How Inequality Evolved: Overcoming Reverse Dominance Hierarchies
The Myth of Forager Egalitarianism <ul><li>Myth:  Forager societies lack hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Reality:  A few insta...
By Way of Introduction: Case Study <ul><li>“Eating Christmas in the Kalahari” by Richard Lee </li></ul><ul><li>Lee conduct...
!Kung San Hunter
Why This Bizarre Behavior? <ul><li>Tomazo’s answer: “Arrogance.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ When a young man kills much meat, </l...
Lessons from This Tale <ul><li>Even bandsmen know about inequality </li></ul><ul><li>They fear domination by one man </li>...
Reverse Dominance Hierarchy: A Definition <ul><li>Primary Source: Boehm’s  Hierarchy in the Forest </li></ul><ul><li>Defin...
Reverse Dominance Hierarchy: Toward a Model <ul><li>Primary Source: Knauft: “Sociality versus Self-Interest in Human Evolu...
Reverse Dominance Hierarchy: Primate Ethological Evidence <ul><li>Rationale: Pongid-Hominid Divergence 6 m.y.a. </li></ul>...
Establishing Dominance Hierarchies: Threat Behavior
Reverse Dominant Hierarchy: Band/Tribal Egalitarianism <ul><li>Most Models: Effortless Egalitarianism </li></ul><ul><li>Re...
Ending Reverse Dominance Hierarchy: Food Surplus <ul><li>Bases of Food Surplus </li></ul><ul><li>Complex Foraging: Northwe...
Ending Dominance Hierarchies: War <ul><li>As resources dwindle </li></ul><ul><li>And populations increases </li></ul><ul><...
Ending Reverse Dominance Hierarchy: Population Density <ul><li>Populations increase </li></ul><ul><li>Beyond scope of kin-...
Emergence of Stratification <ul><li>Manipulative Individuals/Families </li></ul><ul><li>Form alliances (chimpanzee-like) <...
Contemporary Reverse Dominance Hierarchies <ul><li>Contemporary Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Labor Unions: Danger of a Labor...
Industrial Reverse Dominance Hierarchies: Requirements <ul><li>Large-Scale Control Mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Corru...
Equality to Inequality: Montenegro <ul><li>Montenegrins maintained tribal structure </li></ul><ul><li>Uniting only to repe...
From Forager to Domesticator: The Archaeological Record <ul><li>Sufficient Condition: Food Surplus </li></ul><ul><li>Compl...
Emergence of Complexity <ul><li>Projects emerged requiring extra-familial cooperation, such as a state </li></ul><ul><li>E...
Establishment of Power over Resources <ul><li>Control over Life-Sustaining Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Water work...
Institutionalized Social Stratification <ul><li>Control of Food Surpluses and Food Sources </li></ul><ul><li>Large, Dense ...
Zinacantan: From Community to Local Stratification <ul><li>A Closed Corporate Community </li></ul><ul><li>Cargo System </l...
Can Egalitarian Society Coexist with Complexity? <ul><li>Catalh öyük: A large egalitarian town? </li></ul><ul><li>The Inca...
