Psychology and Culture Comparing Human Psychology Across Cultures
Culture and the Individual <ul><li>Culture emphasizes the group </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistics: a common language </li></ul...
Psychological Anthropology: An Overview <ul><li>Components of self, behavioral environment, and personality </li></ul><ul>...
Components of Personality <ul><li>Self-awareness: the ability to  </li></ul><ul><li>Identify oneself as an object </li></u...
Personality: A Four-Part Scheme <ul><li>Definition: distinctive way person   </li></ul><ul><li>Perception: relationship be...
Anthropological Approaches to Personality <ul><li>Environmental Approaches:  Culture and Personality </li></ul><ul><li>Ben...
Personality Formation <ul><li>Does genetics limit child rearing? </li></ul><ul><li>Freud: oral, anal, oedipal stages  </li...
Language Acquisition <ul><li>Two Theories </li></ul><ul><li>Leonard Bloomfield </li></ul><ul><li>Child learns sounds </li>...
Chomsky’s Universal Grammar <ul><li>Universal Grammar serves as template </li></ul><ul><li>Child matches phonemes and morp...
The Phases of Language Acquisition <ul><li>Cooing:  Utters vowels only (V-V-V) </li></ul><ul><li>Babbling:  Utters consona...
Cognitive Development: Piaget <ul><li>Four Stages </li></ul><ul><li>Sensimotor:  Experience of world through the senses </...
Explanations of Personality: Modal Personality <ul><li>Kardiner:  </li></ul><ul><li>Basic personality structure:  a “const...
Explanations of Personality:  Jen <ul><li>Francis Hsu </li></ul><ul><li>Internal levels </li></ul><ul><li>Biological </li>...
Explanations of Personality: Culture and Personality <ul><li>A.F.C. Wallace </li></ul><ul><li>Rejects notion of modal pers...
Cross-Cultural Psychiatry <ul><li>Ethnic psychosis: mental disorders specific to each ethnic group </li></ul><ul><li>Arcti...
Other Ethnic Psychoses <ul><li>Windigo Psychosis: </li></ul><ul><li>Algonquin Indians of N U.S. and Canada </li></ul><ul><...
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Psychological Anthropology

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Elements of Personality; Language Acquisition; Cognitive Development; Theories of Personality; Ethnic Psychiatric Disorders

