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Japan From Feudal to Corporate State
Defining Feudal States <ul><li>Japan and France:  feudal states  had similar features: </li></ul><ul><li>Contract involvin...
Japan: The Name <ul><li>Nippon  is the official name for Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Nihon  is the informal name </li></ul><ul...
Pre-Feudal Japan <ul><li>The country had settled communities long before agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Fish, animal, and p...
Nara: The First Centralized State <ul><li>Japan developed an administrative apparatus early in  </li></ul><ul><li>Nara was...
Shoguns and Samurai <ul><li>Shoguns  were the heads of state, but subject to shifting fortunes </li></ul><ul><li>Feudal lo...
Formation of Japan: First Middle Ages I <ul><li>Period: 1334-1568 CE (Common Era) </li></ul><ul><li>Replacement of foragin...
Formation of Japan: First Middle Ages II <ul><li>Household clustered into settlement around the lord’s manor </li></ul><ul...
Consolidation of Japan: Second Middle Ages I <ul><li>Period: 1568-1868, including the Tokugawa period </li></ul><ul><li>Mo...
Consolidation of Japan: Second Middle Ages II <ul><li>Technology advances: </li></ul><ul><li>Iron tools introduced and exi...
Development of Complex Social Institutions <ul><li>Markets become important as single crops are grown for sale </li></ul><...
Emergence of Unitary Society <ul><li>Land become scarce, requiring contracts of loyalty </li></ul><ul><li>They were person...
Institutional Basis of Japanese Modernity <ul><li>Legal contracts converted land into a commodity that could be bought, so...
Tokugawa Era <ul><li>Having had problems with Portuguese traders and missionaries, Japan kept foreign influence to a minim...
Meiji Restoration  <ul><li>After a civil war in 1868, the Meiji regime established its control throughout the country </li...
Meiji Restoration: Workforce Development <ul><li>The high population created a landless workforce available to work in the...
Meiji Restoration: Industrialization <ul><li>Japanese emissaries were sent across Europe and the United States </li></ul><...
Meiji Restoration: Militarism <ul><li>Japan underwent military reforms beginning with the Meiji regime </li></ul><ul><li>T...
Consequences of Modernization: Foreign Wars <ul><li>The Russo-Japanese (top) and First Sino-Japanese Wars resulted in Japa...
Post-World War II Japan <ul><li>Under the guidance of Gen. Douglas MacArthur, many of the institutions of postwar Japan we...
Modern Japan <ul><li>One of the strongest industrialized countries of the world (reflected in the new Sony building in Tok...
Conclusion <ul><li>Japan is dominated by an administrative state with a corporate economy </li></ul><ul><li>The pattern is...
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Japan: From Feudalism to Corporate State

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Describes the phases of Japan\'s development as an administrative and corporate state from feudalism to the Meiji Restoration and a survey to modern times.

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  • 18th slide: Samurai was best educated? Are you sure that many of them was educated at all? At the beginning of industrialization main workforce was - impoverished farmers and samurai, if I'm not mistaken. Can you provide me with links to your sources?
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Transcript of "Japan: From Feudalism to Corporate State"

  1. 1. Japan From Feudal to Corporate State
  2. 2. Defining Feudal States <ul><li>Japan and France: feudal states had similar features: </li></ul><ul><li>Contract involving protection for services (provision of agricultural products) </li></ul><ul><li>Bonds of personal loyalty (fealty in France, bushido in Japan) </li></ul><ul><li>Lord: landowner with military backing </li></ul><ul><li>Vassal: the peasant who provided services </li></ul><ul><li>Centralized control within regions surrounded by larger regions not under any control </li></ul><ul><li>Replacement of horticulture or foraging with intensive cultivation (rice in Japan) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Japan: The Name <ul><li>Nippon is the official name for Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Nihon is the informal name </li></ul><ul><li>Both terms means “land of the rising sun” (see flag, upper left) </li></ul><ul><li>This is given that Japan is east of China. (see map, lower left) </li></ul><ul><li>The term Japan probably comes from Malay, which Portuguese traders probably adopted </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually, the name Japan became widely adopted in Europe and the Americas </li></ul>
