Globalization, Culture Change, The Future

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The Basics of Globalization, Culture Change, and Responses to the Processes.

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Globalization, Culture Change, The Future

  1. 1. Cultural Change, Globality, and the Future Imperialism, Acculturation, and the Third World
  2. 2. Globalization and Cultural Change: Introduction <ul><li>Cultural Change </li></ul><ul><li>Change always present </li></ul><ul><li>Present era: change has accelerated </li></ul><ul><li>Globalization </li></ul><ul><li>Again, present since the empires </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial era: Process has accelerated via technology </li></ul><ul><li>Infiltrated into all parts of Third World cultures </li></ul>
  3. 3. Leading Trends: Globalization <ul><li>Economic Globalization: </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion of trade into an international division of labor </li></ul><ul><li>Core countries </li></ul><ul><li>Peripheral countries </li></ul><ul><li>Semiperipheral countries </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion of a global production system </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Communication innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Labor-intensive processes to Third World </li></ul><ul><li>More recently: white-collar work </li></ul>
  4. 4. Leading Trends: Globalization Impact <ul><li>Peasantization : Settlement of </li></ul><ul><li>Nomadic peoples </li></ul><ul><li>Independent cultivators (e.g. Yanomamo) </li></ul><ul><li>Proletarianization </li></ul><ul><li>Alienation of land </li></ul><ul><li>Rural workers </li></ul><ul><li>Rural-to-urban migration </li></ul>
  5. 5. Leading Trends: Earlier Phases of Globalizaton <ul><li>Extermination of existing populations </li></ul><ul><li>Locations: the Americas, Australia </li></ul><ul><li>Processes: Diseases, conquest by division </li></ul><ul><li>Slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: African slavery by Arabs, then Westerners </li></ul><ul><li>Contemporary examples: sex slavery in Thailand, forced labor in China </li></ul>
  6. 6. Leading Trends: Applied Anthropology <ul><li>Westernization of </li></ul><ul><li>Technology and Economics </li></ul><ul><li>Derivative Institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Politics Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Aspects of Westernization </li></ul><ul><li>Health Promotion (though debatable) </li></ul><ul><li>Elimination of harmful practices such as: </li></ul><ul><li>Tribal Warfare </li></ul><ul><li>Clitoridectomy and circumcision </li></ul><ul><li>Child Marriages </li></ul>
  7. 7. Leading Trends: Applied Anthropology <ul><li>Negative Aspects of Westernization: </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of land </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of livelihood (India’s cotton): </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of independence </li></ul><ul><li>Role of Applied Anthropology </li></ul><ul><li>Change from subsistence to cash crops </li></ul><ul><li>Change from indigenous to market-based technology (e.g. fertilizer, demos ) </li></ul><ul><li>Persuasion; changing attitudes </li></ul>
  8. 8. Overview <ul><li>Theories of cultural change </li></ul><ul><li>Nature of peasant society </li></ul><ul><li>Case study of the twin processes in Guatemala </li></ul><ul><li>Guatemala at Conquest </li></ul><ul><li>Guatemala under Colonial/Conservative Rule </li></ul><ul><li>Guatemala under Liberal Regimes </li></ul>
  9. 9. Theories of Social Change <ul><li>Most theories focus on the local </li></ul><ul><li>Index variables (Sociologists) </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneuralism (Economists; Psychologists) </li></ul><ul><li>Diffusionism: (Anthropologists) </li></ul><ul><li>Macroscopic Approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Dependency Theory (Frank) </li></ul><ul><li>World-Systems Analysis (Wallerstein) </li></ul><ul><li>Recent trends: Asian corporatism? </li></ul>
  10. 10. States of Economic Growth (Rostow) <ul><li>Traditional stage: culture and attitudes are barriers to development </li></ul><ul><li>Culture change (premodern) stage : acceptance that change is both necessary and beneficial </li></ul><ul><li>Take-Off Stage: Investment and savings begin to rise </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Sustained growth: Self-reinforcing investment and savings rates as society undergoes industrialization; spread of education </li></ul><ul><li>High economic growth (or era of mass consumption): achievement of high standard of living </li></ul>
