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Pastoralists: Tribes into Chiefdoms?
 

Pastoralists: Tribes into Chiefdoms?

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Deacribed the common characteristics of patoralists, including their levels of integration

Deacribed the common characteristics of patoralists, including their levels of integration

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    Pastoralists: Tribes into Chiefdoms? Pastoralists: Tribes into Chiefdoms? Presentation Transcript

    • Pastoralists Tribes into Chiefdoms?
    • Pastoralism or Herding
      • Definition
      • Animal husbandry as the main or sole source of subsistence
      • Animals: cattle, horses, sheep, goats, camels
      • All parts of animal is consumed
      • Meat and dairy products, blood
      • Hides
      • Even dung for fire and building material
    • Pastoralism: Primary Characteristics
      • Environment: semi-arid grasslands; other regions unsuitable for agriculture
      • Nomadic:
      • Transhumance: seasonal migration between different environmental zones.
      • Property and valuables are portable
      • Dependence on settled communities
      • Agriculture and manufactured products
      • Mixed economy lessens dependence
    • Pastoralism: Secondary Characteristics
      • Warfare
      • Raid of villages or other nomads
      • Predatory states: Mongols
      • Warrior age grades in East Africa
      • Male dominance
      • Warfare required male cooperation
      • Animals are male property
      • Residence is patrilocal
      • Women have few rights
    • Pastoralists: A Profile
      • Pastoralists range in complexity
      • At one end of the scale are the Turkana
      • They have no age sets or grades
      • Their units are loosely allied, reflecting a stingy environment
      • Middle range: the Masai
      • They have age grades and sets, and there are wealth differences
      • Upper range: the Kirghiz and other Mongols
      • They have wealthy chiefs and a feudal-like system of animal herding
    • Level of Integration: Tribe or Chiefdom?
      • Some pastoralists are tribal, such as the Turkana
      • Others show incipient wealth differences, such as the Masai
      • Still others are chiefdoms, such as the Rwala Bedouin of the Middle East
      • Mongols formed chiefdoms, then eventually became states
      • Classic example: Genghis Khan, also known as (more accurately) Chinghis Kahn.
    • Is Pastoralism a Transition from Foraging to Agriculture?
      • Ideally, pastoralists herd animals only
      • In actuality, many cultures combine animal husbandry with agriculture
      • Archaeological evidence indicates pastoralism arose after the rise of settled communities and civilization
      • A more likely scenario: herders abandoned civilized societies, either on their own or by force
    • Influence of Pastoralists
      • Europe and China both faced the invasions of pastoral populations
      • We all know of Attila the Hun, who invaded Europe during the Dark Ages
      • Later, Chinghis Khan invaded both China in the east and the Muslim empires of the Middle East
      • The Manchu Dynasty was Mongol in origin
      • Turkey, and the states of Central Asia, arose from the Turkic peoples of Mongol derivation
    • Tribal Herders: Case Studies
      • In this section, you may compare two East African cultures:
      • Turkana (light pink, NW) and
      • Masai (dark pink, SW)
      • Both are located in Kenya (map)
      • Or you may focus on the Mongols of Central Asia
      • Which include a contemporary chiefdom, the Kirghiz of Afghanistan
      • The Kirghiz are located at the northeastern tip of Afghanistan (black)
      • Other Mongol groups are located north: Uzbeks, Turkmen, etc.
    • Pastoralism: Conclusion
      • Incomplete food producers; they herd large animals but do not cultivate crops
      • Animals, not plants, are domesticated
      • Pastoralists tend to be warlike and raid each others’ herds
      • For this reason, male cooperation is essential
      • Most are patrilineal and patrilocal societies
      • Pastoralism as an ideal type most likely followed the formation of civilizations.
      • Instructions: compare your case study to this ideal type