  4. 4. Pre-Feudal Japan <ul><li>The country had settled communities long before agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Fish, animal, and plant resources were abundant enough to support these communities </li></ul><ul><li>The Jomon period (10,500-300 BCE) was marked by decorative pottery (upper left) </li></ul><ul><li>Communities were build around a ritual or public center in a horseshoe pattern </li></ul><ul><li>This structure was found in a village dated 5,000-4,000 BP (before the present; lower left) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Nara: The First Centralized State <ul><li>Japan developed an administrative apparatus early in </li></ul><ul><li>Nara was the site of the first centralized state </li></ul><ul><li>It was strong, but not enough to contain the warring feudal warriors known as samurai </li></ul><ul><li>The administrative state was adopted from China’s hierarchical system of offices (the mandarins) </li></ul><ul><li>Written literature also developed at 720 CE </li></ul>
  6. 6. Shoguns and Samurai <ul><li>Shoguns were the heads of state, but subject to shifting fortunes </li></ul><ul><li>Feudal lords ( daimyo ) competed for power over regions and one shogun could be replaced </li></ul><ul><li>A shogun might dominate the entire nation of Japan, only to be overthrown at any time </li></ul><ul><li>Samurai were elite warriors who supported one or another feudal lord </li></ul><ul><li>By the time Commodore Matthew Perry forced open the nation of Japan, Tokugawa was the shogun for the entire polity </li></ul>
  7. 7. Formation of Japan: First Middle Ages I <ul><li>Period: 1334-1568 CE (Common Era) </li></ul><ul><li>Replacement of foraging with dry rice cultivation, then irrigated (wet) rice cultivation </li></ul><ul><li>Populations increased dramatically </li></ul><ul><li>Intensification of land use extended to previously unusable land </li></ul><ul><li>Military aristocracy gradually integrated extended family households into their realms </li></ul><ul><li>Lord resisted integration into larger state </li></ul>
  8. 8. Formation of Japan: First Middle Ages II <ul><li>Household clustered into settlement around the lord’s manor </li></ul><ul><li>These communities had their own water supply, land, and agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Nonfarm craftsmen emerged, and incipient trade came into being </li></ul><ul><li>Towns and cities had not yet arisen </li></ul><ul><li>Size of land holdings and populations increases became long-term trends </li></ul>
  9. 9. Consolidation of Japan: Second Middle Ages I <ul><li>Period: 1568-1868, including the Tokugawa period </li></ul><ul><li>More powerful rulers emerge, dominating regions over local lords </li></ul><ul><li>Base of advantage: wealth and military might </li></ul><ul><li>Waterways connected villages and supplied water to the fields </li></ul><ul><li>Markets emerged, forcing interdependence—you cannot produce everything yourself </li></ul><ul><li>Populations increased and land sizes decreased </li></ul>
  10. 10. Consolidation of Japan: Second Middle Ages II <ul><li>Technology advances: </li></ul><ul><li>Iron tools introduced and existing tools are improved </li></ul><ul><li>New rice varieties increase productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilizer is introduced and increase production costs: fish cakes, fish oil, human manure </li></ul><ul><li>Involution: as field size declines, agriculture labor per field increases </li></ul><ul><li>Draft animals increase agricultural production </li></ul><ul><li>Marginal areas are cultivated, resulting in reduction of firewood and fodder </li></ul>
  11. 11. Development of Complex Social Institutions <ul><li>Markets become important as single crops are grown for sale </li></ul><ul><li>This displaces multiple crops for subsistence </li></ul><ul><li>Manufactured products create dependence in rural areas </li></ul><ul><li>To ensure safety, police forces are formed, laws enacted, and regional daimyos (great lords) enforce laws and security </li></ul><ul><li>Gradually, fewer and fewer daimyos dominate ever greater regions. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Emergence of Unitary Society <ul><li>Land become scarce, requiring contracts of loyalty </li></ul><ul><li>They were personalistic in name only; law form the basis of contracts </li></ul><ul><li>Landless peasants increase in size and peasant revolts became commonplace </li></ul><ul><li>Samurai warriors joined the landless peasants—with honor but without land, capital, or money </li></ul><ul><li>The emperor became the supreme authority </li></ul>
  13. 13. Institutional Basis of Japanese Modernity <ul><li>Legal contracts converted land into a commodity that could be bought, sold, and deeded </li></ul><ul><li>Wealth passed from daimyo to industrialists, merchants, and bureaucrats </li></ul><ul><li>Power passed to a unitary monarch </li></ul><ul><li>An administrative apparatus emerged </li></ul><ul><li>The apparatus of a modern nation state developed even before Perry entered the scene </li></ul>
