Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Overcoming Reverse Dominance Hierarchies
Overcoming Reverse Dominance Hierarchies
Overcoming Reverse Dominance Hierarchies
Overcoming Reverse Dominance Hierarchies
Overcoming Reverse Dominance Hierarchies
Overcoming Reverse Dominance Hierarchies
Overcoming Reverse Dominance Hierarchies
Overcoming Reverse Dominance Hierarchies
Overcoming Reverse Dominance Hierarchies
Overcoming Reverse Dominance Hierarchies
Overcoming Reverse Dominance Hierarchies
Overcoming Reverse Dominance Hierarchies
Overcoming Reverse Dominance Hierarchies
Overcoming Reverse Dominance Hierarchies
Overcoming Reverse Dominance Hierarchies
Overcoming Reverse Dominance Hierarchies
Overcoming Reverse Dominance Hierarchies
Overcoming Reverse Dominance Hierarchies
Overcoming Reverse Dominance Hierarchies
Overcoming Reverse Dominance Hierarchies
Overcoming Reverse Dominance Hierarchies
Overcoming Reverse Dominance Hierarchies
Overcoming Reverse Dominance Hierarchies
Overcoming Reverse Dominance Hierarchies
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Overcoming Reverse Dominance Hierarchies

1,897

Published on

Reverse Dominance Hierarchies and their concomitants.

Reverse Dominance Hierarchies and their concomitants.

