HUman Biological and Cultural Evolutioj
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HUman Biological and Cultural Evolutioj

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Covers comparative human-nonhunan anatomy, describes the mechanisms of evolution, provides a taxonomy, and traces the evolution of fossil hominins and their tools, and

Covers comparative human-nonhunan anatomy, describes the mechanisms of evolution, provides a taxonomy, and traces the evolution of fossil hominins and their tools, and

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HUman Biological and Cultural Evolutioj Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Human Biological and Cultural Evolution Cultural Anthropology
  • 2. Culture in Evolutionary Perspective
    • To understand culture, we need to:
    • (1) Know our biological capacity for culture
    • (2) How we fit into the animal kingdom
    • (3) How we came to be what we are: Homo sapiens
    • We are the only human species in the world.
    • Neanderthals, our closest “relatives” disappeared 30,000 years ago.
  • 3. Our Capacity For Culture: Our Biological Roots
    • (1) Our thinking ability
    • (2) Our language ability
    • (3) Our ability to make and use tools
    • (4) Our bipedalism—ability to stand and walk on two feet
    • If the “science of humankind” is to be taken seriously
    • We need to know our own anatomy
  • 4. Topics of This Section
    • We start with the taxonomy, and where we fit in the animal kingdom.
    • We then look at human anatomy and compare it with the chimps.
    • Primary focus: capacity for thinking, for language, for tool making and use, and for bipedalism, which enables us to do many other things.
    • We then look at hominin/hominid fossils and the tools they made—or didn’t make.
    • We then look at the behavior of our closest relative—the chimps, bonobos, and gorillas.
    • All of these have a bearing on our capacity for culture.
  • 5. First Things First: Taxonomy
    • Definition: Hierarchical, systematic classification of all lifeforms
    • from the general (kingdom. Phylum, class, order)
    • to the specific (genus, species, variety)
    • Taxon (pl. taxa): categories at all levels from broad to specific
  • 6. Taxonomy: Binomial Nomenclature
    • Every species has at least two names
    • Genus: Homo
    • Species: sapiens
    • Variety: sapiens? (If we accept the splitters’ terms)
    • Stylistic Convention
    • Italicize or underline all names
    • Capitalize the genus
    • Lowercase the species and variety
    • Example: Homo (sapiens) sapiens
  • 7. Taxonomy: The General Taxa
    • Kingdom: Animalia (ingests food, moves)
    • Phylum: Chordata (has spinal cord)
    • Subphylum: Vertebrata (has segmented protective bone or cartilage
    • Class: Mammalia (warm blooded, female secretes milk, has hair)
    • (Pop quiz: what is our constant temperature fixed at?)
  • 8. Taxonomy: Order Primata
    • Order: Primata
    • larger brain relative to body size.
    • Stereoscopic vision : eyes angled toward the same direction, enabling depth perception
    • Flexible digits: Hands only in humans; hand and feet with other primates.
    • Complex sociability : We live in groups but have complex interactions, from grooming to dominance hierarchies to infant rearing.
    • Suborder: Anthropoidea (monkey, apes, humans)
  • 9. Taxonomy: Suborder Anthropoidea
    • Suborder Prosimii: These are the lemurs, tarsiers, and other so-called prosimians.
    • The don’t look much like human, but have all the features of primates.
    • Suborder Anthropoidea (“Manlike”)
    • These are the monkeys (New World, Old World) and apes
    • They look like men: almost upright, hands like ours, even the feet look similar.
  • 10. Taxonomy: Superfamily Hominoidea
    • Superfamily Cercopithecoidea : Old World Monkey
    • Most have tails, smaller brained, smaller in size.
    • Superfamily Hominoidea : All apes and humans.
