Linguistics
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Linguistics

on

  • 7,133 views

Descriptive Linguistics and Ethnolinguistics.

Descriptive Linguistics and Ethnolinguistics.

Statistics

Views

Total Views
7,133
Views on SlideShare
6,987
Embed Views
146

Actions

Likes
3
Downloads
412
Comments
0

10 Embeds 146

https://myetudes.org 87
https://etudes-ng.fhda.edu 26
http://www.slideshare.net 18
http://www.blogger.com 5
http://descriptive-lingusictics-unach.blogspot.com 4
http://entornos-interactivos.blogspot.com 2
https://learn.ucs.ac.uk 1
http://translate.googleusercontent.com 1
http://www.videocrawler.com 1
https://fiu-test.blackboard.com 1
More...

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Linguistics Linguistics Presentation Transcript

    • Linguistics Descriptive Linguistics and Culture
    • Communication
      • Most animals have some form of communication
      • Definition: Ability of one organism to trigger another
      • Counterexample: Bouncer tosses out unruly patron
      • Counterexample: Sun’s rays wakens sleeper
      • Entails stimulus and response
    • Overview of Linguistics
      • Biological Roots of Language: Brain and Articulatory System
      • Descriptive Linguistics: Phones and Phonemes
      • Descriptive Linguistics: Morphology and Syntax
      • Language and Animal Communication
      • Language and Culture
    • The International Phonetic Alphabet
      • How many vowels are there in English?
      • Our written language is not entirely phonetic
      • The letter a could be pronounced as [æ] in bat
      • Or how about [e] as in bated breath?
      • Or try [a] as in bah or “say ah”
      • We have 12 vowels
      • That means in linguistics we need 12 symbols to transcribe them
    • The IPA: How It Works
      • First, there are phones , any speech sound
      • The IPA ideally assigns one symbol to a sound
      • So [a] is used for “ah,” [e] for “bated,” [æ] for “bat”
      • Square brackets are used to enclose phones
      • If the sounds carry a language, they are known as phonemes (more shortly)
      • These are enclosed in slashes (//), e.g. /a/
    • A Sample Set of Phones and Phonemes
      • We will use a sample of six consonants known as stops:
      • [p], [b], [t], [d], [k], and [g]
      • First, we have to look at some preliminaries:
      • The speech mechanism (brain, lungs, larynx, and oral cavity)
      • Then how speech is articulated
    • Biological Roots of Language: The Brain and Nervous System
      • Broca’s Area
      • Wernicke’s Area
      • Arcuate Fasciculus
      • Angular Gyrus
      • Hypoglossal Nerve
    • Vocal Tract
      • Lungs
      • Diaphragm
      • Larynx and Vocal Cords
      • Hyoid Bone
      • Oral Cavity
      • Nasal Cavity
    • Articulatory Phonetics
      • When we utter any sound, we articulate
      • We position our tongue or other speech part in certain ways
      • When we speak, we use
      • Points of articulation : Speech parts in upper half of mouth
      • Articulators: Speech parts in lower half of mouth
    • Oral Cavity
    • Points of Articulation
      • All are immovable except upper lip
      • Upper lip
      • Upper teeth
      • Alveolar ridge (gum ridge behind teeth)
      • Hard palate (roof of mouth)
      • Velum (soft palate)
      • Uvula (pendant lobe at border of velum)
    • Articulators
      • All articulators are movable
      • They include:
      • Lower lip
      • Lower teeth
      • Tongue
      • Apex (tip)
      • Front
      • Center
      • Back (dorsum )
    • Other Speech Parts
      • Larynx , or voice box which contains
      • Two Vocal Cords (upper left)
      • When vocal cords are drawn tight (lower right), they produce a voice
      • When relaxed (lower left), no voice is produced.
      • Other species and infant: larynx is high on throat
      • Nasal Cavity: Nasalized phones produced by lowering of velum
    • Position of Articulation
      • For consonants , position of articulator relative to point of articulation
      • For vowels, resonant sounds created by
      • position of tongue (high, mid, or low)
      • lip shape (rounded or unrounded
      • Consonants include:
      • Stops (momentary stop of air stream)
      • Fricatives or Spirants (constricted passage of air)
      • Others, such as laterals, nasals, et al.
    • Positions of Articulation: Stops
      • A stop is formed when
      • an articulator touches
      • a point of articulation
      • halting the air stream momentarily
      • A stop is named
      • By naming the articulator first
      • Then naming the point of articulation