  11. 11. Theory of Social Change: Pattern Variables <ul><li>Modernization is measured by indicators known as pattern variables </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional vs. modern measures </li></ul><ul><li>Ascription vs. Achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Particularism vs. Universalism </li></ul><ul><li>Drawbacks </li></ul><ul><li>Traditionalism masks diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Ignores wider economies </li></ul><ul><li>Counterexamples in modern society </li></ul>
  12. 12. Theory of Social Change:Psychological variables <ul><li>Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Foster entrepreneurial attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Select society with this attribute </li></ul><ul><li>Example: McClelland </li></ul><ul><li>Need for achievement ( n -ach) : a measurable concept;t </li></ul><ul><li>One indicator: folk tales </li></ul><ul><li>Turkey: the boy and the grocer </li></ul><ul><li>Implication: decision as to whom to aid. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Theory of Social Change: Diffusionism <ul><li>Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Change in key societal characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstration projects </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Tzintzuntzan: Mexican case study </li></ul><ul><li>Pottery marketing encouraged--and resisted </li></ul><ul><li>Image of limited good: absolute scarcity </li></ul><ul><li>Dyadic contract: distrust of organizations </li></ul>
  14. 14. World Systems Analysis and Allied Theories <ul><li>Dependency Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Specialization on single exports </li></ul><ul><li>Primary sector </li></ul><ul><li>Fostered by industrial countries </li></ul><ul><li>World-Systems Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Core countries (Industrialized, Diversified) </li></ul><ul><li>Peripheral: (Monocrop, specialized) </li></ul><ul><li>Semiperipheral (Intermediate, go-betweens) </li></ul>
  15. 15. The World Production System <ul><li>The world has become one large system of production </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons: Improved communication </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons: Improved transportation technology </li></ul><ul><li>The production system involves the search for lower labor costs </li></ul><ul><li>Here how it works: </li></ul>
  16. 16. Division of Labor: Industrial Production System <ul><li>Detail labor involves breaking each task down </li></ul><ul><li>To its subtasks in production </li></ul><ul><li>Assigning each subtask to each individual and </li></ul><ul><li>Ordering each individual how to do each subtask </li></ul>
  17. 17. Effects: Globalized Division of Labor <ul><li>Has enabled globalization of production </li></ul><ul><li>Labor intensive tasks sent to Third World </li></ul><ul><li>Such as this leatherworking operation in Ecuador </li></ul><ul><li>Result: downsizing and plant closures </li></ul><ul><li>Mexican maquiladoras close </li></ul><ul><li>As low wages in China or Bangladesh draw factories there </li></ul>
  18. 18. Peasant Society <ul><li>Importance: Linkage to wider society </li></ul><ul><li>Definitions based on this linkage </li></ul><ul><li>Kroeber: Part societies with part cultures. </li></ul><ul><li>Redfield: Two Aspects </li></ul><ul><li>Great versus Little Tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Folk-Urban Continuum </li></ul><ul><li>Fallers: African societies </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of a long-standing tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Drawback: Indigenous African states </li></ul>