    • They look even more humanlike than the monkeys
    • Larger brains
    • No tails
    • Larger body size
    • Social behavior more humanlike
  • 11. Taxonomy: Hominids (Old Taxonomy)
    • Now the confusion begins
    • Old taxonomy: three hominoid families
    • Hylobatidae or Hylobates: the lesser apes—gibbons and siamangs
    • Pongidae, or pongids: Orangutans (SE Asia), gorillas, chimpanzees, and bonobos (all African apes)
    • Hominidae: All bipedal animals: Australopithecus and Homo
  • 12. Taxonomy: Hominids (New Taxonomy)
    • This is the new taxonomy:
    • Hominids apply to all humans and African apes
    • Hominins apply to Homo sapiens and
    • All extinct ancestors: Australopithecus , Homo habilis , H. erectus , H. heidelbergensis , and H. neanderthalensis
  • 13. On Hominid Taxonomy, DNA, and Monkey Wrenches
    • Why can’t they leave well enough alone?
    • Answer: DNA comparisons
    • Humans and chimps DNA genomes vary only by about 99.5%; gorillas, by about 99% or so.
    • Human and Orangutan genomes vary by about 95%, justifying another taxon, pongidae; the hylobates are even more distant.
    • The new taxonomy is justified by genetic variations
    • Differences exist among physical anthropologists as to which taxonomy is better; some textbooks still use the old system.
    • We’ll stick to the old system for now; but you should know that this issue exists.
  • 14. Human Comparative Anatomy
    • Why anatomy? We need to know what biological features give us the capacity for culture.
    • The brain is the seat of thinking ability, language, and even tool use.
    • Our vocal tract enables speech, as we will see in the unit on language.
    • Our hands are key to our ability to make and use tools.
    • Our ability to stand and walk on two feet frees our hands to do these and much else.
  • 15. Overview: The Human Skeleton
    • You do need to know some of the parts of
    • The human skeleton
    • Use the online graphics (such as this)
    • Or your printed handouts
  • 16. Where It All Begins: The Brain
    • Frontal Lobe and Motor Cortex :
    • Cognition
    • Motor Abilities
    • Parietal Lobe: Touch and Taste
    • Temporal Lobe: Hearing
    • Occipital Lobe: Vision
    • Olfactory Bulb : Smell
  • 17. Parts of the Brain: Motor Cortex, Cross Section
    • Related to Language : Lower Part:
    • Lips
    • Tongue
    • Vocalization
    • Related to Tool Making and Use: Upper part:
    • Fingers and Thumb
    • Hand
    • Arm
  • 18. Parts of the Brain: Language Centers
    • Parts of Cerebrum
    • Frontal Lobe (Thinking)
    • Motor Cortex
    • Broca’s Area (Speech production))
    • Temporal Lobe (Hearing)
    • Auditory Cortex (Hearing)
    • Wernicke’s Area (Speech reception)
    • Arcuate Fasciculus (Coordinator of Broca’s with Wernicke’s areas
    • Parietal Lobe (Taste and touch)
    • Occipital Lobe (Sight)
    • Angular Gyrus (Intersensory Connector)
  • 19. Comic Relief, Anyone? (Courtesy of Geico)
    • So easy a caveman can do it. . . .?
  • 20. Human Skull
    • Note the following:
    • High forehead
    • Rounded skull
    • No brow ridge
    • Chin is present
    • Teeth are small
    • The bones are named after the lobes of the brain they cover
  • 21. Skull Morphology: Chimp and Human
    • Note the following
    • Larger brow ridge ( supraorbital torus ) of chimp than human’s
    • Sloping forehead of chimp compared to human
    • More prognathous jaw of chimp compared to human
    • Larger canine and gap ( diastema ) of chimp than human
  • 22. Human and Chimp Skulls Compared: Brain Structure
    • Compare the following
    • Chimp’s brain is much smaller (400cc vs 1400cc)
    • It has reduced frontal lobe
    • It has no Broca’s or Wernicke’s area
    • It does have Brodmann’s area 10, where calls may originate—but no speech
    • It does have planum temporale, where calls are received—but not processed as language
  • 23. What This All Means
    • Our brains are larger than the chimps’
    • We have a well-developed frontal lobe
    • We have well developed language areas: Broca’s and Wernicke’s area
    • The motor strip is more well developed among humans than among chimps
  • 24. Dentition
    • For each jaw (upper or maxilla or lower or mandible:
    • Incisors (4) for cutting
    • Canines (cuspid) (2) for piercing
    • Premolars (4) for light grinding
    • Molars (6) for grinding
  • 25. Chimp and Human Jaws
    • Note the following:
    • Dental Arcade: Humans’ are arclike; apes, parallel back teeth, which are larger than human molars
    • Canines and Diastema (gap): Apes have larger canines and gaps in opposite jaw to fit them; humans do not
    • Ape incisors are more horizontal than vertical.