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Psychological Anthropology

  1. 1. Psychology and Culture Comparing Human Psychology Across Cultures
  2. 2. Culture and the Individual <ul><li>Culture emphasizes the group </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistics: a common language </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptation to the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Technoeconomic sector </li></ul><ul><li>Sociopolitical sector </li></ul><ul><li>Ideological sector </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological Anthropology focuses on the individual </li></ul>
  3. 3. Psychological Anthropology: An Overview <ul><li>Components of self, behavioral environment, and personality </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic versus environmental factors of behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Personality formation </li></ul><ul><li>Explanations of personality </li></ul><ul><li>Personality and mental disorders </li></ul>
  4. 4. Components of Personality <ul><li>Self-awareness: the ability to </li></ul><ul><li>Identify oneself as an object </li></ul><ul><li>To react to oneself </li></ul><ul><li>To appraise oneself </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral environment: </li></ul><ul><li>World of objects other than oneself </li></ul><ul><li>Mediated symbolically through language </li></ul>
  5. 5. Personality: A Four-Part Scheme <ul><li>Definition: distinctive way person </li></ul><ul><li>Perception: relationship between self and behavioral environment </li></ul><ul><li>Cognition: ability to conceptualize reality “out there” </li></ul><ul><li>Emotion: way one feels about this reality </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral: how one acts based on the interaction among perception, cognition, and emotion </li></ul>
  6. 6. Anthropological Approaches to Personality <ul><li>Environmental Approaches: Culture and Personality </li></ul><ul><li>Benedict : Culture as Personality “Writ Large” </li></ul><ul><li>Mead: Cultural as Shaper of Personality </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic/Biological Approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Freudian: Id, Ego, Superego </li></ul><ul><li>Twin studies </li></ul><ul><li>Bell Curve: Slippery slope to eugenics? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Personality Formation <ul><li>Does genetics limit child rearing? </li></ul><ul><li>Freud: oral, anal, oedipal stages </li></ul><ul><li>Twin studies again </li></ul><ul><li>Environmentalist approaches: Whitings and Child develop 2 ideal types </li></ul><ul><li>Dependence Training </li></ul><ul><li>Collective behavior, reliance on group </li></ul><ul><li>Independence Training </li></ul><ul><li>Self-reliance, personal achievement </li></ul>
  8. 8. Language Acquisition <ul><li>Two Theories </li></ul><ul><li>Leonard Bloomfield </li></ul><ul><li>Child learns sounds </li></ul><ul><li>Then words </li></ul><ul><li>Then syntax </li></ul><ul><li>Noam Chomsky </li></ul><ul><li>Innate (Inborn) Structures </li></ul><ul><li>Universal Grammar: Hardwiring for Language </li></ul>
  9. 9. Chomsky’s Universal Grammar <ul><li>Universal Grammar serves as template </li></ul><ul><li>Child matches phonemes and morphemes with this templat </li></ul><ul><li>Enables child to acquire language and produce sentences never heard before </li></ul><ul><li>This defines productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Critical period between birth and puberty in which child must learn </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Phases of Language Acquisition <ul><li>Cooing: Utters vowels only (V-V-V) </li></ul><ul><li>Babbling: Utters consonants and vowels (C-V-C-V) </li></ul><ul><li>One Word (Monophrasic Stage): Utters one word while attempting a sentence </li></ul><ul><li>Two Word: Utters subject and predicate </li></ul><ul><li>Telegraphic Speech: Sentences without function words (article, conjunction, etc.) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Cognitive Development: Piaget <ul><li>Four Stages </li></ul><ul><li>Sensimotor: Experience of world through the senses </li></ul><ul><li>Preoperational: First use of symbols </li></ul><ul><li>Concrete Operational: Logical thinking and ability to connect cause and effect </li></ul><ul><li>Formal Operational: Highly abstract conceptualization and formal reasoning </li></ul>
  12. 12. Explanations of Personality: Modal Personality <ul><li>Kardiner: </li></ul><ul><li>Basic personality structure: a “constellation” of personality traits </li></ul><ul><li>Primary institutions: those impinging on social development </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary institution: those satisfying needs created by primary ones </li></ul><ul><li>Modal personality: those that predominate in any culture </li></ul>
  13. 13. Explanations of Personality: Jen <ul><li>Francis Hsu </li></ul><ul><li>Internal levels </li></ul><ul><li>Biological </li></ul><ul><li>Unconscious and Subconscious </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental levels </li></ul><ul><li>Layers of social institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Sociopolitical to family </li></ul><ul><li>Jen : Personage </li></ul><ul><li>Processes the twofold sources </li></ul>
  14. 14. Explanations of Personality: Culture and Personality <ul><li>A.F.C. Wallace </li></ul><ul><li>Rejects notion of modal personality </li></ul><ul><li>All types represented in any culture </li></ul><ul><li>Cultures contain “traffic rules” </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone conforms to these ?rules” </li></ul><ul><li>Outside these rules, all personalities coexist </li></ul>
  15. 15. Cross-Cultural Psychiatry <ul><li>Ethnic psychosis: mental disorders specific to each ethnic group </li></ul><ul><li>Arctic hysteria (piblotoq): fright followed by bizarre behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Found throughout circumpolar region </li></ul><ul><li>Reindeer Tungus: indicates contact with the supernatural world </li></ul><ul><li>These become the group’s shamans </li></ul><ul><li>Main function there: diagnosis of disease </li></ul>
  16. 16. Other Ethnic Psychoses <ul><li>Windigo Psychosis: </li></ul><ul><li>Algonquin Indians of N U.S. and Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Windigo are monsters fond of human flesh </li></ul><ul><li>Psychosis: fear of becoming one </li></ul><ul><li>No recorded cases of cannibalism </li></ul><ul><li>Amok </li></ul><ul><li>Malaya; also in Java, Philippines, Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Homicidal attacks, preceded by brooding and followed by amnesia </li></ul>
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