  19. 19. Peasant Society: A Structural Definition according to Eric Wolf <ul><li>The funding metaphor </li></ul><ul><li>Primitive Cultivators and Peasants both must meet a </li></ul><ul><li>Caloric fund (food, other necessities) </li></ul><ul><li>Replacement fund (seeds, house repair) </li></ul><ul><li>Ceremonial fund (life change, solidarity) </li></ul><ul><li>Peasants </li></ul><ul><li>Subject to domain of state </li></ul><ul><li>Rent fund (taxes, tribute, forced labor) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Indigenous Guatemala: Ethnohistorical Overview <ul><li>Pre-Columbian Era (ca 1000-1524) </li></ul><ul><li>Either city states </li></ul><ul><li>Or parts of a larger state. </li></ul><ul><li>Colonization by Spain (1524-1600) </li></ul><ul><li>Colonial and Early Independence (1600-1871) </li></ul><ul><li>Liberal Era (1871-Present) </li></ul><ul><li>Reform Hiatus (1944-1954) </li></ul><ul><li>Civil War and Aftermath (1960-Present) </li></ul>
  21. 21. Pre-Columbian Era <ul><li>Sociopolitical Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Patrilineal Clans </li></ul><ul><li>Joint Land Tenure </li></ul><ul><li>Warring Kingdoms: Quiche dominated </li></ul><ul><li>Tributaries to various cycles of states </li></ul><ul><li>Other Attributes </li></ul><ul><li>Calendrical System </li></ul><ul><li>Base 20 system of numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Writing combining glyph types </li></ul>
  22. 22. Spanish Colonization <ul><li>Conquest completed by 1540, with a few exceptions </li></ul><ul><li>Colonial Setup </li></ul><ul><li>Spaniards perennially understaffed </li></ul><ul><li>Created congregaciones: forced population relocation to town centers </li></ul><ul><li>Each town deeded communal land </li></ul><ul><li>Quota system of labor and tribute </li></ul>
  23. 23. Spanish Colonization: Town Government <ul><li>Offices staffed by Indians themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Enforced the quota system of labor </li></ul><ul><li>Assessed each household for tribute </li></ul><ul><li>Administered the allocation of land </li></ul><ul><li>Handled other daily affairs </li></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Caciques became the administrators </li></ul><ul><li>Alcaldes (mayors) and regidores (council) </li></ul><ul><li>Police and messengers: the mayores </li></ul>
  24. 24. Spanish Colonization: Religious Governance <ul><li>Priests directed the town’s church </li></ul><ul><li>Sacristans oversaw church’s daily administration </li></ul><ul><li>Cofradias assigned care of each saint and its celebration </li></ul><ul><li>Alter boys handled menial chores </li></ul><ul><li>Syncretism: Each saint “fronted” for indigenous spirits </li></ul>
  25. 25. Colonial Guatemala/Central America <ul><li>Guatemala was captaincy-general of Central America (including Chiapas) </li></ul><ul><li>Spain lost interest in Central America </li></ul><ul><li>Lacked the gold/silver deposits of New Spain and Peru </li></ul><ul><li>Spain directed staff to these two colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Central America came to be neglected </li></ul><ul><li>In due course, Indians gained autonomy by default </li></ul>
  26. 26. Closed Corporate Communities <ul><li>Communities were both closed and corporate </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate </li></ul><ul><li>Estate: communal land </li></ul><ul><li>Body of rights and obligations </li></ul><ul><li>Rights: usufruct land rights </li></ul><ul><li>Obligations: community service </li></ul><ul><li>Focus of service: civil-religious hierarchy </li></ul>
  27. 27. Communities as Corporate: Civil-Religious Hierarchy <ul><li>Civil and religious organizations became fused into a theocracy </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchy of offices </li></ul><ul><li>Lowest: messengers, police </li></ul><ul><li>Middle level mayordomo of cofradias </li></ul><ul><li>Upper level: mayors, council, top cofrades </li></ul><ul><li>Obligatory service </li></ul><ul><li>Financial support of office </li></ul><ul><li>Yearlong service without pay </li></ul>
  28. 28. Communities as Corporate: Civil-Religious Hierarchy <ul><li>Cargo career </li></ul><ul><li>Youths began as messengers </li></ul><ul><li>Early to middle age: mayordomos </li></ul><ul><li>Elders became senior officeholders: councillors. mayors, senior mayordomos </li></ul><ul><li>Principales (e.g. moletik in Zinacantan) </li></ul><ul><li>Leveling mechanism </li></ul><ul><li>Led to reduced stratification </li></ul><ul><li>Resources directed to community welfare </li></ul>