  • 26. Anatomy of Tool Making and Use: The Hand
    • Note The Following:
    • Our digits are straight
    • Our thumb is opposable
    • The thumb is long
    • The wrist bones are known as carpals.
    • The bones of the hand are called metacarpals.
    • The fingers are known as phalanges.
  • 27. Ape and Human Hands
    • Hands of orangutan, chimpanzee, gorilla and human
    • Note the following:
    • Our thumbs are longer than the others’
    • We can make a finer grip than the others can
    • Less visible: apes’ digits are curved, ours are straight
  • 28. Power and Precision Grip
    • Note the Following:
    • Power grip: Fingers and thumbs wrap around the object
    • Precision grip: Forefingers and thumb hold the object
    • Importance: We can do finer work compared to nonhuman primates
  • 29. Bipedalism
    • We are the only mammals that can stand and walk on two feet
    • Kangaroos hop and maintain balance with their tails
    • Apes are semibipedal, but use their knuckles to get around
    • Notice the human is on his knees, not just his feet
  • 30. Chimp and Human Locomotion
  • 31. Advantages of Bipedalism
    • Efficient locomotion
    • Freeing of hands
    • Foraging and hunting/scavaging
    • Tool making and use
    • Care and provisioning of offspring
    • Tracking migrating herds
    • Predator avoidance
  • 32. Vertebral Column and Pelvis
    • Note the following
    • Human vertebral column is S-Shaped
    • Chimp verebral column is bow-shaped
    • Human pelvis, with ilium, is bowl-shaped
    • Chimp pelvis is long, with flat ilium
  • 33. Pelvis and Femur
    • Note the following:
    • Longer ilium of chimp
    • Shorter, more curved ilium of human
    • Straight vertical orientation of chimp femur
    • Inward angle of human femur
  • 34. Foot Structure
    • Note the following:
    • Large toe of chimp foot (right) is opposable to other digits
    • Large toe of human foot (left) is aligned with other digits
    • Ankle bones (tarsals) of human food are larger and more rigid than the chimps’
  • 35. Foot Arch: Longitudinal and Transverse
    • Note the following:
    • Longitudinal arch reflected from
    • First metatarsal to
    • Calcaneus (heel bone)
    • Transverse arch can be inferred from
    • Lower placement of outside foot.
  • 36. The Evolution of Humankind
    • The fossil records tells us one thing: human populations today are very different from those one million years ago.
    • Human biological evolution is well established for that reason.
    • This section provides a cultural and intellectual history of creationism and evolutionism
    • It describes the mechanisms of evolution
    • It concludes with a record of both biological and cultural evolution to the present.
  • 37. The Model of Evolution
    • The model of evolution: genetic change interacting with environmental pressures
    • Mutation: Genetic change that is random
    • Natural Selection: environmental pressures that favor some lifeforms over others
    • Gene Flow: Change in the population by migration of life form from another population
    • Genetic Drift: Change induced in small population by differential reproduction of the new lifeform.
  • 38. Early Models: The Great Chain of Being
    • A hierarchy of entities from the simplest to most complex anticipated the later rise of taxonomy; Karl von Linn é (discussed below) drew on this model.
    • In this view, the human race was the most complex and perfect of all living forms
    • Humans, however, were below the divine beings (including demons in the model depicted here.
