• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Pastoralists: Tribes into Chiefdoms?

Pastoralists: Tribes into Chiefdoms?



Deacribed the common characteristics of patoralists, including their levels of integration

Deacribed the common characteristics of patoralists, including their levels of integration



Total Views
Views on SlideShare
Embed Views



2 Embeds 19

https://etudes-ng.fhda.edu 13
http://www.slideshare.net 6



Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Pastoralists: Tribes into Chiefdoms? Pastoralists: Tribes into Chiefdoms? Presentation Transcript

    • Pastoralists Tribes into Chiefdoms?
    • Pastoralism or Herding
      • Definition
      • Animal husbandry as the main or sole source of subsistence
      • Animals: cattle, horses, sheep, goats, camels
      • All parts of animal is consumed
      • Meat and dairy products, blood
      • Hides
      • Even dung for fire and building material
    • Pastoralism: Primary Characteristics
      • Environment: semi-arid grasslands; other regions unsuitable for agriculture
      • Nomadic:
      • Transhumance: seasonal migration between different environmental zones.
      • Property and valuables are portable
      • Dependence on settled communities
      • Agriculture and manufactured products
      • Mixed economy lessens dependence
    • Pastoralism: Secondary Characteristics
      • Warfare
      • Raid of villages or other nomads
      • Predatory states: Mongols
      • Warrior age grades in East Africa
      • Male dominance
      • Warfare required male cooperation
      • Animals are male property
      • Residence is patrilocal
      • Women have few rights
    • Pastoralists: A Profile
      • Pastoralists range in complexity
      • At one end of the scale are the Turkana
      • They have no age sets or grades
      • Their units are loosely allied, reflecting a stingy environment
      • Middle range: the Masai
      • They have age grades and sets, and there are wealth differences
      • Upper range: the Kirghiz and other Mongols
      • They have wealthy chiefs and a feudal-like system of animal herding
    • Level of Integration: Tribe or Chiefdom?
      • Some pastoralists are tribal, such as the Turkana
      • Others show incipient wealth differences, such as the Masai
      • Still others are chiefdoms, such as the Rwala Bedouin of the Middle East
      • Mongols formed chiefdoms, then eventually became states
      • Classic example: Genghis Khan, also known as (more accurately) Chinghis Kahn.
    • Is Pastoralism a Transition from Foraging to Agriculture?
      • Ideally, pastoralists herd animals only
      • In actuality, many cultures combine animal husbandry with agriculture
      • Archaeological evidence indicates pastoralism arose after the rise of settled communities and civilization
      • A more likely scenario: herders abandoned civilized societies, either on their own or by force
    • Influence of Pastoralists
      • Europe and China both faced the invasions of pastoral populations
      • We all know of Attila the Hun, who invaded Europe during the Dark Ages
      • Later, Chinghis Khan invaded both China in the east and the Muslim empires of the Middle East
      • The Manchu Dynasty was Mongol in origin
      • Turkey, and the states of Central Asia, arose from the Turkic peoples of Mongol derivation
    • Tribal Herders: Case Studies
      • In this section, you may compare two East African cultures:
      • Turkana (light pink, NW) and
      • Masai (dark pink, SW)
      • Both are located in Kenya (map)
      • Or you may focus on the Mongols of Central Asia
      • Which include a contemporary chiefdom, the Kirghiz of Afghanistan
      • The Kirghiz are located at the northeastern tip of Afghanistan (black)
      • Other Mongol groups are located north: Uzbeks, Turkmen, etc.
    • Pastoralism: Conclusion
      • Incomplete food producers; they herd large animals but do not cultivate crops
      • Animals, not plants, are domesticated
      • Pastoralists tend to be warlike and raid each others’ herds
      • For this reason, male cooperation is essential
      • Most are patrilineal and patrilocal societies
      • Pastoralism as an ideal type most likely followed the formation of civilizations.
      • Instructions: compare your case study to this ideal type