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Pastoralists: Tribes into Chiefdoms?
Pastoralists: Tribes into Chiefdoms?
Pastoralists: Tribes into Chiefdoms?
Pastoralists: Tribes into Chiefdoms?
Pastoralists: Tribes into Chiefdoms?
Pastoralists: Tribes into Chiefdoms?
Pastoralists: Tribes into Chiefdoms?
Pastoralists: Tribes into Chiefdoms?
Pastoralists: Tribes into Chiefdoms?
Pastoralists: Tribes into Chiefdoms?
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Pastoralists: Tribes into Chiefdoms?

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Deacribed the common characteristics of patoralists, including their levels of integration

Deacribed the common characteristics of patoralists, including their levels of integration

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  • 1. Pastoralists Tribes into Chiefdoms?
  • 2. Pastoralism or Herding
    • Definition
    • Animal husbandry as the main or sole source of subsistence
    • Animals: cattle, horses, sheep, goats, camels
    • All parts of animal is consumed
    • Meat and dairy products, blood
    • Hides
    • Even dung for fire and building material
  • 3. Pastoralism: Primary Characteristics
    • Environment: semi-arid grasslands; other regions unsuitable for agriculture
    • Nomadic:
    • Transhumance: seasonal migration between different environmental zones.
    • Property and valuables are portable
    • Dependence on settled communities
    • Agriculture and manufactured products
    • Mixed economy lessens dependence
  • 4. Pastoralism: Secondary Characteristics
    • Warfare
    • Raid of villages or other nomads
    • Predatory states: Mongols
    • Warrior age grades in East Africa
    • Male dominance
    • Warfare required male cooperation
    • Animals are male property
    • Residence is patrilocal
    • Women have few rights
  • 5. Pastoralists: A Profile
    • Pastoralists range in complexity
    • At one end of the scale are the Turkana
    • They have no age sets or grades
    • Their units are loosely allied, reflecting a stingy environment
    • Middle range: the Masai
    • They have age grades and sets, and there are wealth differences
    • Upper range: the Kirghiz and other Mongols
    • They have wealthy chiefs and a feudal-like system of animal herding
  • 6. Level of Integration: Tribe or Chiefdom?
    • Some pastoralists are tribal, such as the Turkana
    • Others show incipient wealth differences, such as the Masai
    • Still others are chiefdoms, such as the Rwala Bedouin of the Middle East
    • Mongols formed chiefdoms, then eventually became states
    • Classic example: Genghis Khan, also known as (more accurately) Chinghis Kahn.
  • 7. Is Pastoralism a Transition from Foraging to Agriculture?
    • Ideally, pastoralists herd animals only
    • In actuality, many cultures combine animal husbandry with agriculture
    • Archaeological evidence indicates pastoralism arose after the rise of settled communities and civilization
    • A more likely scenario: herders abandoned civilized societies, either on their own or by force
  • 8. Influence of Pastoralists
    • Europe and China both faced the invasions of pastoral populations
    • We all know of Attila the Hun, who invaded Europe during the Dark Ages
    • Later, Chinghis Khan invaded both China in the east and the Muslim empires of the Middle East
    • The Manchu Dynasty was Mongol in origin
    • Turkey, and the states of Central Asia, arose from the Turkic peoples of Mongol derivation
  • 9. Tribal Herders: Case Studies
    • In this section, you may compare two East African cultures:
    • Turkana (light pink, NW) and
    • Masai (dark pink, SW)
    • Both are located in Kenya (map)
    • Or you may focus on the Mongols of Central Asia
    • Which include a contemporary chiefdom, the Kirghiz of Afghanistan
    • The Kirghiz are located at the northeastern tip of Afghanistan (black)
    • Other Mongol groups are located north: Uzbeks, Turkmen, etc.
  • 10. Pastoralism: Conclusion
    • Incomplete food producers; they herd large animals but do not cultivate crops
    • Animals, not plants, are domesticated
    • Pastoralists tend to be warlike and raid each others’ herds
    • For this reason, male cooperation is essential
    • Most are patrilineal and patrilocal societies
    • Pastoralism as an ideal type most likely followed the formation of civilizations.
    • Instructions: compare your case study to this ideal type

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