  • 39. Catastrophism
    • Earth’s history is product of sudden change
    • Example: Creation of Earth in six days (upper left), including Adam
    • Example: Flood (Noah’s Ark), which eliminated all life except Noah’s family and the male and female animals he allowed into the ark
    • Catastrophism does have some basis of reality: an asteroid that struck the earth 65 million years ago (lower left) nearly destroyed all life
  • 40. Catastrophists: Ussher and Linnaeus
    • James Ussher (1581-1656): Argued that humankind created noon, Oct. 23, 4004 BCE (Upper left)
    • He based his calculations on biblical history and astronomy
    • Carolus Linnaeus (Carl Linn é; 1707-1778)
    • Inventor of taxonomy —classification of lifeforms based on similarities and differences (Sample taxonomy next slide)
    • Viewed system as divinely ordained
  • 41. The Garden of Eden: Overview
    • Location: Southern Iraq where the Tigris and Euphrates meet (left)
    • The Garden of Eden, Home of the First Couple—and of Original Sin
  • 42. The Garden of Eden: The Myth
    • The beginning: Adam and Eve live in the Garden of Eden
    • God: “Of every tree, thou mayest eat freely
    • But of the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil, thou mayest not eat
    • For in the day thou eatest of it, thou shalt surely die”
  • 43. Garden of Eden: The Temptation
    • Tempted by the Serpent, Eve does so (left)
    • She is the one who starts the Fall
    • Tempted by Eve, Adam also eats the fruit
    • God confronts the pair for having done so (lower left)
    • Despite their supplications, He carries out His punishment
  • 44. Garden of Eden: The Expulsion
    • The couple is expelled from the Garden of Eden
    • Consequences:
    • Woman must bear the pain of childbirth
    • And be subject to man’s dominion
    • Man toils by the sweat of his brow
    • The serpent is forever reviled
  • 45. Of Course, Others Besides Adam Talk to God . . .
    • But was bombing the Garden of Eden back to the Stone Age
    • Something God had in mind?
    • (Censored by the FCC)
  • 46. Uniformitarianism
    • Definition: All geological processes occurred in the past as they do today
    • Implications: It takes millions, perhaps billions of years for the geological processes to take place
    • The earth could not be only 6,000 years ago as Ussher would have claimed
  • 47. Uniformitarianism According to Charles Lyell
    • Charles Lyell (1797-1875)
    • Espoused extreme form of uniformitarianism by denying catastrophism ( Principles of Geology )
    • Three aspects hold up today
    • Geological processes of past are the same as today
    • Stratigraphy serves to reconstruct history of the earth
    • Immense amount of time necessary for geological processes to effect change in the landscape
    • Age of earth: The current estimate is 4.5 billion years
  • 48. Evolutionary Theories: Natural Selection
    • Natural selection defined:
    • Evolutionary change by
    • Differential reproductive success of individuals
    • within a species (group of organism able to reproduce fertile offspring)
    • Through successful adaptation to an environment
  • 49. Charles Darwin (1809-1882) Origin of Species
    • Charles Darwin (above) observed that pigeons, dogs, and horses were subjected to artificial selection in order to improve their breeding
    • On Galapagos Islands in 1832, Darwin observed that 13 species of finches adapted in different niches descended from a common ancestor (next slide)
    • He conceived the idea of natural selection and after years of dithering finally published his conclusions in The Origin of Species in 1859
  • 50. Charles Darwin and Natural Selection
  • 51. Natural Selection: Definition and Implications
    • Variations are already present when selection occurs
    • Natural selection has no particular direction—change is random
    • Therefore, not all evolution is from the simple to the complex
    • Species can and do become extinct
    • New species can and do arise (Darwin had no way of explaining how the originated, however.)
    • New species fill new niches
    • Dark-winged moths filled a new environment in a soot-darkened coal-fired steel city; birds couldn’t see them
  • 52. Genetics and Mutation
    • Natural selection is one principle of evolution.
    • Species proliferate
    • Some are removed by natural selection.
    • But how do new species emerge in the first place?