  14. 14. Tokugawa Era <ul><li>Having had problems with Portuguese traders and missionaries, Japan kept foreign influence to a minimum </li></ul><ul><li>Despite efforts to follow this policy, Tokugawa Japan could not resist the rising foreign commerce in Asia </li></ul><ul><li>The commercialization of its own economy weakened the will of Japan to resist foreign traders </li></ul><ul><li>In 1854, U.S. Commodore Matthew Perry presented an ultimatum: trade or be invaded </li></ul><ul><li>Japan signed a treaty in 1854 promoting trade between the United States and Japan </li></ul>
  15. 15. Meiji Restoration <ul><li>After a civil war in 1868, the Meiji regime established its control throughout the country </li></ul><ul><li>The daimyo and samurai were stripped of all power and assets </li></ul><ul><li>The 300 prefectures (reduced to 75) passed into the control of the emperor </li></ul><ul><li>A policy of industrialization and militarization began </li></ul>
  16. 16. Meiji Restoration: Workforce Development <ul><li>The high population created a landless workforce available to work in the factories. </li></ul><ul><li>Peasant girls were often recruited under a special program that ensured their “purity” while working on the assembly line </li></ul><ul><li>Rationale: females tended to be more docile workers and less likely to join in labor movements than their male counterparts </li></ul>
  17. 17. Meiji Restoration: Industrialization <ul><li>Japanese emissaries were sent across Europe and the United States </li></ul><ul><li>Countries were selected that provided the best models of industry (upper left: train in Manchuria) </li></ul><ul><li>The U.S. mail system was emulated in Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Britain’s navy was the model for Japan’s navy </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy industry from Germany was another model </li></ul><ul><li>The corporate zaibatsu provided the motive force for the country’s development </li></ul><ul><li>The main four zaibatsu: Mitsui, Mitsubishi, Sumitomo, and Yasuda </li></ul><ul><li>Lower left: Iwasaki Yataro, founder of Mitsubishi </li></ul>
  18. 18. Meiji Restoration: Militarism <ul><li>Japan underwent military reforms beginning with the Meiji regime </li></ul><ul><li>The Imperial Japanese Army was form, incorporated the latest military strategies of Western armed forces </li></ul><ul><li>Conscription (the draft) was imposed in 1873; all males were to be drafted upon reaching 21 </li></ul><ul><li>Though the Samurai were dismantled, they live on for propaganda purposes into the 20 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Being the best educated, the Samurai found employment in the bureaucracy and posts in the Imperial army. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Consequences of Modernization: Foreign Wars <ul><li>The Russo-Japanese (top) and First Sino-Japanese Wars resulted in Japan’s annexation of Korea and the Sakhalin peninsula of Russia </li></ul><ul><li>The Second Sino-Japanese War expanded Japanese control of Manchuria in 1931 and northeastern China in 1937 </li></ul><ul><li>The cutoff by the United States of oil to Japan led to the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 </li></ul><ul><li>A well-trained military extended the War of the Pacific (Japan’s term for World War II) into a vour year period </li></ul><ul><li>The atomic attacks at Hiroshima and Nagasaki (bottom) were arguably decisive factors in ending the war </li></ul>
  20. 20. Post-World War II Japan <ul><li>Under the guidance of Gen. Douglas MacArthur, many of the institutions of postwar Japan were founded (upper left) </li></ul><ul><li>Infusions of aid provided the initial impetus to rebuild (lower left) </li></ul><ul><li>Restoration of the Japanese Diet (legislature) </li></ul><ul><li>Universal voting rights by secret ballot </li></ul><ul><li>Foundations for industrial revival </li></ul><ul><li>Labor rights </li></ul><ul><li>Relative freedom of the press </li></ul>
  21. 21. Modern Japan <ul><li>One of the strongest industrialized countries of the world (reflected in the new Sony building in Tokyo, upper left) </li></ul><ul><li>Diverse industries from automobiles to computers (lower right) </li></ul><ul><li>A corporate society descended from the original zaibatsu </li></ul><ul><li>A model of Japanese management that guaranteed employment for life—which has since gone by the board </li></ul><ul><li>Vulnerability to the fluctuations of a global economy </li></ul>
  22. 22. Conclusion <ul><li>Japan is dominated by an administrative state with a corporate economy </li></ul><ul><li>The pattern is deeply rooted in history </li></ul><ul><li>The Jomon period began with settled, well-designed communities even without agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>It went through a period of warlord-dominated feudalism </li></ul><ul><li>Nevertheless, with the Tokugawa period and reinforced by the Meiji restoration, Japan developed a highly centralized administrative state </li></ul><ul><li>The corporate structure reflects this pattern. </li></ul>
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