Family and Household: Influence of Postmarital Residence
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Family and Household: Influence of Postmarital Residence

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Describes nuclear family and neolocal residence; Describes and analyzes four types of postmarital residents and extended families constructed thereby

Describes nuclear family and neolocal residence; Describes and analyzes four types of postmarital residents and extended families constructed thereby

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Family and Household: Influence of Postmarital Residence Family and Household: Influence of Postmarital Residence Presentation Transcript

  • Family and Household The Role of Postmarital Residence
  • Family and Household
      • Not all families share a residence, so we have to make a distinction between families and households
      • Households may be defined as a basic residential unit in which production, consumption, child rearing, and inheritance are organized and implemented
      • There are variations: households may form subunits of an extended family (such as us).
      • May be nonfamily: New Guinean men’s houses are examples
      • Spouses may form separate units .
  • Nuclear Family
    • Couples in some cultures (like our own) forms own household; this arrangement is known as Neolocal Residence.
    • Nuclear Family is a family comprising one husband, one wife, and their children
    • Nuclear families are usually found in industrial societies, such as the U.S., Canada, and northern European countries
    • They are also found in harsh environments such as the Arctic among Inuit or desert among !Kung
  • Family of Procreation and Orientation
    • Here, every individual belong to at least two nuclear families
    • The family of orientation is one into which ego is born.
    • The family of procreation is one which ego has started or created.
  • Extended Families
    • A common textbook definition is a collection of nuclear families united consanguineally (by blood) living in one household
    • A more precise definition is a family of three or more generations of married kin.
    • Generally, this suggests that the arrangement is permanent if you have that many generations of married kin.
    • Extended family household refers to such families sharing a residence
  • Patrilocal Residence
    • In this case, the couple moves in with the groom’s parents/kin
    • Sometimes this is called virilocal residence
    • Patrilocal Extended Family comprises the following :
    • all consanguineal males
    • all consanguineal unmarried females
    • all females married into family
    • Patrilocal extended families occur where male cooperation important in subsistence or war
  • Matrilocal Residence
    • Here, the couple moves in with bride’s parents/kin
    • Sometimes it is called uxorilocal residence
    • Matrilocal Extended Family comprises the following:
    • all consanguineal females
    • all unmarried consanguineal males
    • all males married into family
    • This is found where female cooperation important in subsistence or land ownership
  • Avunculocal Residence
    • This form of residence occurs only with matrilineal descent
    • The household is formed when the boy moves in with mother’s brother at age 5-6 years, as shown in this diagram.
    • Afterward, he is then reared by his mother’s brother
    • Upon marriage, his wife moves in.
    • In turn, their boys move in with his wife’s brother.
  • Avunculocal Residence: A Likely explanation
    • At one time, the culture formerly relied on cooperation among women cooperation, possibly as cultivators
    • Male property eventually becomes valuable, or warfare developed, either favoring male cooperation.
    • Rather then a full-blown shift to patrilineal reckoning, they made a partial shift to cooperation among the sisters’ brothers.
    • Variation: The chiefly class practices avunculocal residence, but the other families are patrilineal.
  • Ambilocal (Bilocal) Residence
    • This residence rule occurs with bilateral descent
    • Household is formed when :
    • The couple moves in either with the groom’s parents or bride’s parents
    • This form occurs where resources are limited within a geographically restricted space, such as an island.
    • The choice depends on resource advantage of one family or the other
    • The core members are individuals of both genders, but not all males or all females (diagram).
  • Example: Gilbert Islanders Oo and Bwoti
    • Oo: An overarching bilateral descent group for the entire island in the Gilberts of the South Pacific
    • A bwoti Is a community council seat, whose membership is based on land rights, potentially several
    • A man or woman can choose only one bwoti,
    • Here, 8 individuals have chosen 6 bwotis :
    • Four in the father’s group (2, 3,5,6) and four in mother’s group (1,4,7,8).
  • Example: Gilbert Islanders Kainga
    • A kainga is a localized landowning group based on marriage
    • If a couple decides to move into man’s group, the woman retains rights to her kainga, but she may not pass it down to her children; the same applies to the male.
    • Kainga is structurally similar to the bwoti; some individuals stay, while others leave.
    • Over time, ramages or ambilineal descent groups form
    • In this diagram, we see four kaingas coded by color.
  • Matrifocal (Matricentric) Household
    • Today, single parent households are becoming common
    • Matrifocal (Matricentric ) households comprise a woman and her children
    • Reasons include the process deindustrialization, leading to the inability of a man to support his family; divorce and premature death (diagram) are also contributing factors.
    • Patrifocal (patricentric) households are also increasing.
  • Successor Marriage: Levirate and Sororate
    • Levirate: Marriage in which widow marries the brother of her deceased husband
    • Sororate: Marriage in which widower marries the sister of his deceased wife
    • Both are marriages to protect and support the women who otherwise would lack partners.
  • Summary of This Section
    • Marriage has been defined in two ways:
    • One stressing legitimacy of children
    • One stressing relationship of persons
    • Household and Family have been defined
    • Types of family defined
    • Extended family
    • Extended family by postmarital residence.
    • Next: Larger kin-based groups.