      • Examples: labio-labial, apico-alveolar, and dorso-velar stops
    • Bilabial Stops
      • Upper lip is pressed against lower lip
      • Labio- describes the lower lip (articulator)
      • Labial describes the upper lip (point of articulation_
      • Called bilabial stop for short
      • Example: [p] as in [pın] or pin
    • Apico-Alveolar Stops
      • Tip (apex) of tongue presses against gum ridge (alveolar ridge) behind upper teeth
      • Apico describes apex of tongue (articulator)
      • Alveolar describes alveolar ridge (point of articulation)
      • Example: [t] as in tın] or tin
    • Dorso-Velar Stops
      • Back (dorsum) of tongue presses against soft palate (velum)
      • Dorso describes dorsal part of tongue (articulator)
      • Velar describes velum (point of articulation)
      • Example: [k] as in [kın] or kin
    • Contrasting Sounds
      • Across the board,
      • [p] contrasts with [t]
      • [t] contrasts with [k]
      • [p] contrasts with [k]
      • But there are two
      • bilabial stops: [p] and [b]
      • apico-alveolar stops: [t] and [d]
      • dorso-velar stops [k] and [g]
      • Why? What’s going on?
    • Voiced and Voiceless Stops
      • One set of stops is voiceless or unvoiced
      • Namely [p], [t], and [k]
      • The other set of stops is voiced
      • [b] the bilabial voiced stop
      • [d] the voiced apico-alveolar stop
      • [t] the voiced dorso-velar stop
      • A small experiment
    • How Vocal Cords Work
      • When vocal cords are relaxed (upper diagram), they produce no voice
      • When drawn tight with a small aperture or hole (lower diagram), they produce a voice
      • That is what causes the throat to vibrate
    • Summing up
      • Voicing involves tightening of vocal cords to produce a sound
      • When unvoiced phones are uttered, the vocal cords are relaxed
      • Voiced sounds contrast with unvoiced sounds
      • voiced [b] contrasts with unvoiced [p]
      • voiced [d] contrasts with unvoiced [t]
      • voiced [g] contrasts with unvoiced [k]
    • Structural Duality I: Phonemes
      • The sounds we described are also phonemes
      • Definition: The smallest significant unit of speech
      • Significance: the speaker can hear the difference.
      • We can hear the difference between [bın] and [pın], [dın] and [tın], and [gın] and [kın]
    • Minimal Pairs
      • [bın] and [pın]: what’s the difference?
      • [tın] and [dın]: same question
      • [gın] and [kın]: Again, what differs?
      • Short answer: the speech environment is identical
      • Only the stops differ
      • the [-ın] utterance is identical
    • Summary of Phonemic Stops in English
      • Notice that:
      • English doesn’t have all possible stops: labiodental, interdental, or palatal
      • We do have labio-dental fricatives {f], [v] and interdental ones [ θ ] and [ð]
      • The Russians have a palatal shop [t j ].
      • There are numerous others in the world’s languages
    • Allophones
      • Another example: key and ski
      • Another experiment: what’s the difference?
      • The differences
      • [k’] in key [k’i] is aspirated
      • [ k ־ ] in ski [sk ־ i] is unaspirated
      • In English, [k’] and [k ־ ] never form minimal pairs
      • Therefore, [k’] and [k ־ ] are allophones
    • Allophones of Phonemes
      • Definition: Variations of the same phoneme
      • Our example: [k’] and [k ־ ] are allophones of the phoneme /k/
      • Notation:
      • Slash marks (//) indicate phoneme
      • Square brackets ([]) indicates phone (and allophone)
    • Allophones in One Language: Phonemes in Another
      • Old Sanskrit (from which Hindi and Urdu are derived):
      • [k’il] and [k ־ il] form minimal pairs
      • [k’il]: “parched grain”
      • [k ־ il]: “small nail”l
      • [-il] is identical as for speech environment
      • Therefore, /k’/ and /k ־ / are phonemes in Old Sanskrit
      • Every language has its own phonemes
    • Phonemes as Structural Duality I
      • Note diagram on board
      • [b] contrasts with [d] which contrasts with [g]
      • [p] contrasts with [t] which contrasts with [k]
      • All the voiced stops contrast with unvoiced ones:
      • [b] with [p], [d] with [t] and [g] with [k]
      • So we have a structure
    • Structural Duality II: Morphemes and Syntax
      • Once the phonemes are identified:
      • They must be arranged for meaning
      • Morphemes and Syntax
      • Morphemes: The smallest meaningful unit of speech
      • Syntax: Rules and principles of phrase and sentence construction
      • Grammar: Entire formal structure of a language’s morphemes and syntax