Published in: Business, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,897
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
26
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. How Inequality Evolved: Overcoming Reverse Dominance Hierarchies
  • 2. The Myth of Forager Egalitarianism
    • Myth: Forager societies lack hierarchy
    • Reality: A few instances of inequality
    • Gender Inequality: highly variable
    • Private property: Pi ňon trees among Paiute
    • Foragers: latent individual inequality
    • Prevention: Watchful control by band and tribe
  • 3. By Way of Introduction: Case Study
    • “Eating Christmas in the Kalahari” by Richard Lee
    • Lee conducted an ethnographic study of the Dobe !Kung during year
    • He gave the band a fattened ox to thank them
    • Reaction: Dobe ridiculed this gift
    • Lesson: the !Kung typically ridicule all unusually valuable game
  • 4. !Kung San Hunter
  • 5. Why This Bizarre Behavior?
    • Tomazo’s answer: “Arrogance.”
    • “ When a young man kills much meat,
    • he thinks himself as a chief or big man
    • and the rest of us as his servants.
    • We cannot accept this.
    • Someday his pride will make him kill somebody.
    • So we always speak of his meat as worthless.
    • That way, we cool his heart and make him gentle.”
  • 6. Lessons from This Tale
    • Even bandsmen know about inequality
    • They fear domination by one man
    • Unusual gifts always involve some ulterior motive
    • So they denigrate this gifts
    • The reaction conforms to a model of reverse dominance hierarchy
  • 7. Reverse Dominance Hierarchy: A Definition
    • Primary Source: Boehm’s Hierarchy in the Forest
    • Definition: a collective reaction to
    • anyone’s attempt to dominate his fellows
    • Summary: “All men seek to rule
    • but if they cannot rule
    • they seek to be equal.”
    • — Harold Schneider, Economic Anthropologist
  • 8. Reverse Dominance Hierarchy: Toward a Model
    • Primary Source: Knauft: “Sociality versus Self-Interest in Human Evolution” Behavior and Brain Sciences.
    • Knauft postulates a U-Shaped Curve:
    • Nonhuman Primates: Moderate to Extreme Dominance
    • Bands and Tribes: Strong Egalitarianism
    • Chiefdoms and States: Ranking to Social Stratification
  • 9. Reverse Dominance Hierarchy: Primate Ethological Evidence
    • Rationale: Pongid-Hominid Divergence 6 m.y.a.
    • Dominance Evident in Hominoids
    • Chimpanzees: Coalition Politics
    • Bonobos: Female Hierarchies Passed to Sons
    • Male Linear Dominance is tempered by :
    • Behavioral Ambivalence (waa vocalization)
    • Coalitions of Subordinate Individuals
  • 10. Establishing Dominance Hierarchies: Threat Behavior
  • 11. Reverse Dominant Hierarchy: Band/Tribal Egalitarianism
    • Most Models: Effortless Egalitarianism
    • Reverse Dominance: You Have to Work at It
    • “ Upstart” Individuals Try to Dominate the Band/Tribe
    • Coalitions Suppress Every Such Attempt
    • Ridicule (!Kung “Insulting the Meat”)
    • Song Duels (Inuit/Eskimo)
    • Extreme Case: Homicide by Group-Selected Executioner
  • 12. Ending Reverse Dominance Hierarchy: Food Surplus
    • Bases of Food Surplus
    • Complex Foraging: Northwest Coast Indians
    • Advanced Pastoralists: Mongol Nomads
    • Neolithic Revolution
    • Intensive Cultivation
    • Nonfarm Specialization in
    • Crafts and Manufactures
    • Administration and Enforcement
    • Rise of an Elite
  • 13. Ending Dominance Hierarchies: War
    • As resources dwindle
    • And populations increases
    • Warfare expands in scope
    • And establish hierarchical societies
    • And their states
  • 14. Ending Reverse Dominance Hierarchy: Population Density
    • Populations increase
    • Beyond scope of kin-based control
    • New control mechanism come into place
    • Extra-Familial groups take control
    • Anti-hierarchical mechanisms lose effectiveness
    • Circumscription ensures control.
  • 15. Emergence of Stratification
    • Manipulative Individuals/Families
    • Form alliances (chimpanzee-like)
    • Play one faction against another
    • Form dynasties (bonobo-like)
    • Control over Life-Sustaining Resources
    • Water systems in semi-arid regions
    • Agricultural lands
    • Mechanisms of Taxation
    • Labor
    • Tribute
  • 16. Contemporary Reverse Dominance Hierarchies
    • Contemporary Examples
    • Labor Unions: Danger of a Labor Aristocracy?
    • Socialism: But who controls the bosses?
    • Recuperaci ó n Movement in Argentina: But what will prevent corruption?
  • 17. Industrial Reverse Dominance Hierarchies: Requirements
    • Large-Scale Control Mechanisms
    • Anti-Corruption Mechanisms
    • Institutions Independent of Personalistic Qualities (Cult of Personality)
    • Policies for the Greatest Happiness For All
    • Assurance of Human and Civil Rights for all.
  • 18. Equality to Inequality: Montenegro
    • Montenegrins maintained tribal structure
    • Uniting only to repel Ottoman forays
    • Structure assured equality
    • A marriage alliance sealed dominance by one tribe over the others
  • 19. From Forager to Domesticator: The Archaeological Record
    • Sufficient Condition: Food Surplus
    • Complex Foraging Enabled Settled Communities
    • Plant and Animal Domestication Forced by Population Excess of Carrying Capacity
    • Tribal Society Still Egalitarian
    • Based on Reverse Dominance
    • Example: Big Man Model of New Guinea
  • 20. Emergence of Complexity
    • Projects emerged requiring extra-familial cooperation, such as a state
    • Example: Dams, canals, other waterworks
    • Example: Defensive walls when at war
    • Example: Exploitation of mines or quarries
    • Other projects might justify maintenance of new formation
  • 21. Establishment of Power over Resources
    • Control over Life-Sustaining Resources
    • Example: Water works in arid regions
    • Example: Granaries
    • Example: Trade in essential goods
    • Emergence of Hereditary Chiefs/Chiefdoms
    • Formation of chief and subchief hierarchy
    • Expansion of territory
  • 22. Institutionalized Social Stratification
    • Control of Food Surpluses and Food Sources
    • Large, Dense Populations
    • Formal Government
    • Monopoly over Legal Force
    • Bureaucracy
    • Codified Law
    • Division of Labor and Trade
    • Record Keeping
    • Monumental Architecture
  • 23. Zinacantan: From Community to Local Stratification
    • A Closed Corporate Community
    • Cargo System
    • Communal Resource and Surplus Control’
    • Other Attributes of Community Solidarity
    • An Entrepreneurial Revolution
    • Decline of the Cargo System
    • Global Influences on Community
    • Fragmentation into hamlets
  • 24. Can Egalitarian Society Coexist with Complexity?
    • Catalh öyük: A large egalitarian town?
    • The Inca: First socialist model?
    • Contemporary South America: glimmerings of equal complex societies?

×