    • An Austrian Monk, Gregor Mendel, provided a partial answer
  • 53. Principles of Evolution: Genetics I
    • Gregor Mendel: Genetic theory, based on experiments with peas
    • Genes: Hereditary information determining physical characteristics
    • Genotype: the genetic makeup of a particular characteristic (color of flowers in pea plant)
    • Phenotype: the physical characteristics created by the genetic makeup
    • Genes are always paired: male contributes half, female contributes half
    • Alleles: Variations of a genetic characteristic
  • 54. Principles of Evolution: Genetics II
    • When different alleles combine:
    • Allele of one manifests in physical characteristic (Dominant)
    • The other does not (Recessive)
    • Or both may manifest as hybrid (Codominant)
    • Traits change when mutation occurs in the genes change in the sex cells of one or both individuals.
    • This process of mutation requires information beyond the scope of this course.
  • 55. Reconstructing Fossil Hominins and their Tools
    • If taxonomies keep changing, it’s because we rely on fragments and infer from them
    • Human remains: mostly teeth, bones, and stones—because they are preserved the best
    • Here is Lucy—that’s one of the most complete remains we have that is dated 3.7 million years
    • Here are two stone choppers—we think (lower left)
  • 56. Trends in Human Evolution: Australopithecus to Homo
    • Australopithecus afarensis to A. africanus : Gracile Australopithecines
    • Paranthropus robustus and P. boisei: Robust Australopithecines—Dead end?
    • A. africanus to Homo habilis : Rise of tool manufacture?
    • H. habilis to H. erectus: Migration throughout Old World; more kinds of tools
    • H. erectus to H. heidelbergensis to H. sapiens: Tool specialization and population explosion to New World
    • H. neanderthalensis: Dead end?
  • 57. Fossil Hominins: Skull, Arms, Hands
    • Large bulbous cranium
    • Short face compared to ape
    • Vertical carriage of head
    • Shortened forelimb
    • Hands (manipulation, not locomotion)
    • Enlarged thumb
    • Straight fingers, not curved
    • Enhanced finger sensitivity
  • 58. Fossil Hominins: Bipedalism
    • S-shaped vertebrae (backbone)
    • Short, wide, bowl-shaped pelvis
    • Femoral head (ball of femur at pelvis) angled and strengthened
    • Lengthened hindlimb
    • Angle of knee: femur “slopes” to pelvis
    • Platform (arched) structure of foot
    • Nonopposable big toe; toes not curved
  • 59. Encephalization (a.k.a. Bigger Brains)
    • Defining Cranial Capacity (and cc’s)
    • A. afarensis: 390-500 cc; av. 440 cc
    • A. africanus: 435-530 cc; av. 450 cc
    • A./P robustus: 520 cc, one specimen
    • A.P. boisei: 500-530 cc; av. 515 cc.
    • H. habilis: 500-800 cc; av. 680 cc.
    • H. erectus: 750-1250 cc; av. 1000 cc
    • H. neanderthalensis: 1300-1750 cc; av. 1450
    • H. (s.) sapiens: 900-2350 cc. av. 1400
  • 60. Lucy ( Australopithecus afarensis ) and Us ( Homo sapiens)
    • Note the Following:
    • Shorter (3’6”)
    • Longer arms
    • Curved fingers
    • Shorter lower legs
    • Greater prognathism
    • Sloped forehead
    • Smaller cranial capacity
    • What are the Similarities?
    • Hint: it’s all related to bipedalism
  • 61. When We Became Bipedal (According to Gary Larson)
    • “ Hey! Look! No hands!”
    • (Does he look like Lucy to you. . .?)
  • 62. Gracile and Robust Australopithecines
    • For A. africanus (top), note:
    • Somewhat rounder skull
    • No Sagittal crest
    • Prognathous jaw
    • For Paranthropus boisei, note:
    • Sagittal crest (ate a lot of veggies)
    • Massive lower jaw (mandible)
    • Flatter face
    • Massive cheek bones (zygomatic arch)
  • 63. Homo habilis: The First Known Toolmaker
    • Note the following:
    • Face is much flatter
    • Reduced brow ridge (supraorbital torus)
    • Larger cranial capacity (680 cc.)
