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Egypt, Part 3: Kingdom Along the Nile
Egypt, Part 3: Kingdom Along the Nile
Egypt, Part 3: Kingdom Along the Nile
Egypt, Part 3: Kingdom Along the Nile
Egypt, Part 3: Kingdom Along the Nile
Egypt, Part 3: Kingdom Along the Nile
Egypt, Part 3: Kingdom Along the Nile
Egypt, Part 3: Kingdom Along the Nile
Egypt, Part 3: Kingdom Along the Nile
Egypt, Part 3: Kingdom Along the Nile
Egypt, Part 3: Kingdom Along the Nile
Egypt, Part 3: Kingdom Along the Nile
Egypt, Part 3: Kingdom Along the Nile
Egypt, Part 3: Kingdom Along the Nile
Egypt, Part 3: Kingdom Along the Nile
Egypt, Part 3: Kingdom Along the Nile
Egypt, Part 3: Kingdom Along the Nile
Egypt, Part 3: Kingdom Along the Nile
Egypt, Part 3: Kingdom Along the Nile
Egypt, Part 3: Kingdom Along the Nile
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Egypt, Part 3: Kingdom Along the Nile

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Later Kingdoms of Egypt. Pyramids

Later Kingdoms of Egypt. Pyramids

Published in: Economy & Finance, Education
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  • 1. Egypt, Part 3 Kingdom Along the Nile, Online
  • 2. Archaic Kingdom (3000-2575 BC) <ul><li>First known pharaoh: Horus Aha </li></ul><ul><li>Consolidation in which pharaohs assumed role of divine kings </li></ul><ul><li>Centralized authority over labor, food storage, and taxation </li></ul><ul><li>Sponsored spectacular feasts/rituals </li></ul><ul><li>Translated into large-scale, well-designed architecture of which the pyramids were examples </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction of hieroglyphic writing </li></ul><ul><li>One function: To propagate the pharaonic religion at the expense of local cults </li></ul><ul><li>Scribes held enormous power, as the few who could read and write </li></ul>
  • 3. Hieroglyphic Writing <ul><li>Definition: Writing system in which </li></ul><ul><li>Pictorial symbols are used to </li></ul><ul><li>Convey particular sound, object, and/or idea </li></ul><ul><li>Original known use: accounting </li></ul><ul><li>Gunter Dreyer found the oldest evidence of Egyptian writing </li></ul><ul><li>200 small bone and ivory tags attached to containers holding linen and oil </li></ul><ul><li>Attributed to a leader called Scorpion I </li></ul><ul><li>Date: 5200 BP </li></ul><ul><li>Location: Abydos, 250 miles below Cairo </li></ul>
  • 4. Hieroglyphic Writing <ul><li>Note that hieroglyphs would stand for a sound </li></ul><ul><li>Still relied on pictographic writing </li></ul>
  • 5. Complexity of Hieroglyphic Writing <ul><li>There is some indication that hieroglyphs were more important for recording rule and kinship </li></ul><ul><li>than the were for economic transactions </li></ul><ul><li>Over time, hieroglyphic writing became more and more complex </li></ul><ul><li>Writing was reserved for the scribes, ranked third below the pharaoh and priests </li></ul>
  • 6. Old Kingdom (2575-2134) <ul><li>Further consolidation of empire </li></ul><ul><li>Construction of Pyramids </li></ul><ul><li>Zoser (Djoser): stepped pyramid at Saqqara </li></ul><ul><li>Khufu (Cheops) of Giza: smooth-sided pyramid, largest in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Lesser pyramids </li></ul><ul><li>Khafre (Chephren) </li></ul><ul><li>Menkaure (Mycerinus) </li></ul><ul><li>Sphinx (likeness of Khafre) </li></ul><ul><li>Complex covered 25 miles on the western side of the Nile </li></ul>
  • 7. Pyramids: Analysis <ul><li>Pharaonic institution probably the most successful of cults </li></ul><ul><li>Pharaohs were divine, capable of controlling Nile flood pattern of Nile, rise of sun, and other natural forces </li></ul><ul><li>Source of law (no codified law) and top of a complex bureaucracy </li></ul><ul><li>At death, said to dwell in the tomb while his double moved on to the other world </li></ul><ul><li>Pyramids was the divine house of the ruler </li></ul><ul><li>Never meant for any ritual purpose </li></ul>
  • 8. Pyramids: Construction <ul><li>Function in all locations: to inspire awe among population </li></ul><ul><li>Constructed during flood season </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforced power by feeding the builders </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptian pyramids were build in one continuous process of solid stone blocks </li></ul><ul><li>Constructed, as in Mesoamerica, in a four-sided design </li></ul><ul><li>Contained passageways and tombs, including a fake chamber </li></ul><ul><li>Like all pyramids, involves </li></ul><ul><li>Massive inputs of manpower </li></ul><ul><li>Sophisticated planning and organization </li></ul>
  • 9. Other Pyramids <ul><li>Most New World pyramids were constructed in stages (as were Near Eastern ziggurats) </li></ul><ul><li>Teotihuacan: Rubble covered with stone facades </li></ul><ul><li>Base was as wide as Khufu’s pyramid </li></ul><ul><li>Half as high </li></ul><ul><li>Moche: Adobe bricks, roughly rectangular </li></ul><ul><li>Cahokia: Earthen mounds </li></ul><ul><li>Monk’s Mound is largest in North America </li></ul><ul><li>After Cholula and Pyramid of the Sun </li></ul>
