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Egypt Along the Nile, Part 2

Egypt Along the Nile, Part 2



The Gods and Goddess of Egypt; Early Kingdoms

The Gods and Goddess of Egypt; Early Kingdoms



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    Egypt Along the Nile, Part 2 Egypt Along the Nile, Part 2 Presentation Transcript

    • Egypt, Part 2 Kingdom Along the Nile, Online
    • The Principal Gods of Egypt I:
      • Amon: (aka, Re, Ra and Aten) the god of the sun (depicted as the sun’s rays; upper left)
      • He is also depicted as a scarab beetle who emerges in the morning (lower left)
      • Anubis: the god of embalmers and cemeteries (depicted as a jackal)
      • Aten: the god of the solar disk (depicted by the disk of the sun)
      • Hapi: the god of the Nile
      • Hathor: Mother, wife, daughter of Ra
    • The Principal Gods of Egypt II
      • Osiris: God of the underworld (upper left; depicted with Isis)
      • Set or Seth: God of storms and violence; brother of Osiris who murders him
      • Isis: Wife of Osiris, goddess of fertility
      • Horus: Son of Osiris and Isis: God of the sky.
      • Horus (with head of falcon) and Seth (head of dog) crown Ramses III (lower left)
    • Other Gods of Egypt
      • Thoth: God of the scribes, Lord of Language and inventor of writing.
      • Ptat: Creator of humankind; patron of the craftspeople
      • Ma’at: Goddess of truth and the universal order; wife of Thoth]
      • She wore an ostrich feather
      • Judges awarded the feather to the winner of a case
      • Her feather was used on the scales of judgment of the dead
      • Bes: Helper of women in childbirth; protector against snakes.
    • Theocracy
      • Egypt, as in many civilizations, was a theocracy, government by the priests
      • Monarchs represented the will of the Sun God
      • In many conceptions, the Pharaoh was a god; gods’ will flowed through him
      • The Sphinx, who guarded the entrance to Gizeh’s pyramids, had the head of Khafre and the body of a lion
      • They represented the head of a powerful man and the body of the king of beasts
    • Cult of the Dead
      • At death, the pharaoh was prepared for a life of eternity
      • A ten-week embalming procedure was followed: see pp. 25-26 for details.
      • Pyramids themselves were constructed only for entombment of the pharaoh; they were not used for ritual or any other purpose.
      • See pp. 28-29 for details of a typical pyramid and its structure.
    • Book of the Dead
      • The Tibetan Book of the Dead describes the journey of the soul between one life and the next; judgment based on karma
      • The Egyptian Book of the Dead prepares the soul for judgment.
      • Here, Horus balances the heart against the feather of Ma’at
      • If the heart outweighs the feather, the animal to the right will devour the judged
    • Egypt: Upper and Lower
      • Before 3100 BC, the regions were divided into two parts of the Nile
      • Lower Egypt : the part from the Nile Delta to Memphis; it was lower in the sense that it was the terminus of the Nile
      • Upper Egypt : All points along the river south of Memphis to Nubia, a separate kingdom
    • Unification of Egypt
      • After the conquest attributed to Menes, or Narmer (left)
      • The region was united into one empire
      • Narmer was the first pharaoh of a family dynasty of 33 generations
      • Symbolism: a boxy Red Crown (Lower Egypt) with a curlicue;
      • And a White Crown (Upper Egypt)
      • After Narmer’s conquest, he wore a Double Crown to symbolize the unification of the two Egypts (lower left)
    • The Symbolism of the Union—And Defeat of Upper Egypt
      • To the right, Narmer (wearing white crown) subdues a captive
      • Hieroglyph at top writes out Narmer’s name
      • God Horus holds the captive by a feather
      • Papyrus blossoms symbolize Lower Egypt
      • To the left, two long-necked lions are entwined, suggesting union), with lion tamers on either side.
      • There are the decapitated warriors in defeat
      • At the bottom is a bull symbolizing royal power
      • For other symbols on this palette, see p. 25
    • History of Dynastic Egypt: Early Phases
      • Divided into 33 dynasties of each pharaoh including Narmer/Menes
      • Archaic Period (3100 BC): Consolidation of state
      • Old Kingdom (2920-2134):
      • Despotic pharaohs build pyramids and foster conspicuous funerary monuments
      • The Sphinx with pyramid in background (upper left)
      • Institutions, economic arrangements, and artistic traditions established
      • Subject brings offering to gods (lower left)
    • History of Egypt: First Intermediate Period to Middle Kingdom
      • First Intermediate Period (2134-2040): political disunity
      • Middle Kingdom (2040-1650 BC)
      • Thebes achieves dominance
      • Priesthood of Amun (seen here with Mut, his consort, and son Khons
    • History of Egypt: Later Phases
      • Second Intermediate Period (1640-1530 BC ): Hyskos invasion and occupation of Nile Delta
      • New Kingdom (1530-1070 BC):
      • Great Imperial Period
      • Pharaohs buried in Valley of Kings
      • Ramses II, Tutankhamun, Seti I
      • Akhenaten, heretic ruler
    • History of Egypt: Terminal Periods
      • Late Period (1072-332 BC):
      • Gradual decline in pharaonic authority
      • Persians rule (525-404 BC and 343-332 BC)
      • Ptolemaic Period (332-30 BC):
      • Alexander the Great Conquers Egypt
      • Ptolemy dynasties bring Greek culture to Egypt
      • Roman Occupation (30 BC): Egypt becomes imperial province of Rome