    • Toolmaking Technique
    • Hammerstone used to strike
    • A core (lump of stone) to knap
    • A Flake (stone chip)
    • Note: Stone has to be crystalline (so it will fracture predictably)
  • 64. Homo erectus: Cranial Structure
    • Note the Following:
    • Cranial capacity: 1,000 cc
    • Occipital bun
    • Reduced brow ridge
    • Reduced sloping forehead
    • Reduced prognathism
    • No chin; jaw is reinforced by a simian shelf
    • Artist’s conception of H. erectus
  • 65. Homo Erectus (H. ergaster to Some): Postcranial Skeleton
    • Note the following:
    • Fully bipedal
    • Arms about length of Homo sapiens
    • Cranial capacity: 1000 cc (average)
    • Main apelike features:
    • Prognathous lower face
    • Sloping forehead
  • 66. Lower Paleolithic
    • Oldowan Tradition:
    • Four or five strokes
    • Unspecialized: choppers
    • Flakes also made and used
    • Acheulean Tradition:
    • 50-75 strokes
    • Symmetrical design
    • Multiple uses: cutting, piercing, chopping
  • 67. Homo heidelbergensis (a.k.a. “Archaic” Homo sapiens
    • Note the following:
    • Brow ridges much reduced
    • Forehead is higher, though sloping
    • Reduced prognathism
    • Cranial capacity 1200 cc.
    • Artist’s conception shows closer similarities to ourselves
  • 68. Manufacturing Levallois Cores and Flakes
    • Knappers:
    • Selects the appropriate core, up to a pound of stone
    • Strikes the edge of the core
    • Knaps the surface of the intended flake
    • Knocks off the flake
    • Retouches the flake to desired shape
    • May knap four to five flakes
  • 69. Homo neanderthalensis and H. sapiens skull
    • Note the following for “Classic” Neanderthal
    • Greater prognathism; humans lower jaw is straight
    • Absence of chin that humans have.
    • Presence of brow ridge; human has none, has higher forehead
    • Presence of occipital bun
    • Larger cranial capacity: 1450 cc vs. 1400 cc in humans
    • Also note: Artist’s conception of Neanderthal child
  • 70. Homo neanderthalensis and H. sapiens : Postcranial Skeletons
    • Note the following for Neanderthals:
    • Heavier brow ridge and sloping forehead
    • Bones generally more robust
    • Larger rib cage
    • Broader pelvis
    • Shorter forearm
    • Shorter tibia
    • Larger ankle joint
  • 71. Neanderthal Tools: Mousterian and Châtelperronian Traditions
    • Mousterian (top)
    • Bordes: 63 types
    • Burins (engravers)
    • Scrapers and knives
    • Even a type of handaxe
    • Part of the Mesolithic
    • Châtelperronian (bottom)
    • First blades—by Neanderthals
    • Definition: flakes twice as wide as they are long
    • Initiated the Upper Paleolithic
  • 72. Upper Paleolithic: Modern Human Tool Traditions .
    • Commonalities of Tools:
    • Blades: Ever thinner and smaller
    • Increased tool specialization
    • Other material: bone, ivory, antler
    • Other Developments
    • Artwork (such as this mural at Altamira, Spain)
    • Ornamentation (Venus statuettes)
  • 73. Review and Conclusion
    • We have. . .
    • Looked at the biological bases of culture: for language, toolmaking, and bipedalism
    • Compared our anatomy with chimps, our closest relatives
    • Discussed evolutionary change based on natural selection and mutation
    • Looked at our ancestors and the tools they made
  • 74. The Territory Ahead
    • Nonhuman Primate Behavior: How close in behavior are our cousins?
    • Language: The medium of culture
    • Making a Living: Industrial societies are not the only cultures in the world
    • Sex, Family, and Its Extensions: The world’s first social organizations
    • Economics: How goods and services are provided
    • Social Control: Governance and law
    • Psychology: Freud didn’t start it all
    • The Supernatural: Were there gods before God?
    • Culture Change and Globalization: Is there life outside corporations?