  • 10. First Intermediate Period (2134-2040) <ul><li>The Old Kingdom underwent decline </li></ul><ul><li>Long drought—probably damaged pharaonic divinity claims </li></ul><ul><li>High cost of pyramid construction in labor and resources </li></ul><ul><li>Dominance by warring regional kingdoms </li></ul><ul><li>Provincial powers increased </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller tombs constructed in various localities. </li></ul>
  • 11. Middle Kingdom (2040-1640 BC) <ul><li>Thebes of Upper Egypt rises </li></ul><ul><li>Pharaohs </li></ul><ul><li>Made fewer claims to divinity </li></ul><ul><li>More approachable than past pharaohs </li></ul><ul><li>Less despotic </li></ul><ul><li>Increased efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Expanded irrigation systems </li></ul><ul><li>Stockpiled granaries </li></ul><ul><li>Other Changes </li></ul><ul><li>Expanded overseas trade </li></ul><ul><li>Secured Egypt’s borders </li></ul><ul><li>Effectiveness of leadership still relied on personal attributes </li></ul>
  • 12. Second Intermediate Period (1640-1530 BC) <ul><li>Succession disputes erupted </li></ul><ul><li>Thousands of Asians (Hyksos) invaded Lower Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>Divided again into Upper and Lower Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>Lower Egypt under traditional pharaohs </li></ul><ul><li>Upper Egypt under Hyksos </li></ul><ul><li>Hyksos introduced new technology </li></ul><ul><li>Bronze </li></ul><ul><li>Horse-drawn chariots </li></ul><ul><li>New weapons </li></ul>
  • 13. New Kingdom (1530-1075 BC) <ul><li>Ahmose the Liberator created militaristic state </li></ul><ul><li>Imperial power lay between the Asians to the north and Africans to the south </li></ul><ul><li>Thebes again capital </li></ul><ul><li>Amun again worshipped as sun god </li></ul><ul><li>Temple built at Karnak, west bank of Nile </li></ul><ul><li>Valley of Kings arose at that site </li></ul>
  • 14. Pharaohs After Ahmose <ul><li>New Kingdom after Ahmose </li></ul><ul><li>Akhenaten: the “heretic” who worshipped the sun disk Aten’ </li></ul><ul><li>Aten was the sole god: precedent of monotheism </li></ul><ul><li>Tutankhamun: “boy king” who lasted 10 years—tomb of “King Tut”; advisors restored old order </li></ul><ul><li>Ramses II engaged in military expansion; lost in Syria to Hittites </li></ul>
  • 15. Late Period (1070 BC-30 BC) <ul><li>A period of political weakness </li></ul><ul><li>Attacks from Nubians to south (controlled Egypt during 8 th Century BC </li></ul><ul><li>Invasions by Assyrians and Persians </li></ul><ul><li>Alexander the Great takes over Egypt in 332 BC—rule by Ptolemy I and his successors </li></ul><ul><li>Roman conquest in 30 BC </li></ul>
  • 16. Egypt and Mesopotamia: Subsistence Base <ul><li>Subsistence base </li></ul><ul><li>Both based on irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>Both relied on staples such as wheat and barley </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt had steadier water supply than Mesopotamia </li></ul><ul><li>Tigris and Euphrates were subjected to drought </li></ul>
  • 17. Egypt and Mesopotamia: Government and Law <ul><li>Mesopotamia: </li></ul><ul><li>Priest kings represented the gods; they were not divine beings themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Codified Law, solidified by Hammurabi’s time </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>Divine Pharaohs </li></ul><ul><li>Law derived from Pharaohs </li></ul><ul><li>Precedent was based on their personal decision </li></ul>
  • 18. Egypt and Mesopotamia: Writing <ul><li>Mesopotamia: Ideographic cuneiform </li></ul><ul><li>These consisted of wedges </li></ul><ul><li>The symbols were not phonetic </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt: Pictographic hieroglyphics </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the pictographs represented consonants and vowels of spoken language </li></ul>
  • 19. Egypt and Mesopotamia: Architectural Megastructures <ul><li>Near East: Multifunctional ziggurats </li></ul><ul><li>Ritual but also administrative centers </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt: Funerary pyramids </li></ul><ul><li>Sole purpose: to house the pharaoh </li></ul>
  • 20. Conclusion <ul><li>Egypt was one of the most stable kingdoms in the world </li></ul><ul><li>There were few wars in its history </li></ul><ul><li>The regularity of the Nile in water supply and seasonal flood was the ecological factor </li></ul><ul><li>The society was equally stable, being isolated and yet well endowed with water, fertile soil, and resources such as workable stone and precious metals. </li></ul><ul><li>Mesopotamia, provides a stark contrast with Egypt </li></ul>

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