Egypt: Kingdom of the Nile, Part 1
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Egypt: Kingdom of the Nile, Part 1



Introduction to Egypt. Egyptian Society and Culture to Unification

Introduction to Egypt. Egyptian Society and Culture to Unification



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    Egypt: Kingdom of the Nile, Part 1 Egypt: Kingdom of the Nile, Part 1 Presentation Transcript

    • Egypt, Part 1 Kingdom Along the Nile, Online
    • Egypt: Introduction
      • A much more stable and hierarchical entity than Mesopotamia, as we will see.
      • After the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt
      • The empire lasted 2500-3000 years, depending on interpretation
      • Only one major episode of political fragmentation (2200-2000 BC)
    • Location and Map of Egypt
      • Lower Egypt comprises the Nile delta
      • Upper Egypt comprises the Nile below the delta
      • The Nile is constant
      • There is a predictable flood every spring
      • Desert on either side contributed to its isolation
    • Ecology of the Nile Valley
      • The Nile has a regular pattern of rainfall, which floods the banks of the river regularly every spring and summer from the rainy season further south in the Sudan and East Africa
      • Flooding was more regular and predictable than the Tigris and Euphrates in Mesopotamia
      • Soil at either side was fertile because of the flooding
      • Egypt also had precious metals, stone that was useful both for tools and construction
    • Demographics of the Nile
      • The population itself was uniform, with the same language and similar, if not the same, culture
      • Stability was facilitated by its relative isolation, an advantage that Mesopotamia lacked.
      • Thus, for 3,000 years, the political, religious, and cultural areas was uniform from the south to the delta.
    • Egyptian Neolithic: Overview
      • Domesticated Plants
      • Food plants: wheat and barley
      • Fiber plants: flax
      • Domesticated animals: sheep, goats, cattle, pigs
      • Small villages formed along both banks of the Nile
    • Egyptian Neolithic: Merimbe
      • Merimbe, near Nile Delta (4900)
      • Subterranean oval houses with roofs of sticks and mud
      • Tools: stone axes, knives, arrowheads
      • Grains stored in ceramic jars, pits, baskets
      • Circular clay-lined threshing floor
    • Egyptian Neolithic: Badari
      • Clusters of huts or skin tents
      • Burial sites precursors of later burial customs
      • Bodies lowered into circular or rectangular pits after faces painted with green coloring
      • Grave goods included utensils, food, ivory spoons, and vases of ivory or stone
      • Possibly the root of Egyptian burial customs
    • Pre-Dynastic Egypt: Central Places
      • Nagada (Naqada)
      • Early evidence of stratification: sumptuous burials
      • Control of large hinterland by 5500 BP
      • Hierkonopolis (Nehken)
      • Center of pottery manufacture, whose design appears throughout Egypt
      • Center of a necropolis, or “city of the dead,” evidence by tombs