  29. 29. Communities as Closed: Structural Barriers <ul><li>Community Endogamy </li></ul><ul><li>Community markers </li></ul><ul><li>Distinctive dress style </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistic dialects </li></ul><ul><li>Product specialization </li></ul><ul><li>Regional markets </li></ul><ul><li>Rotating: markets held alternate days </li></ul><ul><li>Solar: central markets </li></ul><ul><li>Semimonopoly of crafts ensure demand </li></ul>
  30. 30. Regional Economies of Colonial Central America <ul><li>Hostile symbiosis between </li></ul><ul><li>Haciendas </li></ul><ul><li>Closed corporate communities </li></ul><ul><li>Conservatives vs. Liberals </li></ul><ul><li>Conservatives: maintain national self-sufficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Liberals: Wealth through </li></ul><ul><li>Economic development </li></ul><ul><li>External commerce </li></ul>
  31. 31. Liberal Reformas: Roots <ul><li>Economic Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Country needs to industrialize </li></ul><ul><li>Key: Produce exports </li></ul><ul><li>Guatemala: lucrative export proved to be coffee </li></ul><ul><li>Origins: Costa Rica had a booming coffee economy by 1840s </li></ul><ul><li>In 1860, coffee proved successful </li></ul>
  32. 32. Liberal Reformas: Land <ul><li>Rationale for Land Reforms </li></ul><ul><li>Needed land “locked” in communal land </li></ul><ul><li>Incentive lacking for Indians to plant the crop </li></ul><ul><li>Land Reforms </li></ul><ul><li>Privatization: only land registered to private individuals was recognized </li></ul><ul><li>Result: land grabs of communal property </li></ul><ul><li>Some communities vanished; others restructured </li></ul>
  33. 33. Liberal Reforma: Labor <ul><li>Coffee requires massive labor inputs </li></ul><ul><li>Tending seedlings </li></ul><ul><li>Weeding </li></ul><ul><li>Picking and processing beans </li></ul><ul><li>Labor Reforms </li></ul><ul><li>Restoration of labor quota system </li></ul><ul><li>Debt peonage legalized </li></ul><ul><li>Fincas de mozos: worker-producing farms </li></ul><ul><li>Vagrancy laws (1930s) </li></ul>
  34. 34. Liberal Reforma: Impact on Communities <ul><li>Land became a commodity </li></ul><ul><li>Communal land mostly nonarable </li></ul><ul><li>Communities became dependent on labor markets </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate institutions eroded </li></ul><ul><li>Politics dominated political part of CRH </li></ul><ul><li>Religious movements entered communities </li></ul><ul><li>“ True” Catholicism displace folk beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>Protestantism entered. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Liberal Reforma: Long-term impact <ul><li>Social reforms introduced, reversed </li></ul><ul><li>Labor legislation </li></ul><ul><li>Land redistribution </li></ul><ul><li>Civil war of attrition </li></ul><ul><li>Guerrilla warfare involved Indian in 1980s </li></ul><ul><li>Communities bombed, mass emigration </li></ul><ul><li>Peace Accords of 1996 ended war </li></ul><ul><li>Guatemala has become part of global system of production. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Reactions to Globalization: Latin America <ul><li>Venezuela: Control of Oil Resources under Chavez </li></ul><ul><li>Cochabamba, Bolivia: Privatization of water followed by return to public </li></ul><ul><li>Bolivia: Control of gas resources </li></ul><ul><li>Argentina: Worker takeover of closed factories </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico: Narrow defeat of a socialist coalition; EZLN revolt </li></ul>
  37. 37. Reactions of Globalization: East Asia <ul><li>China: Controlled foreign investment </li></ul><ul><li>Japan: Independent industrialization </li></ul><ul><li>The Four Tigers: Independent commerce </li></ul><ul><li>India: New Silicon Valleys </li></ul><ul><li>Question in ReOrient: Is East Asian hegemony about to re-emerge? </li></ul>
  38. 38. Reactions To Globalization: Fundamentalism <ul><li>Iran: Islamic Republic as reaction to imperialism </li></ul><ul><li>Iraq and Afghanistan: Protracted warfare, with many precedents </li></ul><ul><li>Other Fundamentalist Movements: Turkey, Algeria, rest of Middle East </li></ul>
  39. 39. Conclusion <ul><li>Corporate capital dominates the world </li></ul><ul><li>Third World Countries have become industrial appendages </li></ul><ul><li>Outsourcing of manufacturing and increasingly high-tech industries </li></ul><ul><li>Reactions have been multifarious—from co-optation to expulsion </li></ul>

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