    • Morphemes
      • Morphology: Study of morphemes and their construction into words
      • Types of morphemes
      • Free morphemes: Morphemes that can stand unattached in a language: cat
      • Bound morphemes: Morphemes that cannot stand unattached in a language: cat s
      • Inflectional bound morphemes : those that change number or tense, but not meaning: e.g., cat, cat s
      • Derivational bound morphemes: those that change the meaning : e.g., part, part y
    • Allomorphs
      • Allomorphs: Variants of a morpheme
      • Examples: plurals of dogs, cats, horses
      • Others: tooth/teeth; sheep/sheep
      • Morphophonemics : Study of allomorphs
    • Syntax: Parts of Speech
      • Describes rules and principles of phrase and sentence construction.
      • Parts of speech are similar to those in high school grammar
      • Noun: Word referring to a person, place, or thing
      • Pronoun: Word that replaces a noun or other pronoun
      • Verb: Action word
    • Syntax: More Parts of Speech
      • Adjective: Word that modifies nouns
      • Adverb: Word that modifies a verb, an adjective, and another adverbs
      • Preposition: Word that indicates a relation between an object in time, space, or logic to the rest of a sentence
      • Conjunction : Word connecting words or groups of words
      • Interjection: Word that expresses feelings, but usually not part of a sentence.
    • Syntax and Word Order
      • Word order (sentence, verb, object) vary by language:
      • Subject (S): The thing or person of what a sentence is about
      • Predicate (V): Phrase that says something about the subject; always include the verb
      • Verb (O): Action word that forms the main part of the predicate
      • Object: The person or thing affected by the verb
      • In English, the word order is typically S-V-O
      • In Spanish, the word order is sometimes V-S-O
      • Other languages have other word orders
    • So Why Aren’t Morphemes and Syntax Separate Structures?
      • An exercise: cats
      • Two cats (upper photo)
      • Cat’s meow (lower picture: spoken, how do you use the apostrophe?)
      • Rest of sentence defines morpheme
      • Another example
      • “ Cookie, lend me your combs”
      • “ Cookie combs his hair.”
    • Gesture Call Systems: Kinesics
      • Kinesics: System of analyzing postures, facial expressions, “body language”
      • Gender differences
      • Smiles and frowns
      • See that thumbs up?
      • In other countries, it would mean—well, you know!
      • (Need a hint? Think middle finger)
    • Gesture Call Systems: Paralanguage
      • Paralanguage: Extralinguistic noises accompanying language
      • Voice qualities: tone, slur (cartoon), other background noises
      • Vocalizations : Identifiable noises turned on and off at short intervals—”uh,” “um”
    • More Paralanguage
      • Vocal characteristics: Sound production such as laughing
      • Vocal qualifiers: Tone or pitch-”Get Out!”
      • Segregates: “Shh!” “Oh oh,” “hmmm!” (cartoon) among others
    • Linguistic Change
      • Language Family
      • Group of languages descended from a single ancestral language
      • Example: Indo-European is descended from Proto-Indo-European
      • Glottochronology
      • Technique of reconstructing past language
      • Core vocabulary: Comparing words common to all languages
    • Ethnolinguistics
      • Definition: Study of relationship between language and culture
      • Named after Edward Sapir (top) and Benjamin Lee Whorf (bottom), the
      • Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis states that language,
      • By providing habitual “grooves” of expression
      • Predisposes people to see world in certain ways
      • Thus guiding thinking and behavior
    • Ethnolinguistics: What Comes First? Language or Culture?
      • Example of Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
      • Hopi: Conception of time as processes, not discrete units
      • Nuer: 400 words for cattle
      • U.S. Militaristic vocabulary
      • Chicken and Egg Question
      • Does language condition culture
      • Or does culture condition language?
    • Ethnolinguistics: Some Areas of Research
      • Kinship terms:
      • Father or Mother may be extended to uncles and aunts.
      • Gender
      • Meaning of “I’m sorry”
      • Social dialects
      • Example: so-called Ebonics (Afro-American)
      • Regional differences: Beijing vs. Canton
    • Code Switching: Martin Luther King
      • Definition: Switching style of speech according to occasion and audience