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Reverse Dominance Hierarchies

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Reverse dominance hierarchies; Egalitarian Societies Stratification

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Reverse Dominance Hierarchies

  1. 1. How Inequality Evolved: Overcoming Reverse Dominance Hierarchies
  2. 2. The Myth of Forager Egalitarianism <ul><li>Myth: Forager societies lack hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Reality: A few instances of inequality </li></ul><ul><li>Gender Inequality: highly variable </li></ul><ul><li>Private property: Pi ňon trees among Paiute </li></ul><ul><li>Foragers: latent individual inequality </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention: Watchful control by band and tribe </li></ul>
  3. 3. By Way of Introduction: Case Study <ul><li>“Eating Christmas in the Kalahari” by Richard Lee </li></ul><ul><li>Lee conducted an ethnographic study of the Dobe !Kung during year </li></ul><ul><li>He gave the band a fattened ox to thank them </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction: Dobe ridiculed this gift </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson: the !Kung typically ridicule all unusually valuable game </li></ul>
  4. 4. !Kung San Hunter
  5. 5. Why This Bizarre Behavior? <ul><li>Tomazo’s answer: “Arrogance.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ When a young man kills much meat, </li></ul><ul><li>he thinks himself as a chief or big man </li></ul><ul><li>and the rest of us as his servants. </li></ul><ul><li>We cannot accept this. </li></ul><ul><li>Someday his pride will make him kill somebody. </li></ul><ul><li>So we always speak of his meat as worthless. </li></ul><ul><li>That way, we cool his heart and make him gentle.” </li></ul>
  6. 6. Lessons from This Tale <ul><li>Even bandsmen know about inequality </li></ul><ul><li>They fear domination by one man </li></ul><ul><li>Unusual gifts always involve some ulterior motive </li></ul><ul><li>So they denigrate this gifts </li></ul><ul><li>The reaction conforms to a model of reverse dominance hierarchy </li></ul>
  7. 7. Reverse Dominance Hierarchy: A Definition <ul><li>Primary Source: Boehm’s Hierarchy in the Forest </li></ul><ul><li>Definition: a collective reaction to </li></ul><ul><li>anyone’s attempt to dominate his fellows </li></ul><ul><li>Summary: “All men seek to rule </li></ul><ul><li>but if they cannot rule </li></ul><ul><li>they seek to be equal.” </li></ul><ul><li>— Harold Schneider, Economic Anthropologist </li></ul>
  8. 8. Reverse Dominance Hierarchy: Toward a Model <ul><li>Primary Source: Knauft: “Sociality versus Self-Interest in Human Evolution” Behavior and Brain Sciences. </li></ul><ul><li>Knauft postulates a U-Shaped Curve: </li></ul><ul><li>Nonhuman Primates: Moderate to Extreme Dominance </li></ul><ul><li>Bands and Tribes: Strong Egalitarianism </li></ul><ul><li>Chiefdoms and States: Ranking to Social Stratification </li></ul>
  9. 9. Reverse Dominance Hierarchy: Primate Ethological Evidence <ul><li>Rationale: Pongid-Hominid Divergence 6 m.y.a. </li></ul><ul><li>Dominance Evident in Hominoids </li></ul><ul><li>Chimpanzees: Coalition Politics </li></ul><ul><li>Bonobos: Female Hierarchies Passed to Sons </li></ul><ul><li>Male Linear Dominance is tempered by : </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral Ambivalence (waa vocalization) </li></ul><ul><li>Coalitions of Subordinate Individuals </li></ul>
  10. 10. Establishing Dominance Hierarchies: Threat Behavior
  11. 11. Reverse Dominant Hierarchy: Band/Tribal Egalitarianism <ul><li>Most Models: Effortless Egalitarianism </li></ul><ul><li>Reverse Dominance: You Have to Work at It </li></ul><ul><li>“ Upstart” Individuals Try to Dominate the Band/Tribe </li></ul><ul><li>Coalitions Suppress Every Such Attempt </li></ul><ul><li>Ridicule (!Kung “Insulting the Meat”) </li></ul><ul><li>Song Duels (Inuit/Eskimo) </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme Case: Homicide by Group-Selected Executioner </li></ul>
  12. 12. Ending Reverse Dominance Hierarchy: Food Surplus <ul><li>Bases of Food Surplus </li></ul><ul><li>Complex Foraging: Northwest Coast Indians </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced Pastoralists: Mongol Nomads </li></ul><ul><li>Neolithic Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Intensive Cultivation </li></ul><ul><li>Nonfarm Specialization in </li></ul><ul><li>Crafts and Manufactures </li></ul><ul><li>Administration and Enforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of an Elite </li></ul>
  13. 13. Ending Dominance Hierarchies: War <ul><li>As resources dwindle </li></ul><ul><li>And populations increases </li></ul><ul><li>Warfare expands in scope </li></ul><ul><li>And establish hierarchical societies </li></ul><ul><li>And their states </li></ul>
