man?
    • (Sorry, Bart)
    • Male property mostly inherited by sons
    • Female property mostly inherited by daughters
    • Cattle, male property,
    • Is moveable
    • Therefore is inherited matrilineally
    • Question: who gets the cattle?
    • Hint: Has to be consanguineal kin.
  • 22. Give Up?
    • Cattle go from mother’s brother
    • To sister’s son
    • This relationship is known as the avunculate
    • It recurs in other societies
    • And under other circumstances
    • Such as this Kaguru legend of famine and mothers
  • 23. Importance of Descent
    • Bilateral descent: allows flexibility of kin reckoning
    • Unilineal descent entails automatic inclusion and exclusion.
    • Both form the basis of economic rights and obligations
    • Political affiliation
    • Even ancestral worship
  • 24. Coming Up Next
    • The roots of kinship: sex and gender
    • Marriage, its definition and functions
    • Family types arising from marriage
    • Larger kin units and groups
    • Marriage as alliance
    • Kinship terminology: what it reflects

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