      • Formal discourse in formal settings (Washington Monument, 1963, I Have a Dream speech)
      • Informal discourse in others (Ebenezer Baptist Church, 1967, anti-Vietnam War speech)
    • Language Origins
      • Comparison of communication attributes was first step
      • Chimpanzee communication: calls and gestures
      • Indirect evidence
      • Reconstructed anatomy: hyoid bone
      • Endocasts indicating size of cerebrum
      • Control language among others
      • Size indirect indication
    • Features of Language Shared with Other Species
      • Arbitrariness
      • Productivity
      • Interchangeability
      • Displacement
      • Specialization
      • Cultural Transmission
    • Arbitrariness
      • Definition: Absence of intrinsic relation between communication element (speech sound) and thing or event to which it refers (referent)
      • Iconic Relationship: Existence of such a relationship between element (e.g. gesture) and its referent
      • Importance: Utterance is not “married” to meaning, such as this gibbon’s warning call
    • Arbitrariness (Examples)
      • Example [k], [æ], and [t] are not meaningful in and of themselves
      • Meaning emerges when sounds are combined:
      • [kæt] “cat” has one meaning (feline, the one who caught a mouse)
      • [tæk] “tack” has another (small nail)
      • [ækt] “act” has a third (dog and pony show)
      • Even then, this string is language specific (English), not intrinsic
    • Arbitrariness (Across Languages)
      • Evidence of Arbitrariness: Diverse Languages
      • Cat has different pronunciations in different languages
      • Similarities are the product of historical contact
    • Productivity (Definition)
      • Definition:
      • Capacity for elements of communication system
      • To be combined to form new meanings
      • Which speaker and listener may never have learned before
      • Yet understands perfectly
      • Exercise: pronounce wug then two of them
    • Productivity (Examples)
      • From Jabberwocky by Lewis Carroll (see illustration}
      • ‘ Twas brillig and the sllthy toves
      • Did gyre and gimble in the wabe
      • Identify:
      • The nouns
      • The verbs
      • The adjectives
    • Productivity (Conclusion)
      • Language drills
      • English: I am, you are. . .
      • Spanish: Yo soy, tu eres. . .
      • Other species: Bee dance
      • Variations indicate location, direction, and amount of nectar source
      • Speed: proximity or distance of source
      • Angle of body: direction
      • Amount of pollen: amount at source
    • Interchangeability
      • Definition: Use of same communication system to send and receive messages
      • Illustrative Counterexample: Three-spined stickleback fish courtship (see diagram)
      • Female elicits male response by presenting distended belly
      • Male performs zigzag dance around female
      • She follow him to nest
      • Male point to nest on arrival
      • Female enters nest, male rubs abdomen,
      • She discharges eggs, and male fertilizes them with sperm
    • Displacement (Definition)
      • Ability to refer to things and events not present, nonvisible, intangible, or nonexistent
      • Not present: Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco
      • Not visible: Termites in sealed mound
      • Intangible: math equations, square roots
      • Nonexistent: dragons, unicorns
    • Displacement (Importance)
      • Ability to represent unseen parts of world
      • Part of toolmaking ability : to conceive a design (above)
      • Bee Dance
      • Scouting bee gives information on non-present blossoms
      • Direction of dance rel. to sun: indicates direction of source
      • Length of tail waggle: distance of source
      • Other bees act on this information
    • Cultural Transmission
      • Learning of an element of communication (speech sound, gestures)
      • Bees and stickleback acquire behavior genetically
      • Dogs learn by conditioning, do not pass learning on
      • Chimpanzees do learn by imitation and pass it on: e.g., termite fishing.
    • Specialization
      • Definition: Ability to transmit message with minimal physical effort
      • Language is most specialized communication system
      • Examples of unspecialized communication
      • Chimpanzee displays
      • Bee dance
      • Stickleback courtship
    • Conclusion
      • Language is basis of culture
      • Knowledge of linguistics is prerequisite
      • Descriptive Linguistics
      • Language and Society
      • Culture can condition language
      • Chicken-egg question remains
      • One more technique: content analysis of language