  14. 14. Ending Reverse Dominance Hierarchy: Population Density <ul><li>Populations increase </li></ul><ul><li>Beyond scope of kin-based control </li></ul><ul><li>New control mechanism come into place </li></ul><ul><li>Extra-Familial groups take control </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-hierarchical mechanisms lose effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Circumscription ensures control. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Emergence of Stratification <ul><li>Manipulative Individuals/Families </li></ul><ul><li>Form alliances (chimpanzee-like) </li></ul><ul><li>Play one faction against another </li></ul><ul><li>Form dynasties (bonobo-like) </li></ul><ul><li>Control over Life-Sustaining Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Water systems in semi-arid regions </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural lands </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanisms of Taxation </li></ul><ul><li>Labor </li></ul><ul><li>Tribute </li></ul>
  16. 16. Contemporary Reverse Dominance Hierarchies <ul><li>Contemporary Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Labor Unions: Danger of a Labor Aristocracy? </li></ul><ul><li>Socialism: But who controls the bosses? </li></ul><ul><li>Recuperaci ó n Movement in Argentina: But what will prevent corruption? </li></ul>
  17. 17. Industrial Reverse Dominance Hierarchies: Requirements <ul><li>Large-Scale Control Mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Corruption Mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>Institutions Independent of Personalistic Qualities (Cult of Personality) </li></ul><ul><li>Policies for the Greatest Happiness For All </li></ul><ul><li>Assurance of Human and Civil Rights for all. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Equality to Inequality: Montenegro <ul><li>Montenegrins maintained tribal structure </li></ul><ul><li>Uniting only to repel Ottoman forays </li></ul><ul><li>Structure assured equality </li></ul><ul><li>A marriage alliance sealed dominance by one tribe over the others </li></ul>
  19. 19. From Forager to Domesticator: The Archaeological Record <ul><li>Sufficient Condition: Food Surplus </li></ul><ul><li>Complex Foraging Enabled Settled Communities </li></ul><ul><li>Plant and Animal Domestication Forced by Population Excess of Carrying Capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Tribal Society Still Egalitarian </li></ul><ul><li>Based on Reverse Dominance </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Big Man Model of New Guinea </li></ul>
  20. 20. Emergence of Complexity <ul><li>Projects emerged requiring extra-familial cooperation, such as a state </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Dams, canals, other waterworks </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Defensive walls when at war </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Exploitation of mines or quarries </li></ul><ul><li>Other projects might justify maintenance of new formation </li></ul>
  21. 21. Establishment of Power over Resources <ul><li>Control over Life-Sustaining Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Water works in arid regions </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Granaries </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Trade in essential goods </li></ul><ul><li>Emergence of Hereditary Chiefs/Chiefdoms </li></ul><ul><li>Formation of chief and subchief hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion of territory </li></ul>
  22. 22. Institutionalized Social Stratification <ul><li>Control of Food Surpluses and Food Sources </li></ul><ul><li>Large, Dense Populations </li></ul><ul><li>Formal Government </li></ul><ul><li>Monopoly over Legal Force </li></ul><ul><li>Bureaucracy </li></ul><ul><li>Codified Law </li></ul><ul><li>Division of Labor and Trade </li></ul><ul><li>Record Keeping </li></ul><ul><li>Monumental Architecture </li></ul>
  23. 23. Zinacantan: From Community to Local Stratification <ul><li>A Closed Corporate Community </li></ul><ul><li>Cargo System </li></ul><ul><li>Communal Resource and Surplus Control’ </li></ul><ul><li>Other Attributes of Community Solidarity </li></ul><ul><li>An Entrepreneurial Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Decline of the Cargo System </li></ul><ul><li>Global Influences on Community </li></ul><ul><li>Fragmentation into hamlets </li></ul>
  24. 24. Can Egalitarian Society Coexist with Complexity? <ul><li>Catalh öyük: A large egalitarian town? </li></ul><ul><li>The Inca: First socialist model? </li></ul><ul><li>Contemporary South America: glimmerings of equal complex societies? </li></ul>

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